PRE-PROSTHETIC SURGERY

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PRE-PROSTHETIC SURGERY:

PRE-PROSTHETIC SURGERY Presented by- Dr.Rahul Ahirrao Junior resident-2 Dept. of prosthodontics

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION Prosthetics is the replacement of missing teeth (lost or congenitally absent) and contiguous oral and maxillofacial tissues, with artificial substitute. Now ,there remains significant number of patients, who can never be made to use dentures effectively, because of - - Bone atrophy - Soft tissue hypertrophy - or localized soft and hard tissue problems. In these patients pre-prosthetic surgery offers significant contribution by removing hindrance for prosthesis stability and retention.

Pre-prosthetic surgery:

Pre-prosthetic surgery Pre-prosthetic surgery is carried out to reform/redesign soft/hard tissues, by eliminating biological hindrances to receive comfortable and stable prosthesis. Preprosthetic surgery is defined as surgical procedures designed to facilitate fabrication of a prosthesis or to improve the prognosis of prosthodontic care. ( GPT 8 )

Aims of pre-prosthetic surgery:

Aims of pre-prosthetic surgery Provide adequate bony tissue support for the placement of RPD/CD/IMPLANTS. Provide adequate soft tissue support, optimal vestibular depth. Elimination of pre-existing bony deformities e.g. tori , prominent mylohyoid ridge, genial tubercle. Correction of maxillary and mandibular ridge relationship. Elimination of pre-existing soft tissue deformities, e.g. epulis , flabby ridges, hyperplastic tissues. Relocation of mental nerve. Etc.

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Preprosthetic surgery for Complete Denture

Pre-prosthetic surgical procedures:

Pre-prosthetic surgical procedures Can be classified as Basic procedures – can be carried out under local anesthesia on a day care basis. Advanced surgery procedures – require hospitalization and general anaesthesia. Procedures are carried out for the following – Alveolar ridge correction Alveolar ridge extension Alveolar ridge augmentation.

Alveolar ridge correction:

Alveolar ridge correction Bony surgeries – Alveolectomy Alveoloplasty Elimination of unfavourable undercuts - Reduction of genial tubercles - Reduction of mylohyoid ridge iv. Excision of tori v. Maxillary tuberosity reduction and exostosis removal. Soft tissue surgeries – Removal of redundant crestal soft tissues Frenectomy Excision of epulis fissurata Excision palatal papillary hyperplasia.

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BONY SURGERIES

Alveolectomy:

Alveolectomy Surgical removal or trimming of the alveolar process is termed as alveolectomy Procedure- - after extraction whenever there is presence of sharp margins at interdental , interseptal or labiobuccal alveolar crest, they should be trimmed with bone rounger or round bur and smoothened with bone file.

Alveoloplasty:

Alveoloplasty Alveoloplasty refers to surgical recontouring of the alveolar process. This procedure is is done with the purpose to take care of bony projections , sharp crestal bone or undercuts. Conservation is the key factor in this procedure. Types – Simple alveoloplasty Interseptal alveoloplasty – 1) Dean’s alveoloplasty 2) Obwegeser’s modification c) Post-extraction alveoloplasty

Simple alveoloplasty -:

Simple alveoloplasty - Procedure – After single sitting multiple extraction , buccal and lingual plates should be compressed with firm digital pressure. If any sharp spicules exists then it should be trimmed with bone rounger and smoothened with bone file.

Dean’s interseptal alveoloplasty -:

Dean’s interseptal alveoloplasty - Only done in maxillary anterior region to reduce gross maxillary overjet . Mostly done immediately after extraction of anterior teeth.

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Procedure- After anterior teeth extraction, intersepatal bone is cut with the bur from canine to canine region. With the same bur vertical cuts are made only in the labial cortex at distal end of the canine extraction socket bilaterally without perforation of labial mucosa. Now labial cortex is fractured with periosteal elevator and compressed into palatal direction in approximation with palatal plate. After removing any sharp margin , suturing is done.

Obwegeser’s modification of dean’s alveoloplasty:

Obwegeser’s modification of dean’s alveoloplasty In this both the labial and palatal cortices are repositioned . This is done when the anterior overjet is too gross that can not be reduced by labial plate repositioning.

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Procedure – Procedure is same as dean’s alveoloplasty but the only addition is that, here palatal plate is fractured too at its base and repositioned with labial plate in palatal direction.

