STRESS IN CORPORATE MANAGEMENT- INDIAN PERSPECTIVE : STRESS IN CORPORATE MANAGEMENT- INDIAN PERSPECTIVE C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY, KANPUR SUBMITTED BY:
SANTOSH KUMAR CHAURASIA
ANUJ BANUDHIA STRESS : STRESS 1 Stress is a conscious or unconscious psychological feeling or physical situation which comes after as a result of physical or/and mental positive or negative pressure to overwhelm adaptive capacities. We can even regard stress as wear and tear on the body in response to stressful agents. These agents stressors could be physical, physiological, psychological or socio cultural.
Thus, stress is not an anxiety disorder and it is normative concept. CONCEPT OF STRESS ON NON LIVING : CONCEPT OF STRESS ON NON LIVING (a) Stress is basically effect of one object on another. It
may be on living or non-living object.
(b) In connection with non living object stress on
another object is expressed by three terms
pressure, strain and stress.
(i) Pressure is load per unit area or stress per Unit
(ii) Strain is the physical change in the object when
load is applied
(iii) Stress is the impact of one object on another
physically. CONCEPT OF STRESS ON LIVING BEING : CONCEPT OF STRESS ON LIVING BEING 3 In connection with living objects specially human beings it is used in physical science, medical science and social science.
(a) In physical science stress can be perceived as in
non living objects
(b) In medical science, the term stress is the body’s
general response to environmental environment
(c) In social science, stress is a condition, arising from
interaction of two or more persons and
characterized by changes within the persons that
force them to deviate from their normal functioning. OVERVIEW OF STRESS : OVERVIEW OF STRESS 4 Stress is a conscious or unconscious psychological feeling or physical situation which comes after as a result of physical or/and mental positive or negative pressure to overwhelm adaptive capacities.
5. In other words, stress is a psychological process initiated by events that threaten, harm or challenge an organism which exceeds available coping resources, and it is characterizes by psychological responses that are directed towards adaptation. Slide 6: 6. We can even regard stress as wear and tear on the body in response to stressful agents. Such stressors could be physical, physiological, psychological or socio cultural.
Thus, stress is not an anxiety disorder and it is normative concept. OVERVIEW OF STRESS : OVERVIEW OF STRESS 7. (a) It may not be dyfunctional i.e. it may be self
stimulated i.e. Eu-stress, examples
Stress for creative work
(b) It can be temporary or long term, severe or mild
depending upon duration and type of cause. Slide 8: (c) It may be result of stimuli of any form. Examples:-
(i) Interpersonal interaction
(ii) Event etc.
(d) Stimuli produces following kinds of deviations in the
(e) It is more comprehensive than anxiety. Anxiety
operates only in emotional and psychological sphere. CAUSES OF STRESS : CAUSES OF STRESS 8. Listing the causes of stress is tricky. There can be innumerable stress factors, since different individuals react differently to the same stress conditions. Extreme stress situations for an individual may prove to be mild for another, for yet another person the situations might not qualify as stress symptoms at all, stress is often termed as a twentieth century syndrome, born out of man’s race towards modern progress and its ensuing complexities. Slide 10: 10 ATTITUDE
It is said that life acts and you react. Our attitude is our reaction to what life hands out to us. A significant amount of stress symptoms can be avoided or aroused by the way we relate to stressors. Stress is created by what we think rather than what has actually happened. For instance, handling adopted children, adolescents, academic failure, retirement or sudden loss of money needs a relaxed attitude, focused will and preparedness to face the quirks of life positively. Otherwise one tends to feel stressed and reacts in anger and frustration. Slide 11: LIFE’S SITUATIONS
Major life events such as divorce, death, mid life crisis, financial worries, persistent strain of caring of a chronically sick child, nagging health problems, or managing a physically or mentally challenged family member can act as a potential stressors. One just can’t wish away situations. Even conditions such as prolonged unemployment or sudden lay off from a job can leave a person under tremendous stresses. One just cant walk away from situations. Moreover one has to live through these situations, in the right spirit, to make living a worthwhile experience. Slide 12: 13. Stress also comes from our social and personal context and from our psychological and emotional reactions to such conditioning.
14. Children and women subjected to mental or physical abuses are known to suffer from the tremendous, constant anxiety and burnout.
15.Though anger, fear and other negative emotional reactions are natural and necessary, we need to channel them constructively to create a balanced state in our body and mind.
while no parental issue guarantees that the same issue will be duplicated in their children, parental stress certainly places the children at a great risk of becoming stressed as well. Besides being at higher genetic risk Slide 13: for stress, children of stressed parents can also learn the tendency to get stressed out in reaction to life’s challenges from their parents”.
Doctors at Mayo clinic, USA opinioned that situations that create stress are as unique as you are.
A research article published in the British medical journal, suggests “The psychological condition of the mother may affect fetal development”.
