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Motive, Motivation, define, success, motivational concepts, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, method, employee motivation, win the race of life, employer's role in encouragement, overcoming failure, take risk, self motivation, employee retention, conclusion


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MOTIVATION Institution: Vidya Vikas. Faculty: Mr. Sharma. By Ashok Singh Rana. "The photographs, videos and press clippings really do motivate me - no matter how frustrating some days may be!“- Quote.


MOTIVATION-DEFINED. Motivation is the set of reasons that determines one to engage in a particular behavior. The term is generally used for human motivation but, theoretically, it can be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This article refers to human motivation. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in the basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, hobby, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, morality, or avoiding mortality.

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MOTIVATIONAL CONCEPTS. A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect would be greater, and decreases as duration lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Motivation comes from two things: you, and other people. There is extrinsic motivation, which comes from others, and intrinsic motivation, which comes from within you. Rewards can also be organized as extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic rewards are external to the person; for example, praise or money. Intrinsic rewards are internal to the person; for example, satisfaction or a feeling of accomplishment. Some authors distinguish between two forms of intrinsic motivation: one based on enjoyment, the other on obligation. In this context, obligation refers to motivation based on what an individual thinks ought to be done. For instance, a feeling of responsibility for a mission may lead to helping others beyond what is easily observable, rewarded, or fun. A reinforcer is different from reward, in that reinforcement is intended to create a measured increase in the rate of a desirable behavior following the addition of something to the environment.


INTRINSIC & EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION. Intrinsic motivation occurs when people engage in an activity, such as a hobby, without obvious external incentives. Intrinsic motivation has been explained by Fritz Heider's attribution theory, Bandura's work on self-efficacy, and Ryan and Deci's cognitive evaluation theory. People are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: Believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), Are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades. In knowledge-sharing communities and organizations, people often cite altruistic reasons for their participation, including contributing to a common good, a moral obligation to the group, mentorship or 'giving back'. In work environments, money may provide a more powerful extrinsic factor than the intrinsic motivation provided by an enjoyable workplace. In terms of sports, intrinsic motivation is the motivation that comes from inside the performer. That is, the athlete competes for the love of the sport. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the performer. Money is the most obvious example, but coercion and threat of punishment are also common extrinsic motivations. In sports, the crowd may cheer the performer on, and this motivates him or her to do well. Trophies are also extrinsic incentives. Competition is often extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation.


MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES. Drive theory There are a number of drive theories. The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that we have certain biological needs, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases as it is not satisfied. Then as we satisfy that drive by fulfilling its desire, such as eating, the drive's strength is reduced. It is based on the theories of Freud and the idea of feedback control systems, such as a thermostat. There are several problems, however, that leave the validity of the Drive Reduction Theory open for debate. The first problem is that it does not explain how Secondary Reinforcers reduce drive. For example, money does not satisfy any biological or psychological need but reduces drive on a regular basis through a pay check second-order conditioning. Secondly, if the drive reduction theory held true we would not be able to explain how a hungry human being can prepare a meal without eating the food before they finished cooking it. However, when comparing this to a real life situation such as preparing food, one does get hungrier as the food is being made (drive increases), and after the food has been consumed the drive decreases. The only reason the food does not get eaten before is the human element of restraint and has nothing to do with drive theory. Also, the food will either be nicer after it is cooked, or it won't be edible at all before it is cooked.


THREE ELEMENTS OF MOTIVATION. Motivation starts with the desire to be free, to be free from dependency on others, freedom to live the lifestyle we dream of, freedom to explore our ideas. Total freedom is not possible or desirable, but the struggle to achieve that ideal is the basis for motivation. Motivation is built on three basic elements: Motivation starts with a need, vision, dream or desire to achieve the seemingly impossible. Creativity is associated with ideas, projects and goals, which can be considered a path to freedom. Develop a love-to-learn, become involved with risky ventures and continually seek new opportunities. Success is based on learning what works and does not work.   Developing the ability to overcome barriers and to bounce back from discouragement or failure. Achievers learn to tolerate the agony of failure. In any worthwhile endeavor, barriers and failure will be there. Bouncing back requires creative thinking as it is a learning process. In addition, bouncing back requires starting again at square one.