Alveoloplasty after postextraction healing-:

Alveoloplasty after postextraction healing- This procedure is done in a region where extractions are done at different times. So in this case multiple areas will show sharp edges which are painfull to touch. Here crestal incision is taken and mucoperiosteal flap is elevated for trimming the sharp edges and subsequent suturing is done.

Elimination of unfavourable undercuts:

Elimination of unfavourable undercuts Unfavourable undercuts are developed due to severe atrophy of the mandible which hinders in proper denture construction. These undercuts are mostly present on lingual aspect of mandible like genial tubercle prominances , sharp mylohyoid ridge prominances . Most of the times, patient wearing old dentures comes with the complaint of ulceration or inflamation on these lingual prominences. So surgical reduction should be carried out to relieve these undercuts.

Reduction of genial tubercles:

Reduction of genial tubercles Procedure – In this procedure lingual flap is reflected in anterior region of mandible and genial tubercles are reduced with the bur. Then Genioglossus muscle is sutured below at geniohyoid tubercle and flap is closed.

Reduction of mylohyoid ridge:

Reduction of mylohyoid ridge Procedure – In this procedure, lingual flap is reflected only in molar region bilaterally and mylohyoid ridge reduction is done. Mylohyoid muscle is sutured below and flap is closed.

Excision of tori –Palatal torus:

Excision of tori –Palatal torus Palatal tori are usually present on the midline of the hard palate. Most palatal tori are less than 2 cm in diameter, but their size can change throughout life Research suggests that palatine torus is an autosomal dominant trait. Palatal tori interfere with denture retention. Small tori can be relieved during denture construction but large tori should be surgically removed.

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Procedure- In this , midline incision is given in palate and flap is reflected with Y-shaped releasing incisions. Torus is removed by making multiple cuts of it and flap is sutured. A palatal splint is given to prevent hematoma formation.

Excision of tori – mandibular torus:

Excision of tori – mandibular torus Mandibular tori are usually present in premolar region on lingual aspect. It is believed that mandibular tori are the result of local stresses and not solely because of genetic influences. They too interfere with denture retention because of the loss of marginal seal in premolar region.

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Procedure – In this procedure, lingual flap is reflected in premolar/torus region and torus is removed with the chisel/bur. Flap is sutured .

Maxillary tuberosity reduction and exostosis removal -:

Maxillary tuberosity reduction and exostosis removal - The main reason for tubercle overgrowth is extraction of opposing mandibular 3 rd molars and subsequent supraeruption of maxillary 3 rd molar, where remains as bony overgrowth after maxillary 3 rd molar extraction. Maxillary tubercle interfere with denture construction because it decreases inter-arch space.

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Procedure _ Crestal incision from tuberosity to pre-molar area should be given and hyperplastic soft tissue or bony overgrowth should be removed with the help of chisel, mallet or burs. After desired contour is achieved , the excess soft tissue is trimmed and flap is sutured followed by splint over it.

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SOFT-TISSUE SURGERIES

Redundant crestal soft tissue removal:

Redundant crestal soft tissue removal The presence of the fibrous, hyperplastic tissue gives rise to flabby ridge form. These flaby ridges results in unstable base for dentures. In maxilla – enlarged tuberosity In mandible – enlarged retromolar pad Surgical removal is done by perticular requirements of the the tissue growth.

Frenectomy :

Frenectomy Many times there is high frenum attached near to the crest of the ridge which may be too broad which interfere in getting proper peripheral seal in denture. Lingual frenum may be too short and attached till the tip of the tongue which interfere with normal tongue movements and causes speech problem to the patient , so surgical correction is advocated in these cases.

Labial frenectomy (maxillary)- :

Labial frenectomy (maxillary)- Procedure- Cross-diamond excision – i . This is done when there is lot of tissue is available. Here base of the frenum at the alveolar crest is grasped with haemostat and incision is taken above and below the haemostat. ii. The surgical defect is created by excision of fibrous band. The closure is done by interupted sutures and small defect at alveolar crest is left to granulate.

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Z- plasty - i . This procedure is used when the frenum is broad and the vestibule is short. V-Y incisions – i . These incisions are used for lengthening localized area. Semilunar incisions – i . Thses incisions are used for broad premolar and molar region freni .

Lingual frenectomy – :

Lingual frenectomy – Procedure – Here lingual frenum is reduced by giving cross-diamond incision. After incision submucosal dissection is done on either side and vertical suturing is given.

Excision of epulis fissuratum -:

Excision of epulis fissuratum - These are the benign, pedunculated lesions present as excessive or redundant tissue of the vestibule, frequently associated with over extended denture border. These lesions are removed by Sharpe excision, electro cauterization, cryosurgery or laser excision.