It’s identified that specific genes three endorphin groups, which constitute our stress hormones
20. Children of stressed out parents are more likely to be ill equipped to handle stressors positively AREAS OF STRESS : AREAS OF STRESS 21 .Possible areas where we can be under stress our life
(c) Home, family, children, relatives
(d) Society and friends
(e) Leisure and sports EFFECTS OF STRESS : EFFECTS OF STRESS 22. Stress can have positive as well as negative
impact on performance of any individual
The stress which causes positive effects is
Negative effects is called distress. Slide 17: (c).ILO REPORT 2004 ON STRESS
As per director general, ILO, Juan Somavia more workers died due to work stressors than the wars. Examples:-
6000 workers a day i.e. one every 15seconds suffers from work related illness due to stressors.
(ii) Behind 2.2 million work related fatalities and 60 million illnesses annually basic cause is stress which leads to illness or accidents. CAUSES OF STRESS i.e. STRESSORS : CAUSES OF STRESS i.e. STRESSORS STRESSORS RELATED TO WORK : STRESSORS RELATED TO WORK OCCUPATIONAL DEMANDS
(a) Making decisions
(b) Constant monitoring
(c) Unstructured tasks
(d) Repeated exchanges of informationi.e. meetings,
(e) Unpleasant physical conditions
(f) New technology Slide 20: COMPETING DEMANDS
That is role juggling between family attention and job attention.Example, most common is working mothers
ROLE AMBIGUITY AND ROLE CONFLICT
(a) Role ambiguity: if work activities are ill defined then the person who is carrying out these activities will not behave as others because role is not clearly defined
(b) Role conflict: where two or more persons have different and sometimes opposing expectations of a given individual
OVERLOADS AND UNDERLOADS: Quantitative overload Qualitative overload- due to lack of required skills or abilities to perform a job. Slide 21: Quantitative under load leads to boredom.
Qualitative under load dulls the mental simulation. 28. RESPONSIBILITY FOR OTHERS:
Managers, who are responsible to motivate other
people, reward/punish them. Such commitments
producers higher level stress.
LACK OF SOCIAL SUPPORT
When individuals believe that they have friendship
and support of others at work their ability to resist
adverse effects seems to increase
LACK OF PARTICIPATION
When employees are invited to participate in
decision making process n their areas of concern,
then the employees perceive to have more control
over their own environment thus reducing the stress. STRESSORS NOT RELATED TO WORK : STRESSORS NOT RELATED TO WORK 31. MAJOR STRESSFUL EVENTS
(a) Death of spouse
(c) Marital separation
(d) Death of close family member
(e) Personal injury or illness
(g) Fired from a job
(i) Death of close friend
(j) Son or daughter leaving home Slide 23: (k) Trouble with in laws
(l) Trouble with boss
(n) Change in residence
HASSELS OF DAILY LIFE
(a)HOUSE HOLD HASELS- shopping, preparing Meals
(b)TIME PRESSURE HASSELS- too many things to do,
too many responsibilities
(c) INNER HASSELS-being lonely, fear of confrontation
Neighborhood deterioration noise
(e) FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY- concern about
owing money STRESSORS-AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE : STRESSORS-AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE The cause of stress is not activity but the attitude
with which we approach the work
(a)Action performed out of attachment causes stress. Such actions spring from selfishness and breed further selfish action actions.
(b)Stress is caused if sufficient room is not given for the mind to expand.
(c)Stress is caused by taking one’s pleasures easily A mind pulsating with unfulfilled desire causesstress.
(d)Attitude of doer is another factor causing stress. EFFECTS OF STRESSORS –AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE : EFFECTS OF STRESSORS –AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE 34.Before we start this topic, it becomes necessary to
discuss theANATOMY OF HUMAN CONCIOUSNESS.
(a) It has always been regarded that human personality
comprises of spark of life called ATMAN. It has five
layers which ore concentric and act as protectors of
(b) Deeper layer is called as layer of BLISS
(c) Surface layer is divided into four sub categories.
Food sheath ANATOMY OF HUMAN CONCIOUSNESS : ANATOMY OF HUMAN CONCIOUSNESS (a). FOOD SHEATH
(b). AIR SHEATH
(c). MENTAL SHEATH
(d). INTELLECTUAL SHEATH
(e). BLISS SHEATH Slide 27: Bliss sheath Or anandmaya kosa atman Intellectual sheath Or vigyanamaya kosa Mental sheath Or manomaya kosa 0r pranamaya kosa Air sheath Food sheath Or annamaya kosa Bliss sheath Or anandmaya kosa ATMAN Intellectual sheath Or vigyanamaya kosa Mental sheath Or manomaya kosa 0r pranamaya kosa Air sheath Food sheath Or annamaya kosa NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF STRESS ON HEALTH : NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF STRESS ON HEALTH 35 Physical Problems:- High level of blood pressure, high
level of cholesterol, ulcer, arthritis etc. these have a
drastic effect on the individuals, families and
36 Psychological Problems:- Anger, anxiety, depression,
nervousness, irritability, tension, boredom depending
upon nature of stress and capacity of individual to bear
stress Slide 29: 37 Behavioral Problems:- Alcoholism, more smoking,
drug taking etc. are the effects usually associated with
stress. People under stress may gain weight and thus
behave differently HOW DOES STESS AFFECTS HEALTH : HOW DOES STESS AFFECTS HEALTH 38. Stress can be positive, keeping us alert and ready to avoid danger. Stress becomes negative when a person faces continuous challenges without relief or relaxation between challenges. As a result, the person becomes oven worked and stress related tension builds.
