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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS & PROCESSESELEMENTS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR(VALUES ,ATTITUDE,SENSATION & PERCEPTION) : MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS & PROCESSESELEMENTS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR(VALUES ,ATTITUDE,SENSATION & PERCEPTION) Member’s Name:- JEETENDRA RAI SHAILAJA PRANAMI REENA ANAND PRAKASH PRKASH NARAYAN PANDEY PETER FERDINAND DRUCKER : PETER FERDINAND DRUCKER BORN ON: 19-11-1909 KAAS GRABEN(VIENA),AUSTRIA DIES AT 95,ON:11-11-2005 CLAREMONT , CALIFORNIA USA HIS PROMINENT BOOKS: THE NEW SOCIETY THE END OF ECONOMIC MAN THE FUT URE OF INDUSTRIAL MAN CONTRIBUTIONS OF PETER F.DRUOUGCKER TO MANAGEMENT THOUGHT : CONTRIBUTIONS OF PETER F.DRUOUGCKER TO MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Peter F. Drucker had revolutionalised management thinking in early 50’s with his path breaking books,articles & presentations. HIS WORK:The practice of management (1954) Managing for results (1964) The effective executive(1967) The age of discontinuity(1969) Management :Tasks,Responsibilities & Practices(1974) Drucker is often hailed as a genious who had pioneered several modern Management concepts in the fields of innovation,creativity,problem solving,organisation design,MBO(Management by objective) etc. According to Drucker management is dynamic, life giving element in an organisation.It is a distinct,discipline and a social function. He stressed the importance of joint goal setting through a novel concept called-MBO. Cont… : Cont… Drucker’s 8 key areas of business: Market standing innovation. Productivity,physical & financial resources profit ability,managers performance and development ,worker performance & social responsibility. In place of task specialisation,he advocated federal decentralisation. To reduce the no. of layers within the organisation by managers he suggested three concrete steps: Activity analysis Decision analysis,Relation analysis. He said that successful managers didn`t wait for future ,they are made the future.He wanted managers to be fully prepared for all future challenges by updating their skills,knowledge and competencies. CONCEPT OF BEHAVIOUR : CONCEPT OF BEHAVIOUR BEHAVIOUR IS WHAT A PERSON DOES IT IS DEFINED AS THE OBSERVABLE AND MEASURABLE ACTIVITY OF HUMAN BEINGS TWO ASPECTS OF BEHAVIOUR- 1- OVERT BEHAVIOUR 2- COVERT BEHAVIOUR INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR : INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR MEANS SOME COCRETE ACTION BY A PERSON PEOPLE BEHAVE IN DIFFERENT WAYS WHEN THEY ARE CONFRONTED WITH AN IDENTICAL SITUATION INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR AFFECTED BY THE LARGER ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM, e.g., GROUPS, FAMILY, SOCIETY. KURT LEWIN-HUMAN BEHAVIOUR(B) IS A FUNCTION OF BOTH- PERSON(P) & ENVIRONMENT(E) - B=f (P.E) PROCESS OF BEHAVIOUR : PROCESS OF BEHAVIOUR BEHAVIOUR TAKES PLACE IN THE FORM OF A PROCESS.THERE ARE 3 MODELS OF BEHAVIOUR PROCESS HAS BEEN DEVELOPED- S-R MODEL S-O-R MODEL S-O-B-C MODEL S-O-B-C MODEL : S-O-B-C MODEL S Overt & Covert stimuli C Overt & Covert consequences O Physiological being & cognitive mediator B Overt & Covert Behaviour S Overt & Covert stimuli O Physiological being & cognitive mediator 3 DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR : 3 DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR THE TRADITIONAL PERSPECTIVE THE BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE PERSPECTIVE OF INPUT-OUTPUT SYSTEM PERSPECTIVE OF THE INPUT- OUTPUT SYSTEM : PERSPECTIVE OF THE INPUT- OUTPUT SYSTEM THIS MODEL EXPLAINS, HOW INPUTS ARE CONVERTED INTO OUTPUTS IN A CENTRAL PROCESSING REGION. THE ENVIRONMENT ACTS AS A STIMULUS AND THE PERSON RESPONDS TO IT. