Toxicity caused by commonly used

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College of veterinary and animal science Bikaner :

Department of Veterinary pharmacology Assignment on Toxicity caused by commonly used drugs Submitted to Dr.nalini kataria Dr. L.N.sankhala Submitted by : Rajesh chitara College of veterinary and animal science Bikaner

Toxicity caused by commonly used drugs :

Chloramphenicol Dose dependent reversible supression of bone marrow Idiosyncratic aplasia of bone marrow.it is irreversible and is the result of inhibition of dna synthesis. Other toxicity in cats : cns depression , dehydration,inappetance , vomiting, weightlessness. Toxicity caused by commonly used drugs

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Precaution Therapy must be of shorter duration It should not be concurrently used w ith vaccines It may lower prothrombin level inhibit metabolism of phenotoin , dicumarol and other drugs which are metabolised by hepatic microsomal enzyme

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It may prolong duration of pentobarbitone anaesthesia in canine and feline It delay biotransformation of primidone in canine and may produce sedation and also biotransformation of local anesthetics

Tetracyclins toxicity:

Teeth and bones: it forms chelate with Ca and result in formation of tetracyclins -calcium orthophosphate complex and causes yellow colouration of teeth. Hypersensisitivity reaction in young ones Phototoxicity : usually with demeclocycline,doxycycline Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity:when outdated Tetracyclin given the pct is damaged Irritation suprainfection Tetracyclins toxicity

Penicillin toxicity:

Hypersensitivity reaction Allergic reaction like salivation ,shivering, vomiting and urticaria within 15 min in dog pig and cattle Procaine Penicillin when given i /m to dogs produce neurological disorders It along with adjuvent carboxymethylcellulose may cause anaphylactic shock in cattle and horse. Penicillin toxicity

Streptomycin :

Vestibular and auditory when used for longer duration Loss of rotational nystagmus In cats permanently damage vestibular end organ when streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin is used Sign Restlessness ,nausea Laboured respiration Loss of conciousness Coma Streptomycin

Neomycin:

Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity Precaution : neomycin should not be given in hypocalcaemic animal because increases excretion of calcium in urine Neomycin Reversible Irreversible

Gentamycin:

Renal toxicity Cochlear and vestibular damage of 8 cranial nerve and causes foetal ototoxocity due to the cross through placental barrier Normal plasma gentamycin concentration is 5- 7 μ g but 12 μ g is toxic Precaution : it should not given in dogs in the following cases Diarrhoea Renal disorder Hypokalimea Hepatic disorder Sepsis Gentamycin

Polymyxin B and Colistin:

Nephrotoxic Precaution :it should not be given with neuromuscular agents causing muscular weakness Polymyxin B and Colistin

Cephalosporin :

Local reaction Dose independent Dose dependent Cephalosporin Hypersensitivity reaction include fever,skin rashes arthalgias lymphadenopathy , eosinophilia Neutropenia , Agranulocytosis , Glomerular and Interstitial Nephritis , Tubular necrosis , Hepatitis Neurotoxicity

Nitrofurans:

Vomiting Diarrhoea GI bleeding Eosinophilia Occular disturbances Peripheral neuritis Nitrofurans

Amphotericin B :

Renal toxicity Increases BUN level Decreases GFR Decreases renal plasma flow Decreases creatinine clearance Amphotericin B

Piperazine:

High doses produces Vomition Diarrhoea Incordination Head pressing Tympany Anorexia Piperazine In dogs and cats Calves

Benzimidazoles:

Cambendazole produce inappetance and listlessness in cattle (3 times the recombeded dose) Parbendazole produce transient diarrhoea in horses (dose 2.5 mg/kg) Thiabendazole orally produce vomiting and leucopenia Benzimidazoles

Ivermectin:

Mydriasis in dog Loss of vision (horse) if given on 2 consecutive days orally. Acute toxic symptoms in horse include CNS depression ,listlessness, ataxia, recumbancy , and death Ivermectin

Thiopental sodium:

Depress respiratory centre Hepatitis Depression Poor appetite Thiopental sodium

Aspirin :

Low doses High doses Aspirin Hepatitis Depression Poor appetite Anemia Gastritis Toxic hepatitis Suppression of erythropoesis in bone marrow

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In dog it produces gastric haemmorhage when given in suspension at ph 3 Hematoemesis and gastric ulcer at oral dose of 100-300 mg/kg/day Aspirin + gentamicin nephrotoxicity Aspirin+phenylbutazone,fenoprofen,mefenamic acid or ibuprofen irreversible nephrotoxicity

Phenylbutazone :

In horses it produces anorexia ,depression, weighloss,petechial hamorrhage of mucus membrane,oral,renal necrosis ,GI tract erosion In dashhound dogs it produces idiosyncracy cause hamorrhage,billiary stasis and renal tubular degeneration Phenylbutazone

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