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Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Functions of Cell - Production of Bio-Energy - Storage - Multiplication - Specific function according to locationSystems : Systems Muscular System Skeletal System Digestive System Respiratory System Circulatory System Excretory System Reproductive System (Male & Female) Nervous System Endocrine SystemHuman Anatomy& Physiology: Human Anatomy& Physiology Muscular SystemTypes of Muscle Fibre: Types of Muscle Fibre White Muscle Fibre Predominantly takes part in fast action Requires more Oxygen Heart & Lungs have to work more Red Muscle Fibre Predominantly takes part in Slow action Requires less Oxygen Heart & Lungs have to work less Presence of Myoglobin Types of Muscles : Types of Muscles Striped Muscle (Voluntary Muscle, Skeletal Muscle) Movement controlled by will Attached to bones, ligaments, cartilage & skin Unstriped Muscle (Involuntary Muscle, Smooth Muscle) Movements cannot be controlled by will Glands, Blood Vessels, Organs & Tubular structures are made of unstriped muscle Cardiac Muscle Involuntary Control Interconnected fibres (forming a web)Properties of Muscles : Properties of Muscles Contraction & Relaxation Elasticity Muscle tone Fatigue Work of Muscle depends on Speed of contraction and relaxation Co-ordination of joints and muscleType of Work: Type of Work Isotonic Tone remains constant Length changes Requires more Oxygen Taking initial state requires more time Isometric Length remains constant Tone changes Requires less Oxygen Taking initial state requires less timeHuman Anatomy & Physiology: Human Anatomy & Physiology Skeletal SystemOssification: Ossification A process of bone formation by depositing salts of calcium, magnesium and phosphorous Membrane Cartilage BoneComposition of Bone: Composition of Bone 70% calcium, magnesium & phosphorus salts (Inorganic matter) 30% Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates (Organic matter) Children Less amount of inorganic matter Old Age Less amount of organic matterCavity in bone: Cavity in bone Cavity in bone: Red bone marrow produces RBC Yellow bone marrow is deposits of fatsJoints: Joints Joints Bony ends covered with hyaline cartilage Ligaments bind the bone together Joint cavity enclosed by a capsule-synovial membrane Cavity contains lubricant fluid-synovial fluidTypes of Joints: Types of JointsTypes of Mobile joints: Types of Mobile joints Ball & Socket joint Hinge joint Sliding joint Pivot jointSkull: SkullFunctions of Skeletal System: Functions of Skeletal System Supports the body Protects the vital organs Helps to produce red blood cells Acts as levers in locomotion Provides surface for muscle attachment Storage of salts and mineralsHuman Anatomy & Physiology: Human Anatomy & Physiology Digestive SystemDigestion is chemical and mechanical process on the ingested food to prepare it for assimilation by the body.: Digestion is chemical and mechanical process on the ingested food to prepare it for assimilation by the body. Function of Digestive System Ingestion Chewing Swallowing Digestion Absorption Excretion of undigested foodPowerPoint Presentation: Organs of Digestive System Mouth Pharynx (Throat) Oesophagus (Food tube) Stomach Small intestine Large intestine RectumLayers of Digestive System: Layers of Digestive System Inner Epithelial layer Secretion of enzyme and mucus Soft and pink in colour Middle Muscular layer Outer layer (Longitudinal muscles) Inner layer (Circular muscle) Peristalsis (Segmental contraction) Outer Serous layer Protective function DiagramPowerPoint Presentation: Mouth Beginning of Digestive system Lips, teeth, gums, tongue. Palate (soft and hard), tonsils Opening of Salivary glands Teeth Total 32 in adults Tongue Functions Helps in mastication Mixing all saliva with food Swallowing Sensation of taste SpeechPowerPoint Presentation: Salivary glands 3 pairs Parotid in front of ear Submandibular below lower jaw Sublingual below tongue Saliva Secretion of salivary glands Secreted with ingestion, memory, smell of food Ptylin converts starch into sugar Pharynx (Throat) Posterior of nose, mouth & larynx Musculo membranous tubePowerPoint Presentation: Swallowing Voluntary and Involuntary stages Voluntary Bolus formation By movement of tongue and cheeks Bolus pushed into pharynx Involuntary Soft palate raised up & closes nasal passage Glottis contracts and closes Larynx lifted upwards and forwards Food passes to Oesophagus Breathing ceases during this stepPowerPoint Presentation: Stomach Dilated part of Digestive system Lies in upper abdomen below diaphragm Slightly left to midline Upper opening connected to Oesophagus Lower opening connected to Duodenum Both remain closed during gastric digestion J shaped in standing position Elastic muscular bag with capacity of 2 liters 3 muscular layer- vertical, circular, obliquePowerPoint Presentation: Functions of the Stomach Storage of food for 3 hours Partial digestion of proteins and fats Semi digested food from stomach enters the Duodenum Oesophagus 25cm long muscular tube From pharynx to stomach Behind trachea and in front of vertebral column Major part passes to Thorax Food passes to stomach by active muscular action Solid food reaches stomach in 7 to 8 seconds Liquids reaches stomach in 2 to 3 secondsPowerPoint Presentation: Small intestine 6 to 7 meter long, 2.5cm diameter Lies in center of abdomen Divided into 3 parts First part – Duodenum Second part – Jejunum Third part – ileum Alkaline Secretions Protects from acid contents of stomach Small intestine Mucosa Deeply folded to increase the surface area Helps in absorption of food.PowerPoint Presentation: Large intestine 1.5meter long, 5 to 6cm diameter Divided into 3 parts Right ascending colon Transverse colon Left descending colon Sigmoid Colon & Rectum Temporary storage of faeces Anus is guarded by external & internal sphinctersLiver: Liver Functions Synthesis of bile Formation of urea Detoxification of drugs Destruction of RBC Storage of excess glucose in form of glycogen Storage of Vitamin A & D Storage of Hemoglobin Manufacturing of blood proteins, albumin & globulin Manufacturing of prothrombin & fibrinogenPowerPoint Presentation: Gall bladder Stores the liver bile (60ml) Pancreas Located in upper abdomen behind the stomach Right part in the C of Duodenum Extends to the left up to the spleen Manufactures digestive enzymes Manufactures insulinHuman Anatomy & Physiology: Human Anatomy & Physiology Respiratory SystemImportance of Respiratory System: Importance of Respiratory System Sign of Life The most Vital function Respiration is INDEPENDENT but can be controlled to some extent (pranayama)PowerPoint Presentation: Functions Supply of Oxygen To remove CO 2 and water vapour Purification of blood Protective function- coughing, sneezing Talking Organs of Respiration Nose Throat Larynx Trachea with its branching system lungs (diagram of Respiratory System)PowerPoint Presentation: Nose Two nasal cavities separated by nasal septum The Nasal Septum is made up of cartilage & bone Function Warming of Air Filtration of Air To keep nasal passage moist Sensation of smellPowerPoint Presentation: Throat & Larynx Throat (seven passages) Larynx Oesophagus Mouth Left Eustachian tube Right Eustachian tube Left nostril Right nostrilPowerPoint Presentation: Trachea Made up of cartilage and muscles Two main branches- Left and Right bronchus Branching and sub branching ending in alveoliPowerPoint Presentation: Inspiration Active process – by muscular action Contraction of diaphragm Increase in vertical diameter Contraction of intercostals muscles Elevation of ribs and sternum Increase in antero-posterior and transverse diameter Expansion of lungs due to negative pressure Air drawn inwards Expiration Passive process Elastic recoil of the lungs due to Relaxation of diaphragm and inter costal muscle. Positive pressure created in lungs Control of Respiration Control of Inspiration and Expiration by medulla oblongataPowerPoint Presentation: Lung Volumes Tidal capacity : 500c.c. Dead space : 150c.c. Vital capacity : 4500c.c. Total lung capacity : 6000c.c. Residual volume : 1350c.c. Expiratory reserve : 1500c.c. Inspiratory capacity : 3000c.c.PowerPoint Presentation: Analysis of gases in respiration O 2 N 2 CO 2 Inspired air 21% 79% - Exhaled air 16% 79% 5% Effects of Pranayama More oxygenation of blood Improvement in function of