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE INDIVIDUAL’S BEHAVIOUR : FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE INDIVIDUAL’S BEHAVIOUR HIS PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING IN WHICH HE OPERATES Cont… : Cont… NATURE OF THE HUMAN BEHAVIOUR : NATURE OF THE HUMAN BEHAVIOUR DOUGLAS McGREGOR (1906-1964) DEVELOPED TO ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HUMAN BEHAVIOUR- THEORY X – REPRESENTS NEGATIVE VIEW OF PEOPLE. THEORY Y – REPRESENTS POSITIVE VIEW OF PEOPLE THEORY - X THEORY- Y : THEORY - X THEORY- Y LAZY & DISLIKE DOING WORK UNCREATIVE REQUIRE CONSTANT THRASHING A WIDE RESPONSIBILITY LACK SELF MOTIVATION REQUIRES AUTOCRATIC STYLE MORE SUITABLE TO UNEDUCATED & UNSKILLED WORKER INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE ENERGATIC ARE INTERESTED IN DOING WORK TAKE INITIATIVE PREFERS SELF DIRECTION TAKE RESPONSIBILITIES SELF MOTIVATION REQUIRE PARTICIPATING STYLE MORE SUITABLE TO EDUCATED & SKILLED WORKER MODELS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR : MODELS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR RATIONAL MODEL EMOTIONAL MODEL BEHAVIOURISTIC MODEL HUMANISTIC MODEL ECONOMIC MODEL SELF ACTUALISATION MODEL MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR : MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR THE BASIC MANAGERIAL IMPLICATION OF UNDERSTANDING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR IS TO CHANNELISE INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR FOR ACHIEVING ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES. THIS CHANNELISATION IS MOST EFFECTIVE IS GOOD PERSON- JOB FIT. A GOOD PERSON- JOB FIT IS ONE, IN WHICH THE PERSON’S CONTRIBUTIONS MATCH WITH THE INDUCEMENTS, THE ORGANISATIONS OFFERS. ALPHABETICAL MEANING OF VALUES : ALPHABETICAL MEANING OF VALUES V:VALID A:AFFECTION L:LOVE U:UNIVERSAL E:ETHICS S:SPIRITUAL 17 Slide 18: 18 The sense of values is an essential attribute of the human consciousness. It is the sense which prompts and guides the unceasing quest of the common thread of goodness in the good human being, in the good society and the good life. In general way the word “VALUES” expresses the qualitative significance or importance we assign to ideas, feeling, activities and experiences. Values: what are they? Slide 19: 19 According to (1) Dr. R. K. Mukherji-“It is the concept of valuation that comprises the thread, tying together and beads of individual happiness, personality ,adjustment and social and institutional adaptation in their togetherness.” (2) M.HATELEMBAS-“A value is a belief that something is good and desirable. It defines what is important, worthwhile and worth striving for.” (3) SWAMI YUKTANANDA-“Values are the very core of our behaviors, the motive force of our lives.” DEFINITION Slide 20: 20 TYPES OF VALUES: According to professor PYARI values are classified into 4 groups –such as NATURAL VALUES SPECIFIC VALUES SOCIAL VALUES CULTURAL VALUES Slide 21: 21 (1) ECONOMIC VALUES (2) HEALTHY AND RECREATIONAL VALUES (3) SOCIAL VALUES (4) MORAL VALUES ( 5) INTELLECTUAL VALUES (6) RELIGIOUS VALUES (7) AESTHETICS VALUES TYPES OF HUMAN VALUES: Slide 22: 22 HIGHER AND LOWER VALUES 2. PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY VALUES 3. INTRINSIC AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUES CLASSIFICATION Slide 23: ACCORDING TO INDIAN PHILOSOPHY – VALUES ARE CLASSIFIED INTO 4 CATEGORIES SUCH AS 1.DHARMA i.e .ethics 2. ARTHA i.e wealth 3.KAMA i.e pleasure 4.MOKSHA i.e liberation CHARACTERISTICS OF VALUES : CHARACTERISTICS OF VALUES 1.PART OF CULTURE 2.LEARNED RESPONSE 3.INCULCATED 4.SOCIAL PHENOMENON 5.GRATIFYING RESPONSE 6.ADAPTIVE PROCESS 24 FACTORS OF VALUE FORMATION : FACTORS OF VALUE FORMATION 1.VALUE FORMING INSTITUTION 2.ORGANISATIONAL VALUES 3.PEERS AND COLLEGEAGUES 4.WORK AND CAREER 5.PROFESSIONAL CODES 25 Slide 26: 26 What is ATTITUDES? : What is ATTITUDES? ATTITUDE IS A