MASLOW’S METHOD: EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION. A manager’s ability to motivate starts earlier than most people think with employee selection. The hiring of employees that are self-motivated is crucial to the success of any business. If an employee is motivated from within, then the “motivator” aspect of a manager’s job is less difficult. As with many ideas, this “easier said than done. With the legal restraints today in regard to discrimination, managers often give up trying to make “good” hiring decisions for fear of discriminating illegally. Therefore, most managers have become solely reliant on intuition during the hiring process. The trick seems to be to try to hire those that are motivated to do what is best for the organization without discriminating against those who may be motivated, but not to work, and those that have the skills necessary for a position but lack the motivation all together. Its is this challenge that will puzzle today’s managers and those of tomorrow. Maslow developed a “hierarchy of needs” or an order of needs that need to be fulfilled in each person. If a manager embraces Maslow’s hierarchy, he/she will motivate employees, keeping the order of needs in mind. The hierarchy of needs is shown below: 1. Self actualization – need to grow and use abilities to the fullest; highest need. 2. Esteem – need for respect, prestige, and recognition from others as well as self esteem and personal sense of competence. 3. Social – need for love, affection, and belongingness in one’s relationships with others. 4. Safety – need for security, protection, and stability in the personal events of everyday life. 5. Physiological – most basic of human needs; need for food, water, and sustenance. Using this theory, managers can use the hierarchy to motivate people by satisfying the most important needs.


HOW TO WIN THE RACE OF LIFE. Set a major goal, but follow a path. The path has mini goals that go in many directions. When you learn to succeed at mini goals, you will be motivated to challenge grand goals. Finish what you start. A half finished project is of no use to anyone. Quitting is a habit. Develop the habit of finishing self-motivated projects. Socialize with others of similar interest. Mutual support is motivating. We will develop the attitudes of our five best friends. If they are losers, we will be a loser. If they are winners, we will be a winner. To be a cowboy we must associate with cowboys. Learn how to learn. Dependency on others for knowledge supports the habit of procrastination. In fact, when we learn the art of self-education we will find, if not create, opportunity to find success beyond our wildest dreams. Harmonize natural talent with interest that motivates. Natural talent creates motivation, motivation creates persistence and persistence gets the job done. Increase knowledge of subjects that inspires. The more we know about a subject, the more we want to learn about it. Take risk. Failure and bouncing back are elements of motivation. Failure is a learning tool. No one has ever succeeded at anything worthwhile without a string of failures.


EMPLOYER’S ROLE IN ENCOURAGEMENT. Employee Incentive Programs - Hard Work Has Its Rewards. Improve Performance with Employee Surveys- Gain Critical Employee Feedback with Powerful and Easy to Use EPM Survey Software from Inquisite. Hire smart- The best place to start, of course, is with good hiring practices. One size does not fit all- The second key to remember is that employees are individuals and therefore not all motivated by the same things. Share the vision- Another way to motivate agency employees is to share the agency's plans. General Ration's rule- Gen. George S. Patton summed up the next rule best when he said, "Never tell people how to do things. Tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity." Rewards and risks- Consider the risk/reward factor and carefully match the reward to the achievement (or risk). Minimum standards- The risk/reward factor presumes that monetary rewards motivate all employees, but that is not true. I recommend that all agencies establish minimum performance standards for all positions. Peer pressure- Peer pressure in the right environment can be the best motivator. SIDEBAR- Remember that employees are individuals and therefore not all motivated by the same things.


OVERCOMING FAILURE. Failure Can Be Positive or Negative Failure is a learning tool. Thomas Edison failed a thousand times before he invented the light bulb. Failure is trying to do things others have not considered. It is a temporary byproduct of creativity. It is challenging the learning process. It is experiential education at work. The real winners in life tolerate failure and the agony it produces. Success is achieved by those who are willing to take risk and lose. Many people choose to engage in occupations and activities that are safe and conventional. They do not deliver satisfaction, fulfillment or joy in living. Their real failure is failing to move in the directions of their dreams. If everything you do works, you are not trying hard enough. Failure is a learning tool. Our first reaction to failure is to blame anyone/anything but ourselves. If we perceive others are to blame, then there is nothing we can do to correct the problem. We cannot change people’s personalities, neither can they change ours. If we assume responsibility, then we can analyze what went wrong and take corrective action. This is the art of bouncing back from failure. Failure is discouraging, it drains energy and resources, but it forces us to do things right. Failure separates those who think they want success from those who are determined to win. Failure narrows the playing field. The first people out are those that blame others, next out are those who lost interest. The weak go first. The strong learn to hang in there and keep bouncing back until they win. Sometimes failure is telling us we are going in the wrong direction. Here’s the dilemma. If we give up, is it because we were going in the wrong direction or because we gave up? The only way to tell is to abandon the project or put it to rest for a time. Very often, this is forced on us because we are out of money or resources. When the mind is free of pressures, realistic planning emerges. This lull was not wasted, it had great benefit, it is the art of redirection. When you try again, chances are you will get it right. New outlook’s is the result of bouncing back from failure.