all organs Life span increases because of more supply of oxygenHuman Anatomy & Physiology: Human Anatomy & Physiology Circulatory SystemPowerPoint Presentation: Components of blood Total volume of blood – 5 to 6 liters Components Plasma 55-60 % Blood cells 40-45 % RBC WBC PlateletsPowerPoint Presentation: R.B.C. (Red blood cells) Colour of blood due to RBC 4 to 5 millions / c.c. Hemoglobin carry 90% Oxygen Dumbbell shaped cells with no nucleus W.B.C. (White blood cells) White colored 6000 to 9000 / c.c. Kills the bacteria (protective role) No specific shape, with central nucleusPowerPoint Presentation: Platelets 1,00,000 to 2,00,000 / c.c. Helps in clotting of blood (Enzyme Thrombokinase) Circular shape Plasma 90 to 92 % water 8 to 10 % dissolved organic & inorganic matter (proteins, glucose, salts & hormones) Presence of antibodiesPowerPoint Presentation: Functions of Blood To carry Oxygen from lungs to cells and to carry CO 2 from cells to lungs To carry nutrients from Digestive system to cells To carry excretory products (waste material) from cells to excretory organs To carry hormones To maintain water balance in the body To maintain body temperature To protect the body from infections Clotting the blood after injuryDifference between Arteries & Veins: Difference between Arteries & Veins Arteries Carry blood from heart to other organs Carry oxygenated blood Have thick walls Do not have valves Veins Carry blood from other organs to heart Carry de-oxygenated blood Have thin walls Presence of valvesPowerPoint Presentation: Heart Situated in the rib cage of chest on the left side Embedded in lungs Size of heart is equal to the size of clenched fist Connected with many big (giant )blood vessels Made up of involuntary muscle Heart starts beating from 4 th month of IU life. Duration of one heart beat is 0.8sec.PowerPoint Presentation: 4 Chambers of Heart Auricles to receive blood Ventricles to pump blood Left side oxygenated blood Right side deoxygenated bloodPowerPoint Presentation: Circulation of Blood Continuous circulation Force of circulation due to pumping action of heart From left ventricle Aorta Branches & Sub branches Artery Small artery Arteriole Capillaries CELLS Venouls Small veins union of many veins Superior & Inferior venacava Right auricle Right ventricle Pulmonary artery Lungs (oxygenation) Pulmonary veins Left auricle Left ventriclePowerPoint Presentation: Spleen Situated in abdominal cavity Left hypochondriac region, below the ribs Weight 100gm Function of Spleen Production of blood cells Storage of blood Destruction of platelets To transport hemoglobin to liver Seat of some antibodies Extracts bacteria and dead cells from blood.Human Anatomy & Physiology: Human Anatomy & Physiology Excretory SystemPowerPoint Presentation: Excretion The process of expulsion of waste products & toxins out of the body Excretory organs Urinary system Skin Large intestine Lung Organs of Urinary system Two kidneys Two ureters Urinary bladder UrethraPowerPoint Presentation: Kidney Located at the backside of abdominal cavity, on either side of vertebral column Bean shape Size- length 13cm, breadth 6cm,thichness 3cm Weight- 150gmPowerPoint Presentation: Functions of kidney Expulsion of waste products and toxins Maintenance of water level in body To maintain reaction of blood Expulsion of toxic medicine To maintain balance of salts and minerals Functional unit of kidney – Nephron 10,00,000 in each kidney Ureters Starts from hilum up to urinary bladder 25cms long, 4mm wide Carries urine to urinary bladder by peristalsisPowerPoint Presentation: Urinary bladder Muscular bag In the pelvis anterior to rectum in case of male In the pelvis anterior to uterus in case of female Collection of urine Sphincter of bladder voluntary control 300 to 900 ml storage capacity After 1000 ml voluntary control is lost Urethra Male urethra passes through penis, length 25cm Female urethra opens anterior to vagina, length 2.5 cmPowerPoint Presentation: Daily filtration Actual excretion Water 180 liter 1.5 liter Salts 700 gm 15 gm Glucose 170 gm 0 Urea 50 gm 30 gm Contents of urine Urine Daily output 1200 to 1500 ml 95 % water, 5 % salts & organic matter Urea, uric acid, salts of potassium, magnesium and calciumPowerPoint Presentation: Functions of skin Protection from injury Sensation of touch Regulation of body temperature Absorption of oil, ointments Excretion Regulation of water balance Production of Vitamin D To keep the skin & hair smooth, silky & shinHuman Anatomy & Physiology: Human Anatomy & Physiology Reproductive SystemHuman Anatomy & Physiology: Human Anatomy & Physiology Nervous SystemPowerPoint Presentation: Nervous System Central Nervous Peripheral Nervous System System Brain Spinal CordPowerPoint Presentation: Nervous system Central processing unit of body. Controls and balance of body functions. Divisions Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Components Nerve cell Sensory nerve Brain Motor nerve End organPowerPoint Presentation: Functions of Nervous system Control over voluntary and involuntary functions / actions. To control body movements, respiration, circulation, digestion, hormone secretion, body temperature To receive stimuli from sense organs, perceive them and respond accordingly Higher mental functions like memory, receptivity, perception & thinking.PowerPoint Presentation: Parts of CNS Cerebrum Cerebellum Mid brain Pones Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Brain stemPowerPoint Presentation: Brain Protected by skull Three coverings of brain called meninges Dura Arachnoid Pia matter Cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) between the Pia meter and Arachnoid CSF acts as a shock absorber and provides nutrition to the brainPowerPoint Presentation: Pons Pituitary gland Hypothalamus Cerebrum Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Cerebellum Pineal gland ThalamusPowerPoint Presentation: Cerebrum Biggest part of brain, divided into two hemispheres Contra lateral control Outer surface is grey due to cells Internally white due to fibers Surface is folded to increase the area Functions of cerebrum Intellect, memory, will power, imagination, emotion & other psychological functions Receive and perceive the stimuli To give command for reaction with the help of past experience To control over other parts of nervous systemPowerPoint Presentation: Cerebellum Situated below and behind the cerebrum Functions of cerebellum Controls tone muscles Helps coordination of body movements Helps balancing the body Mid brain Underneath the cerebrum and above pons Functions of mid brain To control involuntary functionsPowerPoint Presentation: Pons Below mid brain Functions of pons Control of consciousness Control level of concentration Medulla oblongata Lowest part of CNS just above the spinal cord Functions of Medulla oblongata Control of respiration Control of circulation Control of swallowing and vomitingOther Structures inside the Brain: Thalamus – receives messages from sensory receptors; relays information to proper regions of cerebrum Hypothalamus - Regulates hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, etc… Control of pituitary for endocrine function Other Structures inside the BrainPowerPoint Presentation: Spinal cord Located safely in spinal canal Length is 45cm, which extends up to first lumber vertebra 31 pairs of peripheral nerves starts from spinal cord Functions of spinal cord To propagate sensory stimuli from organs to the brain To carry commands from the brain towards the organs Reflex actionPowerPoint Presentation: Reflex action Protective function of the spinal cord Sensory organ Afferent nerve Sensory cell in posterior horn of spinal cord Connector nerve Motor cell in anterior horn of spinal cord Efferent nerve End organ of reactionPowerPoint Presentation: Autonomic nervous system (Involuntary nervous system) It has control over Digestion Respiration Circulation Hormone secretion Maintenance of body temperature Maintenance of water balance Peripheral nervous system 12 pairs of cranial nerves from brain (cranial nerves) 31 pairs of spinal nerves from spinal cord (spinal nerves)PowerPoint Presentation: Billons of nerve cells Billons of connections Maximum utilization of brain is 10% 90 % brain is in dormant state Yoga can activate 100% of brain You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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