STATE OF MIND OF AN INDIVIDUAL TOWARDS SOMETHING. IT IS THE TENDENCY TO FEEL AND BEHAVE IN A PARTICULAR WAY TOWARDS OBJECTS, PEOPLE OR EVENTS. THEY REFLECT, HOW ONE FEEL ABOUT SOMETHING. ATTITUDES AND VALUES ARE INTERRELATED. DEFINITIONS OF ATTITUDE : DEFINITIONS OF ATTITUDE GORDON W. ALLPORT - “ATTITUDE IS A MENTAL AND NEURAL STATE OF READINESS ORGANISED THROUGH EXPERIENCE EXERTING A DIRECTIVE OR DYNAMIC INFLUENCE UPON THE INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE TO ALL OBJCTS AND SITUATIONS WITH WHICH, IT IS RELATED.” H. J. REITZ – “ATTITUDE IS A PERSISTENT TENDENCY TO FEEL AND BEHAVE IN A FAVOURABLE OR UNFAVOURABLE WAY TOWARDS SOME OBJECT, PERSON OR IDEA” Slide 29: Cognitive: It indicates the opinions, values or beliefs of an individual about something. Ex.(Discrimination is wrong) The affective component: It represents the feeling of a person towards something.Ex.( I don’t like discrimination) The behavioral component: It indicates the intention of a person to behave in aParticular way my friend particular way. Ex. I left my frfriend ram due discrimination attitude. Three Components of Attitude TYPES OF ATTITUDE : TYPES OF ATTITUDE 1-JOB SATISFACTION 2-JOB INVOLVEMENT 3-ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT Slide 31: Types of Attitudes: 1- Job Satisfaction “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience.” Locke Slide 32: 6 dimensions of Job Satisfaction (P.C. Smith, L.M. Kendall, C.L. Hulin) Work Pay Promotion opportunities Supervision Coworkers Working condition Types of Attitudes: Contd… Slide 33: Types of Attitudes: Contd… 2- Job involvement: refers to the extent to which a person identifies psychologically with his job, actively participates in it, and considers that his performance in the job contributes to his self-worth. Slide 34: Types of Attitudes Contd… 3-Organizational commitment: It refers to an employee’s satisfaction with a particular organization and its goals. Slide 35: Functions of Attitudes: The Adjustment function: People modify their attitudes to adjust to their work environment. Ego-defensiveness: It helps them to defend their self-images. Slide 36: Value-expression: People express their values through attitudes Knowledge function: Attitudes provide a standard of reference which allows people to understand and explain their environment. Functions of Attitudes: Contd… THEORIES OF ATTITUDE FORMATION : THEORIES OF ATTITUDE FORMATION COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY THEORIES FUNCTIONAL THEORIES SOCIAL JUDGEMENT THEORIES COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY THEORIES : COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY THEORIES BALANCE THEORY CONGRUITY THEORY AFFECTIVE COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY THEORY COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY Slide 39: Leon Festinger Cognitive Dissonance refers to the incompatibility that an individual may perceive between 2 or more of his attitudes or between his behaviors and attitudes. Cognitive dissonance FACTORS IN ATTITUDE FORMATION : FACTORS IN ATTITUDE FORMATION 1-GROUP FACTORS (A) FAMILY (B) REFERENCE GROUPS (C) SOCIAL CLASSES 2-PERSONALITY FACTORS ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT : ATTITUDE MEASUREMENT SELF REPORT (WITH QUESIONAIRES ) INDIRECT TEST (PROJECT TECHNIQUES) DIRECT OBSERVATION TECHNIQUES PSHCHOLOGICAL REACTION TECHNIQUES EFFECTS OF EMPLOYEE’S ATTITUDES : EFFECTS OF EMPLOYEE’S ATTITUDES EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WILL BE HIGHER OR LOWER EMPLOYEE TURNOVER HAVE LOWER RATE OR HIGHER RATE ABSENCE & TARDINESS VIOLENCE METHODS OF ATTITUDE CHANGE : METHODS OF ATTITUDE CHANGE MANIPULATING REWARD SYSTEM, CLEARLY DEFINING EMPLOYEES’ ROLE SO THAT THEY KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED FROM HIM, PROVIDING IMMEDIATE FEEDBACK TO EMPLOYEE, REFRANING FROM ATTACKING THE EMPLOYEES’ ATTITUDES, INSTEAD USING THE LISTENING SKILLS FOR UNDERSTANDING THEIR ATTITUDES. Slide 44: PERCEPTION What do You Understand by this Picture? : What do You Understand by this Picture? Meaning of Perception : Meaning of Perception Perception may be defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment in which he lives. SENSATION VS PERCEPTION : SENSATION VS PERCEPTION Sensation deals with the basic behavior of an individual, caused by his physiological functions. Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment in which he lives. SESENSATION vs PERCEPTION NSATION vs PERCEPTION : SESENSATION vs PERCEPTION NSATION vs PERCEPTION Slide 50: Factor in target 1- Sovelty 2- Motion 3- Sound 4- Size 5-Background 6-proximity 7-Similarity Factor in perceiver 1- Attitudes 2- Motives 3- interest 4- Experience 5-Expectation Factor in Situation 1- Time 2- Worksetting 3- Social setting Factors that influence perception PERCEPTION Concept It is the subjective process It is the cognitive process or psychological process It is an intellectual Process Factors Influencing Perception : Factors Influencing Perception The Perceiver The Target The Situation Slide 52: Sub processes of Perception External Environment Confrontation Consequences Behavior Feedback Interpretation Registration Sociocultural Environment Physical Environment Perceptual Selectivity : Perceptual Selectivity Though people are exposed to several stimuli , they tend to select only a few at a given point of time, this is perceptual selectivity. Factors Influencing Perceptual Selectivity : Factors Influencing Perceptual Selectivity External Attention Factors Intensity Size Contrast Repetition Motion Novelty and familiarity Internal Set Factors Learning and Perception Personality and Perception Motivation and Perception External Attention Factors : External Attention Factors Intensity According to the intensity principle of attention, the intensity of an external stimulus determines its probability of being perceived. Example: Light Colour Bright Colour : Size:A larger object is more likely to be noticed than a smaller object.Example: Which you can read fast? God is great God is great External Attention Factors Contd… Slide 57: Contrast: According to the principles of contrast, the stimuli that contradict most with the background or the expectations of people receive maximum attention. Example: Which white square is smaller? External Attention Factors Contd… Slide 58: Motion: People gives more attention to moving objects than the stationery objects. Example: Moving object Stationery object External Attention Factors Contd… Slide 59: Repetition The more number of times a stimulus is repeated, the more it is likely to be noticed Novelty and Familiarity: New objects in a familiar situation or familiar objects in a new situation draw the perceiver’s attention. External Attention Factors Contd… Slide 60: Internal Set Factors Learning and Perception: Learning by itself plays a major role in developing the perceptual set. Example: TURN OFF THE THE ENGINE Slide 61: Motivation and Perception: The primary motives: Hunger and Thirst The secondary motives: The need for power, The need for affiliation and The need for achievement Personality and Perception: Personality of a person influence perception Slide 62: Emphasizes on the subsequent activities that take place in the perceptual process after a stimulus is received. Perceptual Organization Forms of Perceptual Organization : Forms of Perceptual Organization Figure-ground Perceptual Grouping Closure Continuity Proximity Similarity Perceptual Constancy Perceptual Context Perceptual Defense Perceptual Organization : Perceptual Organization Figure-ground: In perceiving stimuli or phenomena, the tendency is to keep certain phenomena in focus and other phenomena in background. Perceptual Grouping : Perceptual