Demography2 & Family Planning

Category: Education

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Fertility Higher fertility in India is attributed to Universality of marriage Lower Age at marriage Low Literacy Poor level of living Limited use of contraceptives Traditional ways of life

Age at marriage:

Age at marriage Females who marry before 18 give birth to a larger number of children

Duration of married life:

Duration of married life 10-25% of births occur within 1-5 years of married life. 55% of births occur within 5-15 years of married life. Family planning efforts should be directed in first few years of married life.

Spacing of children:

Spacing of children Spacing of children may have a significant impact on fertility rate reduction.

Education Status:

Education Status Inversely associated with fertility. Total fertility rate is 1.7 children higher for illiterate women as compared to those with at least high school education.

Economic Status:

Economic Status Inverse relationship with fertility. Economic development is the best contraceptive.

Caste & Religion:

Caste & Religion Muslims have a higher fertility rate (3.09), Hindus (2.65), Christians (2.35). Lower castes have a higher fertility rate as compared to upper castes.


Nutrition All well fed societies have low fertility rate. This effect is indirect.

Family Planning:

Family Planning Government family planning programs have been a key factor in declining fertility rates.

Fertility Related Statistics:

Fertility Related Statistics Birth Rate – Number of live births per thousand estimated midyear population, in a given year (Number of live births during the year / estimated midyear population) X 1000 Is not a good indicator as Total Population is not exposed to Childbearing.

General Fertility Rate:

General Fertility Rate Number of live births per 1000 women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) in a given year. Not good as not all women are exposed to childbearing.

General Marital Fertility Rate:

General Marital Fertility Rate Number of live births per 1000 married women in the reproductive age group in a given year.

Age Specific Fertility Rate:

Age Specific Fertility Rate Number of live births in a year to 1000 women in any specified age group. (Number of live births in a particular age group / mid year female population of the same age group) X 1000

Age Specific Marital Fertility Rate:

Age Specific Marital Fertility Rate (Number of live births in a particular Age Group / Mid year married female population of the same age group) X 1000

Total Fertility Rate:

Total Fertility Rate The average number of children a woman would have if she were to pass through her reproductive years bearing children at the same rates as the women now in each age group. This measure gives the approximate magnitude of COMPLETED FAMILY SIZE. 5 x (Sigma ASFR) / 1000

Total Marital Fertility Rate:

Total Marital Fertility Rate Average number of children that would be born to a married woman if she experiences the current fertility pattern throughout her reproductive span 5 x (Sigma ASMFR) / 1000

Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR):

Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR) Average number of girls that would be born to a woman if she experiences the current fertility pattern throughout her reproductive span assuming no mortality. 5 x (sigma ASFR) / 1000

Net Reproduction Rate (NRR):

Net Reproduction Rate (NRR) Number of daughters a newborn girl will bear during her lifetime assuming fixed age specific fertility and mortality rates. NRR 1 is equivalent to 2 child norm NRR 1 can be achieved only if at least 60% of eligible couples are practicing family planning.

Child Women Ratio:

Child Women Ratio Number of Children 0-4 years of age per 1000 women aged 15 – 49 years of age. Estimated from census data, used where birth registration statistics is inadequate.

Fertility Trends:

Fertility Trends Total Fertility Rate has declined from 3.6 in 1991 to 2.8 in 2006. In rural area it has declined from 5.4 in 1971 to 3.1 in 2006, in urban areas from 4.1 to 2.0. In Kerala it is 1.7 and in UP and Bihar 4.2

High Birth Rate:

High Birth Rate Universality of Marriage Early Marriage Early Puberty Low Standard of Living Low level of Literacy Traditional customs and habits- Everyone should have a son. Absence of Family Planning habit

Family Planning:

Family Planning Refers to practices that help the couples to attain objectives – To avoid unwanted births To bring about wanted births To regulate the interval between pregnancies To control the time at which births occur in relation to age of the parents; and To determine the number of children in the family.

Scope of Family Planning Services:

Scope of Family Planning Services 1. Proper spacing and limitation of birth 2. Advice on Sterility 3. Education on Parenthood 4. Sex Education 5. Screening for pathological conditions related to the reproductive system. 6. Genetic Counselling 7. Premarital consultation and examination

PowerPoint Presentation:

8. Carrying out pregnancy Tests 9. Marriage Counselling 10. Preparation of couples for arrival of first child 11. Services for unmarried mothers 12. Home economics and nutrition. 13. Adoption Services

PowerPoint Presentation:

Unwanted Pregnancy-may result in abortion outside of medical settings (Criminal Abortion), especially in unmarried mother. Repeated Pregnancies increase the risk of maternal mortality and morbidity. Rupture of the uterus, uterine atony, toxaemia / eclampsia, and Placenta Previa.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Family Planning renamed Family Welfare Program. Family Planning associated with Sterilization The Family Welfare Program aims to improve the quality of life of the people.

Eligible Couples:

Eligible Couples Currently married couple where wife is of reproductive age (15-45) 150-180 couples per 1000 Population. Target Couple- Eligible Couple who have 2-3 living children.

Couple Protection Rate:

Couple Protection Rate Percent of Eligible Couples effectively protected against childbirth by one or the other approved methods of family planning. 50-60% of births are of the birth order 3 or more. Attaining 60% CPR is equivalent to cutting off all third or higher order births. 53.4 % Eligible couples are still unprotected against conception.

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