Demography & Family Planning

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Demography & Family Planning:

Demography & Family Planning Demography- Study of human population Changes in population size Composition Distribution

Demographic Cycle:

Demographic Cycle Cycle of 5 stages through which a nation passes First Stage – high stationary High death rate and high birth rate and population remains stationary. India was in this stage till 1920.

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Second Stage- Early Expanding Death rate begins to decline but the birth rate remains unchanged

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Third Stage- Late Expanding Death rate declines and birth rate tends to fall. India has entered this phase.

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Fourth Stage Low Stationary Low birth and low death rates and population becomes stationary.

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Fifth Stage – Declining Birth rate is lower than the death rate, and population declines, Germany & Hungary are in this stage.

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India’s population growth was 1.8% as compared to 0.9% of China. India’s population will be 1.5 billion by 2050.

Birth and Death Rates:

Birth and Death Rates 1970 to 2007 the birth rate declined from 38 to 23 /1000 Death rate declined from 16 to 8/ 1000

Growth Rate:

Growth Rate Crude birth rate – crude death rate = Annual Growth Rate Momentum of growth rate is maintained by age distribution, marriage customs, and numerous cultural, social and economic factors.

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Growth rates are – 2.2% in Africa 1.3% in Latin America 0.2% in Europe 1.5% in Asia

Expected Number of births per women is:

Expected Number of births per women is 1.6 for industrialized countries 2.9 for developing countries 4.9 for least developed countries

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India has 1169 million people as of 2007. India has 2.4% of world’s land area. It has 16.87% of world population.

Age & Sex Composition:

Age & Sex Composition Age group 0-14 years, Male population is 1% more than female population. In 60+ age group female population is 0.6% more than the male population.

Age Pyramid:

Age Pyramid Population chart with class intervals of 5 years and male and females on different sides India has pyramid with broad base as it is still a growing population.

Sex Ratio:

Sex Ratio Number of females per thousand males. In 1901 it was 972, in 2001 it is 933 females. At birth it varies from 961 in Chattisgarh to 808 in Punjab. Rural- Tamil Nadu 970; Delhi 810. Urban – Kerala 962, Punjab 800.

Dependency Ratio:

Dependency Ratio Children below 15 and persons over 65 are considered dependents. It is crude as it does not take into account the unemployed or those who work after 65 years of age.

Population Density:

Population Density Number of population living per square kilometre. For year 2004 India’s population density was 363.

Family Size:

Family Size Means the total number of children a woman has borne at a point in time. Total Fertility Rate gives the magnitude of Completed Family Size. Family Planning Programs campaign is based on Two Child Family Norm.

Urbanization:

Urbanization In 1901, 10.8% of population lived in the urban area (cities) In 2001 it was 27.8% in cities. There is an urban migration going on in India. Mumbai, Kolkota and Delhi have grown into mega-cities (cities with population more than 10 million).

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Urban areas have better employment opportunities, better living conditions, better social services like education, health, transport, entertainment, etc.

Literacy and Education:

Literacy and Education Literate= Able to read and write with understanding in any language 2001 census 65.38% literate. Kerala 94% males and Bihar / Jharkhand 62% males were literate. Females range- 88% in Kerala and 35% in Bihar and Jharkhand.

Life Expectancy:

Life Expectancy At A Given Age is the average number of years which a person of that age may expect to live, according to the mortality pattern prevalent in that country. It is one of the best indicators of a country’s level of development and of the overall health status of its population.

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Females live longer than the males. Japan leads in life expectancy for both males (78.7 years) and females (85.7 years) for the year 2005

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