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There are five species of the plasmodium parasite that can infect humans, these are : Plasmodium falciparum (Most Fatal) Plasmodium vivax (Mild Fatal) Plasmodium ovale (Mild Fatal) Plasmodium malariae (Mild Fatal) and Plasmodium knowlesi: causes malaria in macaques ( a type of monkey ) but can also infect humans. This group of human-pathogenic Plasmodium species is usually referred to as malaria parasites. Malaria proves fatal due to complications of cerebral malaria. Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) How Malaria spreads ? : How Malaria spreads ? Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Slide 5: Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Slide 6: Irrespective of a large range of synthetic anti malarial drugs, the world is facing problems in the complete eradication of Malaria. The reasons behind the failure are: Emergence of malarial parasites resistant to existing anti malarial drugs. Resistance of vector female anopheles mosquitoes to insecticides such as DDT. Avoidance of insecticides use because of toxicological & ecological considerations. Failure of scientists to develop a successful malaria vaccine till date. Now the Scientists and researchers are looking for Nature to find solution to this disease along with improvements in the existing synthetic and semi synthetic drugs in use. Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Slide 7: Advantages of herbal drugs : Minimum chances of toxicity to a particular drug molecule. A large number molecules of related chemical structures increases therapeutic efficacy. Less Side effects. Easy Availability and thus cheap cost. Use over History. Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Lets discuss some natural drugs having Anti-malarial action : Lets discuss some natural drugs having Anti-malarial action The drugs showing anti-malarial properties are enlisted below. Cinchona species Artemisia annua Azadirachta indica Caesalpinia crista Morinda lucida Picrasma nitida Quasinoids Brucea javanica Plumbago benesis Punica gratum Glycyrrhiza glabra Cassia occidental Cardiospermum halicacabum Euphorbia hirta Phyllantus niruri Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs : Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs CINCHONA Synonym:Jesuit’s bark,Peruvian bark Biological source : Cinchona calisaya,C.officinalis,C.succirubra. Family : Rubraceae Geographical source :India ,Bolivia , Peru Parts used : Barks Chemical constituents: Quinine,quinidine,cinchonine,cinchonidine. Mechanism of action : Cinchona alkaloids gets concentrated in the acidic vacuoles of the blood schizonts & causes pigment changes,inhibits polymerization of heme to hemozoin.Free heme or heme- quinine complex damages parasite membrane & kill it. Uses :Antimalarial action,cinchona tincture,etc. are also employed as bitter stomachics & antipyretic. Recent research: Infusions of quinine rather than intravenous injection eliminates the risk of sudden death. Quinine in microencapsulated form has been reported to give better bioavailability. Quinine Quinidine Cinchonidine Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs : Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs NEEM Synonym: Margosa Biological source : Azadirachta indica, Melica indica. Family : Meliaceae. Geographical source :India, Pakistan,Bangladesh,Malaysia. Parts used : Leaves,seed,flowers,fruits,bark and roots. Chemical constituents: Active constituents & uses : Leaves : Azadirachtin ,Meliantriol, Salanin . Seeds : Nimbin, Nimbidin,Azadirachtin . Flowers : Kaempferol,Myricitin. Fruits : Deacetyl azadirachtinol . Bark : Nimbin,nimbinin,nimbidin, margolone,margolone . Roots : Compounds with antibacterial & antifungal properties. Uses :Antimalarial action, anti bacterial and anti microbial, insecticidal properties.. Recent research: Recently ,it is found that it contains different chemicals which have insect repellant, insecticidal,antifeedant,nematicidal and anti malarial properties. Azadirachtin Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs : Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs ARTIMISIA Synonym: Wormwood,quinghao. Biological source : Artemisia annua. Family : Asteraceae. Geographical source : China,India (Kashmir). Parts used : Unexpanded flower heads. Chemical constituents: Artimisinin, artemether,artether,artemisinic acid. Mechanism of action : The endoperoxide bridge in its molecule appears to interact with heme in the parasite. Iron mediated cleavage of the bridge releases a highly reactive free radical species that binds to membrane proteins,causes lipid peroxidation,damages endoplasmic reticulum, inhibits protein synthesis & altemately lysis of parasite. Uses :Artemisinin shows antimalarial effects by its rapid blood schizonticidal activity. Recent research : Artemisia is the most potent drug for treating cerebral malaria. Artesunate & artemether have also been found to be highly effective. Artimisin Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs : Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs Amla Botanical Name : Phyllanthus embelica Linn. Family Name : Euphorbiaceae Common Name : Stone Breaker,Gale Of Wind, Carry Me Seed, Creole Senna,Amla. Part Used : Whole Plant Habitat : Common in central and southern india extending to srilanka. Uses : Phyllanthus blocks DNA polymerase, the enzyme needed for the hepatitis B virus to reproduce. It also prevent from jaundice,diabetes, dyspepsia, ulcers, sores, swellings, ophthalmia and chronic dysentery. . It is bitter, astringent, cold, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and useful in liver disorders, cough, asthma, jaundice, spleen disorders and strong anti bacterial and anti malarial. Chemical constituents : Rich source