A presntation-micro controller

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About A+:

About A+ A+ Certification , awarded by CompTIA ® ( Computing Technology Industry Association) organization is the most widely recognized certification in the area of PC hardware and software technologies . To attain A+ certification, one need to pass 2 exams, namely, A+ Core Hardware Technologies (220-201) , and A+ Operating Systems Technologies(220-202). These exams basically test the skills in assembling a computer, troubleshooting, and the ability to work with various operating systems .

A+ Course Details:

A+ Course Details Introduction to computers What is a computer? History of the computer. Development of the computer. Introduction to basic electronics Electronic components. Communication and number systems Computer communication. Binary language of computers. ASCII code. The computer Bus. Computer architecture Input, Output, Processing. Components of a computer. The central processing unit (CPU). Power supplies (SMPS). Motherboard and ROM BIOS. Memories. Expansion Buses, cables and connectors. Floppy disk drives. Hard disk drives. Optical drives (CD-ROM, CD R/W, DVD, Combo etc). The Display systems. PC assembling and disassembling Assembling. Disassembling. Upgrading.

A+ Course Details :

A+ Course Details PC Maintenance and Troubleshooting Working safely. Power and safety. Environmental issues. Cooling factors. Preventive maintenance. Hardware maintenance. Virus Protection. Disk Maintenance. Peripheral Devices and Troubleshooting Printers. Modems and Internet. Portable computers. Scanners. PC Operating systems Operating system basics. A history of MS-DOS. Working with DOS. Installing, Working and troubleshooting different windows versions- 98, ME, XP etc. Understanding file systems- FAT, FAT32, NTFS. Understanding Boot process. Creating startup disks, ERD disks. Backup and Restore. Troubleshooting problems. Basics of Networking What is Network? Requirement of a Network. Types of networks- LAN, MAN, WAN. Network Topology. Network Cabling. Network Interface cards. Network Protocols. Network operating systems. Setting up a LAN. Maintaining and troubleshooting Network s.

Session 1- Introduction to Computer:

Session 1- Introduction to Computer What is a Computer? A Computer is a electro-mechanical device which can perform arithmetical and logical operations, can store huge amount of data, and can show its processed result through output devices.

Introduction to Computer:

Introduction to Computer History of the Computer: 1. The Abacus is a calculator , developed by Chinese people for add, subtract, multiply, and divide in around 900 or 1000 A.D. 2. The first computer was the analytical engine which was partially developed by Charles Babbage in London between 1822 and 1871. 3. The first Electrically driven computer was designed by Dr. Herman Hollerith of New York in 1889. 4. The first modern digital computer, the ABC ( Atanasoff-Berry computer), was built in 1939 and 1942. The computer weighted 750 pound and could store 3000bits of data. The same technology was passed from Atanasoff to john W. Mauchly , who together with engineer John Presper Eckert , developed the first large-scale digital computer, ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). It was used by US army.

Chapter -4 Computer Architecture:

Chapter -4 Computer Architecture Functional Block Diagram of a Computer: INPUT MEMORY ALU CU OUTPUT E.g. Keyboard, Mouse, Mick, Joystick, Touchpad, Scanner, etc. CPU E.g. Monitor, Printer, Speaker, Plotter, etc. Processor

Slide 7:

INPUT DEVICE: These are the devices through which we can insert data inside the computer for farther processing. OUTPUT DEVICE: These are the devices through which we can show the processed result to the out side world. Chapter -4 Computer Architecture

Chapter -4 Computer Architecture:

Chapter -4 Computer Architecture CPU( Central Processing Unit): This is the unit which does the processing job inside the computer. It consists of mainly two more subunits – Processor and Memory. Processor: It mainly does the processing job inside the computer. It consists of two more subunits – ALU and CU. ALU ( Arithmetic and Logic Unit): It performs the arithmetical and logical operations of the computer. Arithmetical Operations- Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. and Logical Operations- AND,OR, NOR, XOR etc. CU( Control Unit ): It does the overall controlling job for the computer in terms of clock pulses Memory: These are the devices where data can be stored.