Grouping An individual tends to group several stimuli together into a recognizable pattern. Various forms Closure Continuity Proximity Similarity Perceptual Constancy : Perceptual Constancy The perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness and location of an object remains constant and does not change from individual to individual. Example: Photograph Perceptual Context It provides meaning and value to objects, events, situation and other people in the environment. Slide 67: It refers to the screening of those elements which create conflict and threatening situation in people. Perceptual Defense Social Perception : Social Perception It is directly concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals; how we get to know others Attribution : Attribution Attribution refers to how people explain the cause of another’s or their own behavior. The determination depends on three factors: Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency Stereotyping : Stereotyping It is the tendency to perceive another person as belonging to a single class or category Halo effect The person is perceived on the basis of one trait or event. MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS OF PERECEPTION : MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS OF PERECEPTION Major areas which require special attention so for as the perceptual accuracy is concerned: Interpersonal working relationship. Selection of employee. Performance appraisal. Employees effort. DEVELOPING PERCEPTUAL SKILLS : DEVELOPING PERCEPTUAL SKILLS Following attempts can be made to have better perception: Perceiving oneself accurately. Enhancing self concept. Having positive attitudes. Being empathic. Communicating more openly. Avoiding common perceptual distortions. Impression Management : Impression Management It is referred to as “self presentation” It is the process by which people try to manage or control the perceptions formed by other people about themselves. Linkage Between Perception and Individual Decision-making : Linkage Between Perception and Individual Decision-making Perception has a crucial role in individual decision-making in organizations, by affecting both the decision as well as the quality of the decision. The decision taken by an individual is a complex process involving the intake of data, screening procession and interpreting and evaluating of data, based on the perceptions of the individual. : THE LATEST WORK ON PERCEPTION Slide 76: "Time tunnel show 2" Each circle appears to rotate. Slide 77: Each ring appears to rotate counterclockwise, as does the whole image. "Counterclockwise rotating beans" Each ring appears to rotate counterclockwise, as does the whole image. Slide 78: movingsnakesplastic Slide 79: "Hanshin and Hankyu"* *Both are the names of railway companies in the Western Japan (around Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe) The uppermost stripe and the third one appear to move rightward while the second and the lowermost leftward. Slide 81: "Rotating fakes" Each disk appears to rotate spontaneously. Copyright Akiyoshi .Kitaoka 2006 (May 1) "Rotating fakes" Each disk appears to rotate spontaneously Bibliography : Bibliography ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR – L.M.PRASAD ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR - STEPHEN P. ROBBINS & SEEMA SANGHI ESSENTIAL OF O.B.- T.N.CHABARA & P.L.TANEJA ORAGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR – FRED LUTHAN PRINCIPALES OF MANAGEMENT – RAJUL DUTT MANAGEMENT TEXT & CASES – VSP RAO & V.HARI KRISHANA GOOGLE SEARCH WE ARE VERY THANKFUL TO OUR RESPECTED DEAN SIR Prof. S. K. SRIVASTAVA FOR HIS GUIDANCE & MOTIVATION TO THIS PRESENTATION. : WE ARE VERY THANKFUL TO OUR RESPECTED DEAN SIR Prof. S. K. SRIVASTAVA FOR HIS GUIDANCE & MOTIVATION TO THIS PRESENTATION. 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