39. Stress also becomes harmful when people use alcohol, tobacco or drugs to try to relieve their stress Consider the following
(a) Forty three percent of all adults suffer adverse health
effects from stress. Slide 31: (b) Seventy five to 90% of all doctor’s office visit are for
stress related ailments and complaints.
(c) Stress can play a part in problems such as headaches,
high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes, skin
conditions, asthma or arthritis in addition to depression
(d) The occupational safety and health administration
declared stress a hazard of the workplace. Stress
costs American industry more than $300 billion
(e) The lifetime prevalence of an emotional disorder is
more than 50%, often due to chronic, untreated stress
reactions. SURVEY REPORT ON STATUS OF STRESS IN PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKING : SURVEY REPORT ON STATUS OF STRESS IN PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKING 39. (a) in June 2002, summer training project was
undertaken by an IBM student to ascertain the
status of stress in HAL KANPUR.
(b) A survey was conducted on 100 employees of
different departments . Each employee was given 25
questions, 14 related to personal characteristic
related stress. STRESS MANAGEMENT : STRESS MANAGEMENT 40. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT OF STRESS
(a) One should try to have a taste for literature, games, and movies, so that one can help his mind in stress reduction.
(b) One should try to balance his emotional life with his work life. If in imbalance occurs stress increases. 41. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT- INDIAN PERSPECTIVE : 41. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT- INDIAN PERSPECTIVE (a) Friends and relatives play a very vital role in
reduction of stress.
(b)Life is full of success and failures so one should
adjust all his goals as per his or her capabilities.
(c)Meditation i.e. silently repeating a mantra over and
over again results in mental and physical relaxation.
(d)During last couple of years, YOGA has evolves as a
stress reduction strategy. “YOGA” word comes from
the word “YUJ” meaning join. Slide 35: 42. ORGANISATIONAL MANAGEMENT
(a) The organization attempts to remove existing or potential stressors to prevent their employees to suffer from stress.
(b)Designing an individual’s job profile in such a manner that the maximum potential of employees comes out without causing him stress
(c)They hire such an individual whose skills, personality and work skills matches with his job requirements
(d)Nowadays, organizations maintain physical fitness centers such as swimming pools and even provide psychological counseling to cater needs of their employees. Slide 36: 43. SOCIAL MANAGEMENT
(a) ECONOMIC CONDITIONS- one should look at his
economic status not from comparison points of
view, but Contentment point of view
(b) CULTURAL- making sure by society that people
have cultural diversions at affordable cost .
(c) ENVIRONMENTAL- every one cannot and need
not be at same level of achievement & subjective
level of satisfaction derives by a person should be
adjusted. FACTORS AFFECTING STRESS LEVEL : FACTORS AFFECTING STRESS LEVEL 44. (a) OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM
Studies indicate that,optimistic persons are much less likely to report physical illness and symptoms of illness during highly stressful period.Pessimists give up their efforts to reach goals withwhich stress is interfering.
It distinguishes stress resistant people from those who are more susceptible to its harmful effects. Hardiness has three ingredients.
(i) COMMITMENT- hardy people show higher level of commitment, deeper involvement in their jobs and other life activities. Slide 38: (ii) CONTROL- hardy people have got belief that they can influence events in their lives.
(iii) CHALLENGE- they perceive change as a challenge
and an opportunity to grow rather than as a threat to
Some people are highly competitive and hard driving, respond more strongly then others in various situations of stress
(c)TENSION DISCHARGE RATE
Some people take the tension in their stride, and leave the tension behind in office when they leave for home. In contrast other people take the tensions to home as a baggage. THE 5 R’s OF STRESS MANAGEMENT : THE 5 R’s OF STRESS MANAGEMENT (a) Recognition of the causes and sources of the threat or
distress; education and consciousness training.
(b) Relationships identified for support, help, and reassurance
(c) Removal from the threat or stressor; managing the
(d) Relaxation through techniques such as meditation,
massage, breathing exercises or imagery.
(e) Re-engagement through managed re-exposure and
Desensitization. SUMMARY : SUMMARY THANK FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION : THANK FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION