Types of agriculture

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Presentation Prepared BY- NAME-RAGHAV TREHAN CLASS-VIII-A R.NO.-37 S.ST TYPES OF AGRICULTURE

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As soon as humans began to form permanent settlements and gave up wandering in search of food, agriculture was born. The Latin roots of the word agriculture mean “cultivation of the fields.” From the beginning, agriculture has included raising both crops and livestock. The people who worked at agriculture came to be called farmers. AGRICULTURE

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There are 2 types of Agriculture. They are as follows- 1.Subsistence agriculture 2.Commercial Agriculture SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE Nomadic Herding Shifting Agriculture AGRICULTURE

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The type of agriculture practiced by most farmers is called subsistence farming. The whole family works hard in farming; there are few if any farm machines, and little surplus is produced for market. Farms tend to be small, an average of no more than two to three acres (about one hectare) .It contains of 2 parts- 1.Nomadic Herding. 2.Shifting Agriculture. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE

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In the drier parts of Asia, especially Southwest Asia, most rural people make a living by raising livestock. Many are nomads who move with their herds of animals over large territories, constantly seeking good supplies of grass and water. The people live simply and carry their tents and belongings with them. Such animals as goats, sheep, camels, and yaks, raised by these herders, are able to withstand dry climates. NOMADIC HERDING

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In India, Bhotiyas and Gujjars are the Nomadic tribes of Himalayas.

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While technology is advancing in many parts of the world, some primitive cultures in sparsely populated tropical areas still practice a shifting system of agriculture. This system is a type of slash-and-burn agriculture, in which land is cleared of plant life, which is burned to add some nutrients to the soil. This is followed by planting. When the land is exhausted, it is abandoned and new clearings are slashed and burned. This process is wasteful of native vegetation and is abusive to the land. SHIFTING AGRICULTURE

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There is a great range in agricultural production around the world. Some countries, using high technology and advanced methods, produce more through agriculture than they need or can use, while others—underdeveloped and poorer—never produce enough to sustain their populations.

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In this type of agriculture, crops are raised on a large scale for the purpose of selling the products in the market. Therefore, farmers select single crop according to the natural and market conditions of the region. It is called crop specialization. Commercial agriculture is broadly divided into – 1.Extensive Agriculture. 2.Intensive agriculture. 3.Plantation Agriculture. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE

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COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE INTENSIVE COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE PLANTATION AGRICULTURE

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It is practiced in developed countries, as the Australia,Canada,Russia and U.S.A. Agriculture is done on large scale and by modern machines.It is mainly practiced in populated regions where land is available in abundance.Total produce is large but per hectare yield is comparatively less.Farmers mostly raise one or two crop a year for marketing. EXTENSIVE AGRICULTURE

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Corn, Oats, Wheat and oilseeds are the main crops of extensive agriculture. Proper storage facilities are required to store the yield.

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Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital, labour, or heavy usage of technologies such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers. relative to land area. This is in contrast to many forms of sustainable agriculture such as organic farming or extensive agriculture , which involve a relatively low input of materials and labour, relative to the area of land farmed, and which focus on maintaining long-term ecological health of farmland, so that it can be farmed indefinitely. INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE

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Modern day forms of intensive crop based agriculture involve the use of mechanical ploughing, chemical fertilizers, plant growth regulators and/or pesticides. It is associated with the increasing use of agricultural mechanism.

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A plantation is a large farm or estate, usually in a tropical or subtropical country, where crops are grown for sale in distant markets, rather than for local consumption. The term plantation is informal and not precisely defined. Crops grown on plantations include cotton,coffee, tobacco,sugarcane and various oil seeds and rubber trees. Farms that produce alfalfa, Lespedisa clover, and other forage crops are usually not called plantations. PLANTATION AGRICULTURE

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The term "plantation" has usually not included large orchards, but has included the planting of trees for lumber. A plantation is always a monoculture over a large area and does not include extensive naturally occurring stands of plants that have economic value. Because of its large size, a plantation takes advantage of economies of scale. Protectionist policies and natural comparatative advantage have contributed to determining where plantations have been located PLANTATION AGRICULTURE

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