Positive Health & HDI

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Positive Health:

Positive Health The state of Positive Health implies the notion of “Perfect Functioning” of the body & mind. The concept of perfect positive health cannot become a reality because man will never be so perfectly adapted to his environment that his life will not involve struggles, failures and sufferings. Positive health will always remain a mirage (Unattainable Goal), because everything in our life is subject to change.

Health a Relative Concept:

Health a Relative Concept Health is a relative concept and health standards vary among- Cultures Social Classes and Age Groups Instead of setting universal health standards, each country will decide on its own norms for a given set of prevailing conditions and then look into ways of achieving that level.

Concept of Wellbeing:

Concept of Wellbeing Concept of wellbeing that can be assessed subjectively and objectively. Objectively - assessment is standard of living. Measured easily. Subjectively - assessment is Quality of life.

Standard of Living:

Standard of Living Refers to the usual scale of expenditure, the goods we consume and the services we enjoy. It also includes level of education, employment, food, dress, house, amusement, etc. Measured or evaluated by comparison of per capita GNP usually in US$.

Quality of life:

Quality of life The condition of life resulting from the combination of the effects of the complete range of factors such as those determining health, happiness (including comfort in physical environment and a satisfying occupation), education, social and intellectual attainments, freedom of action, justice and freedom of expression. It can be evaluated by assessing a person’s subjective feelings of happiness or unhappiness about various life concerns. A rise in the standard of living of the people is not enough to achieve satisfaction or happiness

Physical Quality of life Index:

Physical Quality of life Index It is an attempt to measure Quality of Life It is derived from following indicators Infant mortality Rate Life Expectancy at age one Literacy It has not taken GNP in consideration as ‘Money is not every thing’. It measures the result of Social, Economic and Political Policies.

Human Development Index:

Human Development Index Is a composite of index combining indicators representing three dimensions Longevity- life expectancy at birth Knowledge- Adult Literacy Rate Mean Years of Schooling Income-Real GDP Per Capita in purchasing power Parity (PPP) in US $ It looks beyond income and treats income as a proxy for a decent standard of living Gives a more comprehensive picture than just income.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Possible Human Development Index value ranges from 0 – 1. Minimum and maximum values are established for each indicator- Life Expectancy at Birth =25-85 years Adult Literacy Rate= 0-100 percent Combined Gross Enrollment Ratio = 0-100 percent Real GDP per capita =$100-$40,000

PowerPoint Presentation:

Individual indices can be computed by general formula- Index=(actual value)-(minimum value)/(Maximum value)-(Minimum value) Using 2005 figures- Life Expectancy at birth for India = 63.7 years Life Expectancy Index = 63.7 – 25 / 85- 25 = 38.7 / 60 = 0.645

PowerPoint Presentation:

Education Index is calculated by combining Adult Literacy Index and Combined Gross Enrollment Index Adult Literacy Index = 61.0 – 0 / 100 – 0 = 61/100 = 0.61 Combined Gross Enrollment Index =63.8-0 / 100-0 = 0.638 Education Index =(0.61*2/3) + (.638*1/3) = 0.62

PowerPoint Presentation:

GDP Index is calculated by using Adjusted GDP Per Capita (PPP in US $ for India is $3452) GDP Index = (log 3452 – log100) / (log40,000 – log 100)= 0.591 Human Development Index is average of above 3 indices = (0.645 + 0.62 + 0.591)/3 = 1.856/3 = 0.619 Out of 177 countries in 2005 India was 128 Iceland, Norway and Australia were on the top of HDI, and Sierra Leon, Niger and Burkina Faso were at the bottom.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Human Development Index 0.80 or more – 70 countries 0.5 - .799 – 85 countries Less than 0.5 – 22 countries

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