Excision of palatal papillary hyperplasia:

Excision of palatal papillary hyperplasia This happens because of chronic denture irritation, because of ill-fitting dentures. There can be superimposed Candida infection. Denture should be relieved in this region and antifungal agent should be applied. Supraperiosteal excision with a electrocautary can be done.

Alveolar ridge extension:

Alveolar ridge extension Whenever there is an inadequate vestibular depth present, (due to mandibular atrophy and high muscle or soft tissue attachment) so to increase retention and stability of denture, deepening of vestibule is considered. Sufficient amount of bone should be present (min 15mm bone height) for alveolar ridge extension/ vestibuloplasty procedure. This procedure can be done in both jaws.

Vestibuloplasty:

Vestibuloplasty Labial vestibuloplasty – For mandibular ridge - i . Kazanjian technique (1924). ii. Godwins’s modification (1947) iii. Clark’s technique iv. Obwegeser’s modification (1959) For maxillary ridge – i . Maxilllary pocket inlay vestibuloplasty For maxillary and mandibular ridge – i . Submucosal vestibuloplasty procedure Lingual vestibuloplasty – i . Trauner’s technique ii. Caldwell’s technique Labial and lingual vestibuloplasty – i . Obwegeser’s technique * Mental nerve transposition

Labial vestibuloplasty (mandibular ridge):

Labial vestibuloplasty ( mandibular ridge) Kazanjian technique – Mucosal flap from inner aspect of the lower lip is used to increase the vestibular depth in anterior mandibular labial vestibule (premolar to premolar region). Raw area is left on the lip side to be healed by secondary intentions. Periosteum of bone is left intact. Drawback – scaring of mucosa with subsequent decreased flexibilty of lower lip.

Godwin’s modification -:

Godwin’s modification - In this procedure, flap is reflected from the inner aspect of the lip till the alveolar crest and periosteum is reflected from crest of the ridge till the desired depth of the vestibule. This periosteum is now sutured to the lip mucosal margin and then lip flap is sutured at the required vestibular depth. Stent or splint is used for adaptation . Advantage – less scaring of the lip mucosa.

Clark’s technique -:

Clark’s technique - Here flap is reflected from alveolar crest till vermilian border of the lip. Supraperiosteal dissection is done till desired vestibular depth and edge of the mobilized flap is pushed into vestibular depth. This flap is held in position with sutures passed through the chin area extraoarally and tied around the rubber catheter. Here alveolar bone is covered by periosteum which heals quickly by granulation.

Obwegeser’s modification -:

Obwegeser’s modification - Proceduer – Here everything is same but the only modification is that the alveolar bone with periosteal attachment is covered with the split thickness skin graft or mucosal graft.

Labial vestibuloplasty (maxillary ridge) :

Labial vestibuloplasty (maxillary ridge) Maxillary pocket-inlay vestibuloplasty –. Here incision is made in the vestibule from molar to molar region and supraperiosteal dissection is carried out. Now a split thickness graft is placed on the extended flanges of prefabricated denture and this denture is positioned in extended vestibular depth which is fixed with circumzygomatic wiring. Wound margins are sutured to the graft. New denture will be constructed after 6 weeks.

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Advanteges – Better retention of the dentures. Helps to restore deficiency in the region of nasolabial fold with improved contour.

Labial vestibuloplasty (for maxillary and mandibular ridge):

Labial vestibuloplasty (for maxillary and mandibular ridge) Submucosal vestibuloplasty procedure - First described by MacIntosh and Obwegeser (1967). Indication – unstable denture because of shallow vestibular depth with good underlying bone height and contours. A mouth mirror is placed in the vestibule and elevated against the bone to the desired vestibular depth, if mobile tissue is present and no abnormal shortening of lip occurs then submucosal vestibuloplasty can be performed

PowerPoint Presentation:

Procedure – A vertical midline incision is made in labial vestibule and supra- periosteal tunnel is made from premolar(R) to premolar(L) area. In maxilla, further incisions may be given in first molar region for further advancement.. The intervening submucosal tissue is then excised or repositioned superiorly and maintained by placement of preformed dentures which can be fixed to the mandible with circummandibular wiring and to the maxilla by per alveolar wiring.