of Vit-C, pectin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, IAA, glucose and tannins. Vit-C Indole acetic acid Gallic acid Ellagic acid Pectin Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs : Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs PLUMBAGO BENESIS Biological source : Plumbago benesis. Family : Euphorbiaceae. Geographical source : South America. Parts used : Flowers. Chemical constituents: Plumbagin , 3,3’-plumbagin , 8,8’-plumbagin. Uses :Have in-vitro activities against P.falciparum & epimastigotes of T.cruzi & also show antileishmaniasis activity. Plumbagin Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs : Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs Cassia occidentalis L. Family – Fabaceae Habitat - Low alluvial ground, roadsides, railroads. Origin - Native to Central and South America. Common names :Bamanan, Haussa. It is sometimes called “coffee senna.” Parts used: Leaves. Chemical constituents: Alkaloids 0.13%, anthraquinones and a bianthraquinone,flavonoid glycosides matteucinol 7-rhamnoside (I) and jaceidin 7-rhamnoside (II) . Two new bis (tetrahydro) anthracene derivatives, occidentalol-1 (IIII, R1 = Me and R2 = H) and occidentalol-II (III, R1 = R2 = H) were isolated from the roots of C. occidentalis alongue with chrysophanol, emodin, pinselin, questin, germichrysone, methylgermitorosone and singueanol-I (I, R1 = R2 = Me). Uses : Cassia species have been used medicinally, and these tropical plants have a rich history in natural medicine as purgatives and laxatives. Recent research : The antimalarial activity of C. occidentalis crude extracts was confirmed. The plant showed more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml . Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs : Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs Brucea javanica (Linnaeus) Merrill Family – Simaroubaceae. Habitat - Open shrubby forests in foothills; below 100-1000 meters. Origin - India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka; Australia. Parts used: Whole plant. Chemical constituents: Bruceoside A Bruceoside B Bruceine D Bruceine E Yadanzioside A Yadanzioside G (20R)-O-(3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-pregn-5-ene-3β,20-diol and α-D-glucopyranoside, Uses :.Anti malarial. Recent research : Anti malarial activity has been proved and the plant is under investigation for other pharmacological properties. Bruceoside B Bruceoside A Bruceine Yadanzioside A Bruceine E Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs : Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs Pomegranate Seed Oil Botanical Name : Punica granatum Family Name : Puniacaceae Common Name : Pomegranate, Pom,anar Part Used : Pomegranate Seed Oil, Pomegranate Oil Habitat : Cultivated all over india. Uses : Oil possesses Antibacterial properties. Pomegranate is now well known for antioxidant properties.Researches are still going on to confirm the anti malarial properties. Chemical constituents : Pomegranate seeds yeild a drying oil which contains Pucinic acid forming upto 72% of the fatty acid. Pucinic acid is conjugated triene and geometrical isomer of elaostearic acid,punicalin and punicaligin. Punicalin Punicaligin Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs : Herbal Anti-Malarial Drugs Morinda lucida Benth Family – Rubiaceae. Origin - Native to South asia. Common names : Indian mulberry, nono, nonu, cheese fruit, Ba Ji Tian,noni fruit. Parts used: All parts of the noni plant can be used: roots, stems, bark, leaves, and flowers and of course the fruits. Chemical constituents: Octoanoic acid, Scopoletin, Damnacanthal, Terpenoids, Anthraquinones, Caproic acid, Ursolic acid, Rutin Uses : Noni has been reported to have a range of health benefits for colds, cancer, diabetes, asthma, hypertension, pain, skin infection, high blood pressure, mental depression, atherosclerosis and arthritis. The noni contain the antibacterial compounds in the fruits (acubin, L-asperuloside and alizarin) and roots (anthrauinones). Noni conatins scopoletin which inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli, which is responsible for intestinal infections, and Heliobacter pylori, which causes ulcers.Damnacanthal, which is found in the noni roots, inhibits the tyrosine kinase and gives noni antitumor activity. Damnacanthal Rutin Scopoletin Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Conclusion : Conclusion Certain aspects of the mechanisms of actions of these natural anti malarial drugs are still not fully understood even then a huge proportion of the world population is using these holistic medicines for their wellness. In the absence of vaccines, these compounds and their derivatives are crucial for the control of malaria. The complexity of the parasite mechanism coupled with progressive resistance to malarial drugs presents researchers with numerous difficulties in the development of both effective vaccines and more powerful pharmaceuticals. One of the biggest obstacles in the battle against malaria is poorly sanitized areas where the disease is most prevalent. In fact there are optimistic perspectives on the continuing investigation of plants used in traditional medicines for the treatment of malaria, and they will certainly lead the scientific community to the discovery of more new efficient molecular templates and phytomedicines for this disease. These drugs are affordable and accessible to those most in need. So lets start discovering nature more and more so that we will be able to fight with every existing mass disease problems and also be prepared for the future. Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) Thanks for Cooperation !! : Thanks for Cooperation !! Owner : Deepika Gupta (RIT) You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.