Components of a Computer:


Front View of a CPU:


Back Panel of a Computer:

Back Panel of a Computer

Components of a CPU:



SESSION-2 CABINET The outer casing of the CPU is known as cabinet.


USES OF CABINET Protecting the internal components from Dust, Moisture, RF( Radio Frequencies), etc. Providing Cooling provision. Keeping all internal Components in Safe Place and Intact.


DIFFERENT TYPES OF CABINET Depending on form factor( Shape & Size) cabinets can be basically classified into 3 types-


DIFFERENT TYPES OF CABINET Depending on placing on the table Cabinets are again classified into two type-


XT CABINET It was originated by IBM in March 8, 1983. Discontinued in the year 1987.


AT CABINET AT Cabinets are further classified into two types-


ATX CABINET ATX cabinets are again classified in to different types- LPX-Low Profile eXtended. NLX- New Technology eXtended. WTX- Workstation Technology eXtended.

A Comparison Chart of Form Factors.:

A Comparison Chart of Form Factors. Form factor Originated Max. size Power handling Notes (Typical usage, Market adoption, etc) XT IBM 1983 8.5 × 11" Obsolete - see XT bus architecture 216 × 279 mm AT IBM 1984 12 × 11"–13" Obsolete - see AT bus architecture 305 × 279–330 mm Baby-AT ? 8.5" × 10"–13" 216 mm × 254-330 mm ATX Intel 1996 12" × 9.6" 305 mm × 244 mm microATX 1996 9.6" × 9.6" Fewer slots than ATX, so can use smaller PSU 244 mm × 244 mm Mini-ATX ? 11.2" × 8.2" 284 mm × 208 mm FlexATX Intel 1999 9.0" x 7.5" Can be smaller than microATX 228.6 × 190.5 mm max. LPX ? 9" × 11"–13" Used in slimline retail PCs 229 mm × 279–330 mm Mini-LPX ? 8"–9" × 10"–11" Used in slimline retail PCs 203–229 mm × 254–279 mm NLX Intel 1999 8"–9" × 10"-13.6" "Coming soon"; requires add-in card riser 203–229 mm × 254–345 mm WTX Intel 1998 14" × 16.75" 355.6 mm × 425.4 mm

Practical for Cabinets:

Practical for Cabinets

SMPS-Switch Mode Power Supply:

SMPS-Switch Mode Power Supply It is the main power supply section of the CPU. Converts AC to DC. Ensures proper voltage rating. Regulates power supply.



Different Types of SMPS:

Different Types of SMPS Depending on technology and voltage rating SMPS can be broadly classified into two types-

Difference Between AT and ATX SMPS:


Different connectors of AT SMPS:

Different connectors of AT SMPS

Different colors of Wires in AT SMPS and their Voltage Rating .:

Different colors of Wires in AT SMPS and their Voltage Rating . Red- +5 v Yellow- + 12 v Blue- -12v Black- GND Orange- Power Good. White- -5v

Different Voltage and uses:

Different Voltage and uses +5 v – Used by all electronic components. -5 v – Some ISA Bus slots ( Older system). + 12v – Used by Motors. - 12 v- Used by serial ports. GND- potential Difference. Power good- Supplies +5v to motherboard if all other supplies are proper.

AT Mother Board Power connector:

AT Mother Board Power connector

Other Connector on AT SMPS:

Other Connector on AT SMPS Molex Connectors are used for providing power supply to HDD,CDROM, FAN etc. Mini Plug Connector are used for providing power supply FDD.

Drive Connector and Color Code:

Drive Connector and Color Code +12 v is for Drive Motors. GND is for potential difference. +5v is for electronic components in side the Drive.

AT SMPS Power on process:

AT SMPS Power on process From SMPS one Cord Directly goes to the front panel power-on switch of the Cabinet. So Manual Switch ON/OFF is Required.