Lingual vestibuloplasty:

Lingual vestibuloplasty Trauner’s Technique – This procedure is used to increase the depth of floor of the mouth in mylohyoid region. Incision is given over lingual side of the alveolar ridge bilaterally in posterior region (2 nd molar region). Supraperiosteal dissection is done to identify mylohyoid muscle, which is separated from its attachment and sutured to the new desired vestibular depth. Skin graft is placed and sutured with the prefabricated stent over it.

Caldwell’s Technique -:

Caldwell’s Technique - Entire lingual mucoperiosteal flap is reflected from molar to molar region. Mylohyoid and genioglosus muscle attachments are dissected and sutured below to the desired depth of the vestibule. Rubber tubing is placed in the lingual vestibule and the flap is held in place at desired vestibular depth which is sutured with the sutures passing extraorally , at inferior border of the mandible.

Labial and lingual vestibuloplasty technique –:

Labial and lingual vestibuloplasty technique – Obwegeser’s Technique – Here incision is given on the alveolar ridge and mucosal flap is raised buccally and lingually . Mylohyoid muscle and only superficial fibres of genioglossus muscle attachments are separated on the lingual side. Edges of buccal and lingual flaps attached/sutured to each other , below inferior border of mandible. Skin graft is placed over entire alveolar ridge and prefabricated acrylic stents are fixed with circummandibular wiring.

Mental nerve transposition -:

Mental nerve transposition - Many times patient with severe atrophic ridge, complaints of pain after wearing complete denture. This is because that the position of mental nerve is superior because of severe mandibular atrophy so this is the reason for pain on compression.

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Procedure - Here the flap is reflected on buccal aspect in the mental nerve region. The nerve is held with the hook lightly and a bony groove is cut below mental foramen only in buccal cortex. Then nerve is positioned in that groove secured in place with gelfoam and flap is sutured.

Alveolar ridge augmentation:

Alveolar ridge augmentation This procedure is done when alveolar bone has been completely disappeared to the point where in maxilla a flat surface is present between vestibule and palate and in mandible mental nerve is positioned almost at the crest. Here alveolar bone height is less that 15 mm. So vestibuloplasty is out of consideartion in this case until the replacement of necessary supportive bone is done. So we have two options available with us : a) Augmentation of alveolar bone. b) Place the implant.

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Aims – Restoration of optimum ridge height, width, ridge form, vestibular depth and optimum denture bearing area. Protection of neurovascular bundle. Establishment of proper interarch realtionship Improvement of retention and stability of denture. Improve the patient comfort for wearing the denture.

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Materials used for ridge augmentation – Autogeneous bone graft – iliac crest, rib grafts. Allogenic bone grafts – freeze dried cadaver bone. Alloplastic material – hydroxyapatite . Metal mesh with autogenous cancellous bone. Metal mesh with hydroxyapatite .

Ridge augmentation procedure -:

Ridge augmentation procedure - Superior border augmentation Inferior border augmentation Interpositional or sandwich bone grafts Onlay grafting Visor osteotomy Modified visor osteotomy Augmentation in combination with orthognathic surgeries.

Mandibular augmentation -:

Mandibular augmentation - Superior border grafting – First described by Davis in 1970. Here two autogenous bone grafts of 15 cm each are used. One rib is scored to the cortex followed by giving shape of the mandible and attached at the superior border of the mandible by circummandibular wiring. The other rib graft is made into corticocancelous particles and moulded around the first rib graft. Surgical flap is then closed.

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Disadvantages – Donor site morbidity. Second surgical site is necessary. Continued resorption at the graft sites.

Mandibular augmentation -:

Mandibular augmentation - Inferior border grafting – This procedure is indicated when alveolar ridge height is less than 5 to 8mm and is at risk of pathological fracture. In this procedure, a cadever mandible used for grafting which is filled with cancellous graft material for revascularization. This mandible is then fixed to the inferior border with vicryl sutures, by circummandibular fixation and neck flap is closed. Osseointegrated implants can be placed after 4-6 months.

Inferior border grafting – :

Inferior border grafting – Advantages Does not obliterate the vestibule. Interim denture can be worn. No change in vertical dimension. Graft is not subjected to direct masticatory force.

Inferior border grafting – :

Inferior border grafting – Disadvantages It will not correct the abnormalities of denture bearing area. It will not protect a highly placed mental nerve. Donor site morbidity. Resorption of the graft. Presence of scar.

Interpositional bone graft (Sandwich grafting):

Interpositional bone graft (Sandwich grafting) In this procedure, a horizontal osteotomy is performed by spliting of the maxilla or mandible and bone is grafted in the gap. In mandible, this procedure is mainly used in anterior mandible. Prosthetic appliance is given after 3-5 months. Advanteges – Less resorption than onlay grafting. More predictable long term results. Decreased incidence of nerve paresthesia than the visor osteotomy . Can be used in conjuction with implants.

