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INTRODUCTION/A GUIDETO SOCIAL CHANGE. Social change/Social development is a general term which refers to: Change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society community of people, or other social structures. It can also be said as any event or action that affects a group of individuals that have shared values or characteristics or acts of advocacy for the cause of changing society in a normative way. A currently popular author on social change is Jared Diamond.He claimed that a primary agent of social change is technological advancement, such that the wide adoption of a new technology leads to imbalance in the economic relationship between economic agents. This in turn leads to changes in the social balance of power, therefore leading to social change. Social change is interdisciplinary that means For example, the high infant mortality in less developed countries as compared to the low infant mortality rate in more developed countries. Why is it higher in less developed countries? What should we do about it? The answers to these questions require interdisciplinary science. Examples of global issues of social change today are: security/terrorism, environment, climate, energy, development, population, disarmament, economic issues, globalization, health, human rights, scientific development, biotechnology, human trafficking, war/conflict, drugs, and crime.


FACTORS. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR: Technology has contributed to the growth of industries or to the process of industrialization. The industry is characterized by heavy, fixed capital investment in plant and building by the application of science to industrial techniques and by mainly large-scale standardized production. The family has lost its economic importance. The whole process of production is mechanized. Consequently the traditional skills have declined and good number of artisans has lost their work. Huge factories could provide employment opportunities to thousands of people. Hence men have become workers in a very large number. The process of industrialization has affected the nature, character and the growth of economy. Due to technology & modernization there is a change in people's food habits, dress habits, speaking styles, tastes, choices, preferences, ideas, values, recreational activities and so on. The above picture I the left shows how wildlife is affected due to industrialization & forests are getting transformed into industrial area. The above picture in the right shows how the price of crude oil is getting higher than food. The latest surge in the spot price of crude oil (to US$139 a barrel—87.4 cents a litre). The longer we remain hooked the greater the devastation both to our environment and to the living standards of billions, especially the poorest peoples of the planet. The challenge is huge. The response must combine defence against the threat to livelihoods from price rises with a plan to restructure economies and ways of living so that oil-intensive production and transport becomes a thing of the past.

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PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT: The changes in the environment are very frequent however are very damaging like the desert wastes of North Africa were once green and well populated. Climates change, soil erodes and lakes gradually turn into swamps and finally plains. The first picture in the extreme left shows an example of environmental social change. The picture shows hurricane named “Gustav” which had spread terror in united states. The second & third picture shows the a view of Bihar flood which again devasted the economy of India. It also shows how social groups are coming forward to help the victims. Human misuse can bring very rapid changes in physical environment which in turn change the social and cultural life of a people. Deforestation brings land erosion and reduces rainfall.

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POVERTY AS A FACTOR OF SOCIAL CHANGE Irish people die younger because they tolerate an inequality between them that breeds ill-health, & they accept a health care system & a view of health care which implicitly places lesser value on the lives of those with lesser means. By Wren(2003) An unhealthy state. Absolute Poverty means the inability to meet basic needs such as food, shelter & the avoidance of disease. Higher incomes can provide better nutrition & health. Highly educated societies take an additional toll on or care on health. Although the association between income & health is stronger. Lower classes indulge in more unhealthy or risky behaviours such as smoking, drinking eating more fatty foods & taking less exercise resulting in early death. The government should focus on the impact of poverty, the distribution of income, unemployment housing schemes, pollution, working conditions healthcare & education.


TYPES OF SOCIAL CHANGE ORGANIZATIONS. RED CROSS DIRECT SERVICE: United Way Metro Chicago. United Way's mission is to improve lives by mobilizing caring people to invest in the community where their resources are needed most. SELF HELP: Alcoholics Anonymous. It is a voluntary, worldwide fellowship of men & women from all walks of life who meet together to attain & maintain sobriety. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. 3) EDUCATION: School of Art institute of Chicago. SAIC is a part of thriving art community with access to worldwide resources. ADVOCACY:(ACLU). The mission of ACLU is to preserve the protections & guarantees of society.


CONSEQUENCES. 1) EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION: More income inequality in developed countries Concentrations of international power Cheaper and more diverse goods and services Higher income for employed in developing countries. 2) EFFECT OF URBANIZATION: Urban sprawl (loss of green space) Air quality declines Crime increases Transportation needs increase Emergency service needs increase 3) EFFECT OF POPULATION: Less developed countries are increasingly dependent on other countries for resources Population decreases in more developed countries due to older ages at first marriage and higher education, particularly among women (more people use birth control). 4) EFFECT OF HEALTH : Infant mortality rate (IMR): among developing countries declined from 141 infant deaths per 1000 births in 1960 to 63 in 2000.  However, infant mortality rate was and still is very high for some countries.


CHANGES. Due to social work we can eradicate the problems in the society. Poverty. Gender discrimination:. Social Tensions. Corruption. Illiteracy. Urbanization. Divorce. Child Abuse. Population. Child labour. Drug Abuse. Women & Men are equally important for the growth & development of individual & social lives. The Indian society consists people from different religious, linguistic & ethnic backgrounds. Traditionally the Indian society was hierarchically arranged & the different communites & caste groups sowed a pattern of social distance in which low caste &minority groups were discriminated & looked down upon. The Indian constitution prohibits against such discrimination & has abolished untouchability. Divorce make the family unable to perform its functions such as socializing children & providing emotional support.


EXAMPLES. Some recent trends in global change are that the world population has become more concentrated in the less developed world and in cities, there has been a tremendous growth in internet use, infant mortality rates have declined, illiteracy has declined, more people are living in freedom, GDP per capita has increased in some areas of the world, and poverty has declined in some areas of the world. Western society changing values on trends such as the birth control pill, voting rights for non-land holders, and the ups and downs of acceptance of homosexuality are also examples of social change. Below picture shows the gives an example of child abuse or selling. Another example of revolution in agriculture by green revolution.


MEDIA & SOCIAL CHANGE. Mass Media does plays a role in influence societal values & norms. In these times scarcely a day passes without thenewspaper and other mass media reporting a new or continuing crisis ofgrave international import in some little-known part of the world. Thetechnology of communication and travel has, it is said, shrunk the size ofthe world. The politics of international tension have made that small worlda dangerous place for human habitation. Media playa vital role in controlling population by advertising various effects of high population. One of the best media which brings social change is “INTERNET” . Through social networks & communities formed online it becomes easy to communicate with like minded people. Social activists gathering together for social welfare.


CONCLUSION. I believe that nuclear family is the best family & it should be encouraged. To control population married couples should have favourable tax benefits & incentives. Government recognize the increasing diversity of the family & indirectly labour & conservative see the nuclear family as the ideal. People suffering from drug abuse, low self esteem, illiteracy, poverty etc for them we can have a real world application by developing their communication skills, foster a love of reading, computer skills etc. We can also consult them about their career preparation & this all is possible only when we work together as a group “A SOCIAL GROUP”. So there is a need that every individual should work for the welfare of the society & inturn it will help them.


BIBLOGRAPHY. History of sociological thought – Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Feminist Theory Free library. Perspectives on Social Change by Robert H. Lauer. Signs of change: Principles & Programs by Harry F. Ward. Sociology: Encyclopedia.

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