TAKE RISK. For some reason, man has a natural desire to fail. This desire is difficult to identify because it is fulfilled in subtle ways. For example: People will max-out credit cards on trivia, creating debts that makes it impossible to fulfill their deepest dreams. They gamble when they know the odds are against them. A habit of success requires the ability to recognize elements that destroy. The man that makes $30,000 fears risk. The man who makes $1,000,000 accepts risk. In the early stages, everyone in subtle ways fears risk and failure. Fears, whatever they are, must be faced up too and dealt with. Fantasizing can help accomplish this by creating a burning desire that is more powerful than fear. Leaders, who demand control over others, are teaching them to fail and ultimately themselves. It is easy to control people who accept the belief that they are failures. In this situation, the motivation tool is reward and punishment. The intent may be to motivate people to cooperate, but very often the results remind people they are failures and many accept this as fact. Disciplinary action means internal motivation has not worked and external motivation is reverted to. In business, the long-term results could be deadly. Self-fulfilling prophecy takes over.


MOTIVATING YOURSELF BY MOTIVATING THE WORLD. Never this word was so important in organization as it is on this XXI century. Motivation drives to ideas, drives to communication and drives to “getting things done”. I’ve seen many places ad many teams that it made a difference. It is better to have a motivated person that knows only half of a really non motivated one. While the motivation of this person will take her to do the extra mile, the non motivated will do less and try to drag others with them. As a peer, team lead or manager it is important that you stick together. Be the point person, try to address the issues and motivate others (and get motivated by them). This attitude will bring your team close together and your ability to motivate others is often recognized as a great virtue. Complicated things usually fail in complicated ways. Start from the obvious although… the saying usually prevails. If it is complicated… explain it in a very simple way like if your audience is 5 years old but in a rush. Don’t be afraid of small projects and share small ideas. They sometimes are small but they can mean something and become great ideas! Please… when you have a simple project to implement do not make it hard to understand just to ‘look good’. People buy it once but it wont look good a second time. Ideas…ideas…ideas… They are the future of this business and don’t be afraid of your creativity. Phrase it well and go for it!


EMPLOYEE RETENTION. To maintain a stable workforce, employers must actively engage their employees in different retention activities. These can range from customized compensation packages to the age-old family picnic. Whatever the case, people need to feel wanted, valued and appreciated. They want to do meaningful work and have some say in how their jobs are designed, managed and measured. And when these psychological needs are met, research shows that they'll be more apt to stick around. It's up to you to motivate them. Employee retention strategies, in some shape or form, have been a topic of interest for about as long as business itself, but studying the psychological nuances of the issue began gaining prominence in the early part of the 20 century as theorists began linking motivation to meeting needs. Since dien, as competition in the business world has intensified, motivation and employee retention have been under the microscope ever since to get a leg up on enhancing workforce support for key corporate initiatives.


CONCLUSION?? Motivation management is a modern, practical approach that will be useful to management trainers and trainees. Also, it will be a good guide in solving motivation problems within an organization. In reality, it does not add significantly to the theories of Pavlov, Maslow, McClelland, Herzberg, and Vroom. It seems to borrow a little from each of their works on motivation. Motivation is a continuous challenge among managers today. The problems and solutions to motivation problems can be complex to say the least. Tools and ideas are available to managers and leaders to help with motivation. Studying the timeless theories of Herzberg, McClelland, Vroom, Pavlov, and Maslow can provide ideas and solutions to motivation problems. Motivation management and the individual motivation profile are also useful tools in discovering how to motivate certain individuals. Improving motivation starts with employee selection and high organizational expectations. Managers that utilize these tools and ideas can be successful motivators.

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