Onlay grafting -:

Onlay grafting - This procedure helps in increasing width of the ridge. Here graft material is placed on the buccal cortex either in putty form by mixing with saline/blood or in the form of blocks or split thickness rib/ illiac crest graft. Advantages – Improves width and to some extent height too. Can be used in anterior and posterior region.

Visor osteotomy:

Visor osteotomy was originated by Harle and modified by Peterson and Slade. It is used where insufficient vertical mandibular bone height is present for the horizontal osteotomy technique but adequate bone width (approximately 10mm) is present.

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The mandible is split vertically and the lingual section is elevated to increase the mandibular height. Cancellous bone or particulate bone and marrow is placed to correct the contours and fill in the gaps on the facial side of the elevated segment. Transosteal wires hold the segments in place for a period of 3-4 months before vestibuloplasties are performed. The disadvantage is unavoidable nerve trauma and the resultant parasthesia .

Modified visor osteotomy -:

Modified visor osteotomy - The procedures of choice for mandibular ridge augmentation include the combination of osteotomy techniques (horizontal or vertical) with interpositional bone grafting. These procedures involve the movement of a pedicle of bone (not technically a graft) along with its blood supply. Theoretically, the viability of the bone will be greater and the resorption decreased because the blood supply to the bone is maintained.

Procedure -:

Procedure - Vertical osteotomy cut is made in the posterior region to divide the segments buccolingually . A horizontal osteotomy is performed in the anterior mandible to divide the anterior segment superiorly and inferiorly, and bone grafting was done into the osteotomised gap. Two osteotomised segments are fixed with wires.

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Advantages i . Increased bone height which is relatively stable. ii. Shortened post-operative period (3 months). iii. Rate of resorption is less when compared to onlay grafts. Disadvantages Nerve trauma, parasthesia , mandibular fracture and flap dehiscence.

Augmentation in combination with orthognathic surgeries:

Augmentation in combination with orthognathic surgeries Many osteotomies have been performed for reconstruction of edentulous atrophied maxilla/mandible. Anterior maxillary osteotomy . Total Lefort I osteotomy can be used along interpositioning of the grafts.

Procedures :

Procedures Classic LeFort I Maxillary osteotomy with down fracture of the maxillae and the total alveolar maxillary osteotomy , which leaves the palate in place but allows downward movement of the alveolar ridge segments.

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Interpositional or inlay bone grafting with iliac crest bone used as blocks along with particulate bone and marrow is frequently used this in this procedure to fill gap.

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may be called composite or combination procedures because it combines the separate techniques of osteotomy and bone grafting. Such procedures will alter the relationship of the ridges as well as augment the ridge height and it must be used with caution only after careful preoperative evaluation.

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Vestibuloplasties are often required. A maxillary splint constructed on mounted diagnostic casts following cast surgery may be used to keep the graft and soft tissue adapted during healing, to prevent hematoma formation, and for fixation of maxillae during the healing period.

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This splint will help to engage the proper spatial repositioning after the maxillae are disarticulated from the cranial base. The splint is worn for a period of 6-8 weeks. Denture is not constructed before the graft has been allowed to heal and mature for approximately 3-4 months.

Problems encountered with augmention procedure -:

Problems encountered with augmention procedure - Inadequate soft tissue cover. Rejection of the autografts (failure of union with the host bone). Dehiscence of overlying mucosa. Migration of the graft material. Resorption of the graft.

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Preprosthetic mouth preparation before Removable Partial Denture

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The term mouth preparation includes all the procedures done to modify the existing oral conditions of the patient to facilitate proper placement and functioning of the prosthesis. Mouth preparation is divided into two parts – Preprosthetic mouth preparation. Prosthetic mouth preparation.

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Pre-prosthetic Mouth Preparation - It involves the preparation of the oral cavity to remove any hindrance to prosthetic treatment e.g. frenectomy , excision of tori etc. It is done along with diagnosis and treatment planning. Prosthetic mouth preparation – Prosthetic mouth preparation is done to facilitate prosthetic treatment e.g. preparing rest seats etc. It is done after partial denture design.

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Preprosthetic mouth preparation are carried out in the following orders – Relief of pain and infections. Oral surgical procedures. Conditioning of abused and irritated tissues. Periodontal therapy. Correction of occlusal plane. Orthodontic correction. Splinting weakened teeth.

