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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: 1 In The Name of ALLAH the Most Beneficent and the Most MercifulMass Media And Democracy: Mass Media And Democracy By: Umar SiddiqueMass Media: Mass Media Sources of information and news such as newspapers, magazines, radio and television, that reach and influence large numbers of people (Oxford Advance Learner Dictionary) Media is those means of communication that reach and influence large numbers of people, especially newspapers, popular magazines, radio, and television (yourDictionary.com) Newspapers, television, radio etc that communicate news and information to large numbers of people (MacMillain Dictionary) (Continued).. 3Slide 4: The means of communication, as radio and television, newspapers, and magazines, that reach or influence people widely (Dictionary.com) Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies, including the Internet, television, newspapers, and radio, which are used for mass communications, and to the organizations which control these technologies (Wikipedia) Mass Media 4Democracy: Democracy Government of the people, for the people and by the people (Abraham Lincoln-1859) A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives (Wikipedia) Form of government, where a constitution guarantees basic personal and political rights, fair and free elections, and independent courts of law (Dictionary.com) b : a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections (Merriam Webster) 5Mass Media and Democracy Relationship: Mass Media and Democracy Relationship According to European Union’s Report (1998) , in a Democratic Society, Media should be: widely available and accessible reflect the pluralistic nature of such society and are not dominated by any one viewpoint or controlled by one interest group make available the information necessary for citizens to make informed choices about their lives and their communities provide the means whereby the public debate which underpins free and democratic societies can take place, means that the market will not necessarily deliver its own 6Media Market Developments: Media Market Developments Convergence Different media like newspapers, radio, television, telephone and internet are increasingly being fused together, technologically as well as economically Concentration Media companies are being merged together and controlled by fewer owners (Conti…) 7Media Market Developments: Media Market Developments Globalization The media are owned by multinational companies broadcasting across the borders Commercialization Advertisements are sneaked into entertainment as well as news stories Commercial Influence Advertisers and owners have influence on editorial decisions 8Public Sphere: Public Sphere Bourgeois Public Sphere (1700-1950): A public space between the public domain and the state in which the public opinion was formed and “popular” supervision of the government Modern Public Sphere (1950 - date) Later, it became dominated by an expanded state and organized economic interests This Economic factor manipulated the public opinion and sidelined it 9Public Sphere: Public Sphere Habermas (1989) argues: Early success of Capitalism Autonomous Public Debate Economic Development Private Property Critical Discussions In Coffee Shops and Salons Ultimate Effect Independent, Market- Based Press 10Role of Media in Democratic Society : Role of Media in Democratic Society Help foster advocacy for media with legislative and regulatory bodies Increase flows of advertising revenues to the regions (decentralization) Increase access to and ownership of production and distribution Increase investment and loan opportunities for regional media (Conti…) 11Role of Media in Democratic Society: Role of Media in Democratic Society Increase horizontal ties among media professionals Expand educational and practical programs in electronic information gathering and dissemination Expand educational and practical programs in business, management, and technical skills Increase professional contacts and collaboration between domestic and foreign media companies and institutions 12Actors of Media Reforms in Democracy: Actors of Media Reforms in Democracy Consumers Individual producers (reporters, editors, technicians, business managers) Content provider companies (wire services, think tanks, NGOs) Training institutes, universities Independent regulators (Conti…) 13Actors of Media Reforms in Democracy: Actors of Media Reforms in Democracy Media monitors (political polling agencies, policy institutes, advocacy groups, governments, advertisers) Professional organizations (journalism and business associations) New technology gatekeepers (infrastructure developers, software creators, trainers, investors) 14Media as Watchdog in Democracy: Media as Watchdog in Democracy Primary democratic role of media is to act as “Watchdog” overseeing the state Revealing malpractices in the state authority Facilitating a general debate about the functioning of the government How to be a good “Watchdog”? By following Objectivity By achieving complete independence from the government 15Public Vs Private Watchdogs: Public Vs Private Watchdogs 16Consumer Representation: Consumer Representation Thomas Carlyle argues: The press should be; Deemed a “POWER” A Branch of Government Having Role in Law-Making Process Having Will of the People It means that Media is dependent upon the will of the people, who decide the fate of media being the consumers of that industry. (Carlyle, 1907) (Conti…) 17Consumer Representation: Consumer Representation It is the phenomenon of the fabulous force in the histories of the press. For instance; in Britain the press progressed in three stages: It was subject to state censorship and an extension of the state It was dominated by political parties and served as an extension of the Party system It became a market-based industry eyeing on sale and representatives of the public rather the Political System 18Flaws in Consumer representation: Flaws in Consumer representation Media Monopoly The Free Market-Based Media gave birth to Media Conglomerates. For example; News Corporation, Harper Collins, Bertelsmann group, Time-Warner, International Thompson, Sony Corporation etc. Heavy Capitalization Huge investment is needed to enter today’s media market Low investment leads to low quality and high price (Conti…) 19Slide 20: Prevailing market structures constrain and impose limits in the “DIVERSITY” , that was achieved through expansion of media An Unequal Relationship between large and small media competitors Failed to increase or even sustain the Ideological Diversity of public affairs Flaws in Consumer representation 20Informational Role of Media in Democracy: Informational Role of Media in Democracy The informational role of media is in the sense that: Facilitate the self-expression Promote public rationality Enable collective self-determination These functions can be fulfilled through the process of free market 21Role of Free Market Media: Role of Free Market Media Allows anyone to publish an opinion who wishes to Ensures that all significant points are aired A wide range of information is made available from diverse sources Provides neutral zone for the information of public opinion The Ultimate effects are: Well-Informed Masses Good Judgment Wise Government 22Flaws in Informational Role of Media: Flaws in Informational Role of Media According to Robert McChesney “ The major beneficiaries of the so-called Information Age are wealthy investors, advertisers, and a handful of enormous media, computer, and telecommunications corporations.” (Rich Media Poor democracy ; 1998) Market failure has limited individual freedom of expression Has prevented public debate by informing it through diverse sources (Conti…) 23Flaws in Informational Role of Media: Flaws in Informational Role of Media Failure of the press to keep pace with the requirements of the society Development of Media concentration and restricted market entry has put barriers in the way of Public discussion and has lost its earlier reality in it Public rationality has been impaired Collective direction has been weakened Sale factor of media has drifted it away from the real objectives 24Conclusion: Conclusion Media should: Empower people Foster sectional solidarities Assist in the functioning of the organizations Represent the masses effectively Sustain vigilant scrutiny of the government Provide a source of protection to the masses Try to create societal compromise with the help of national consensus 25Slide 26: Thank You 26 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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