Prosthetic Mouth Preparation -:

Prosthetic Mouth Preparation - In this, mouth preparation procedures are done after designing a removable partial denture prior to making the master impression. Prosthetic mouth preparations can be broadly classified into : Preparation of retentive undercuts. Preparation of guiding planes. Preparation of rest seats.

Retentive Undercuts: Preparation:

Retentive Undercuts: Preparation Retentive undercuts are required to engage the retentive arm of clasp and provide retention. Generally all teeth have convex surfaces with natural undercuts below the height of contour. Some teeth get abraded and have straight surface without any undercut. In such teeth artificial retentive undercuts are prepared to produce retention for the prosthesis. Four method’s are used to prepare retentive undercuts – Crowns. Cast restorations. Enameloplasty (Dimpling). Tilting the cast

Guide Plane : Preparation:

Guide Plane : Preparation They are prepared by grinding teeth ( enameloplasty ) or by appropriate shapping of wax pattern of abutment crown.

Rest Seat: Preparation:

Rest Seat: Preparation This prosedure is done before master impression. The location and extent is determined using a surveyor on a diagnostic cast.

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Preprosthetic surgery before Fixed partial denture

Crown lengthening procedure:

Crown lengthening procedure When there is excessive gingival exposure which is due to insufficient length of the clinical crowns, a crown lengthening procedure is indicated to reduce the amount of gingiva exposed, which in turn will favourably alter the shape and form of the anterior teeth. In the young adult with an intact periodontium the gingival margin normally resides about 1 mm coronal to the cemento -enamel junction. However, some patients may have a height of free gingiva that is greater than 1 mm, resulting in an improportional appearance. full exposure of the anatomical crown can be accomplished by a gingivecomy / gingivoplasty procedure .

Ridge Augmentation :

Ridge Augmentation If one or more teeth are extracted, you may get an indentation in the gums and jawbone where the tooth or teeth used to be. This happens because the bone surrounding a tooth resorbs away when it is no longer holding a tooth in place. This indentation is unattractive and causes the replacement tooth to look unnatural. Ridge augmentation is a procedure that fills in this bone defect with a grafting material, re-creating the natural contour of the bone and overlying gum tissue. Ridge augmentation may also be necessary prior to placing dental implants.

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Preprosthetic surgeries before Implant placement

Sinus lift procedure:

Sinus lift procedure It was first described by totum in 1986. It is mainly used to assist with the placement of osseointegrated implants in the posterior maxilla. Due to pneumatization of the maxillary sinus and atrophy of the ridge , the sinus floor is lowered almost to the crest of the ridge in posterior region. In order to improve implant support, sinus lift/sinus grafting procedure is done.

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Procedure – Intraoral incision is made on maxillary crest with the vertical relising incisions from canine to tuberosity area. Anterolateral wall of maxilla is exposed by reflecting flap and bony window is made with the trap door type osteaotomy procedure. Now this trap door window is slightly lifted up to expose schneiderian membrane which is lifted gently from the sinus floor and walls. The gap between the sinus membrane and floor is filled with graft material. For one stage implant, a corticocancelous iliac crest bone block can be used otherwise waiting period of 6-9 months is advocated before implant placement.

References:

References BOUCHER , S – prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patients 11 th edition . CHARLES HEARTWELL & ARTHUR O RAHN – Sylabuss of complete dentures 4 th edition. JOHN J SHARRY- Complete denture prosthodontics 2 nd edition. SHELDON WINKLER- Essentials of complete dentures 2 nd edition

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5. ZARB, BOLENDER – Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patients 12 th edition. 6. Neelima anil malik – text book of oral and maxillofacial surgery 7. S M Bhalaji – text book of oral and maxillofacial surgery 8. Color atlas of pre-prosthetic surgery

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Judson and Ross. Preparation of the mouth for complete dentures. J Pros. Dent 1964;14:611. Ellsworth. The prosthodontist , the oral surgeon, and the denture-supporting tissues. J Pros. Dent 1966;16:464. Noel. The role of the prosthodontist in preprosthetic surgery. J Pros. Dent 1975;33:386. Harold et al.Prosthodontic management of the hydroxyapatite denture patient:A preliminary report. J Pros. Dent1983;49:461. Ronald. Hydroxyapatite for alvelar ridge augmentation: indications and problems. J Pros. Dent 1985;54:374. Joseph et al. Gingival smile enhancemnt for the dentulous patient by using Le Fort I osteotomy . J Pros. Dent 1991;66:151.

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