Different colors of Wires in ATX SMPS and their Voltage Rating. :

Different colors of Wires in ATX SMPS and their Voltage Rating. 3.3v- Used latest CPUs , Memories and AGP cards , Where they consume less power compared to older devices. Power On- This pin is used to switch on the SMPS. In ATX Power on happens via Motherboard. +5v Standby- is a small amount of power always supplied to the Mother Board even the SMPS is off but main line is on. This allows Mother Board to start the SMPS when needed like – System is in Sleep Mode , Wake up Modem Ring or LAN etc. +3.3 v sense- is used to sense the +3.3v. It detects the +3.3v is proper or not and if required it fine tunes the +3.3v with the help of SMPS.

ATX Connectors:

ATX Connectors ATX POWER CONNECTOR- is used to provide power supply to ATX Mother Board. ATX 12V CONNECTOR- Is used by processor Voltage Regulator Circuit( p4 onwards). MOLEX AND MINI PLUG – Same as AT SMPS. MOLEX CONNECTOR MINI PLUG CONNECTOR

Symptoms on SMPS problem.:

Symptoms on SMPS problem. System is Dead. System is Restarting as soon as powered on. Power is there but system is not starting.


POWER FAILURES Problem - Description 1)Surges -these are brief, increases in the voltage sources, originated with the power supply and also due to lighting strikes. Measured in milliseconds. 2) Spikes-these are very short over voltage conditions. Spikes are measured in nanoseconds. 3)Sags-these are brief decreases of voltage at the power source.

Slide 37:

4)Brownouts-If a sag lasts longer than 1 second, then it is called as a brownout, overloading of a primary power source can cause brownouts. 5)Blackouts-it is a complete power failure, which can be caused by the equipment failure or accidental cutting of power cables. When power returns after a blackout, there is a power spike and the danger of a power surge.



Installing the ATX Power Connector:

Installing the ATX Power Connector


Microprocessor A Microprocessor is an IC* ( Integrated Circuit) which does the main processing and controlling job for Computer. It is also known as Brain of the Computer. * IC- it is a microscopic circuit which contains huge miniature transistors and other components like resistors, capacitors etc.

A few terminologies related to Microprocessor.:

A few terminologies related to Microprocessor. BUS – These are the path-ways through which information passes from one place to other place. Buses are classified into three types depending on what type of information they carry. Address Bus- These are the Buses which carry address information. Data Bus- Which carries Data. Control Bus – Which carries Control signal.

A few terminologies related to Microprocessor.:

A few terminologies related to Microprocessor. The Buses are again classified into two types depending on where they are located- Internal Bus- The Bus which is internal to the CPU. External Bus- The Bus which is External to the CPU. Register- Temporary storage space inside the CPU to store data for further processing.

A few terminologies related to Microprocessor.:

A few terminologies related to Microprocessor. Clock Speed- It is the maximum no of clock cycles per second at which the CPU can reliably work. Faster the Clock Speed better the performance. Clock cycles are basically generated from a component called crystal. It is measured in Hertz(Hz).

A few terminologies related to Microprocessor.:

A few terminologies related to Microprocessor. Cache- It is a kind of static RAM which is faster in accessing compared to normal DRAM. It is used in between the CPU and Main Memory to enhance the CPU performance. Cache Memories are further classified into three different types depending on their location- Level 1- Internal to CPU(L1). Level 2- Outside the CPU(L2). Level 3- On Mother board(L3). PQFP- Plastic Quad Flat Package (Specific for laptops) PLCC-plastic leadless Chip Carrier PGA-pin grid array

Generation of CPU:

Generation of CPU CHIP NO CLK SPEED ADDRESS BUS INTERNAL DATA BUS EXTERNAL DATA BUS NO. OF TRANSISTOR NEW DEVELOPMENT YEAR PACKAGE USE 4004 740KHz 4 bit 4 bit 4 bit 2,300 First microprocessor 15,nov, 71 DIP Busicom Calculator 8080 ~ 1 MHz 16 bit 8 bit 8 bit - - 1, Apr, 1972 DIP Traffic control, missile cruise etc. 8085 5 MHz 16 bit 8 bit 8 bit 6500 - Mar, 1976 DIP Programming kit 8086 5-10 MHz 20 bit 16 bit 16 bit 29000 - Jun 8 , 1978 DIP Portable compute. 8088 5-8 MHz 20 bit 16 bit 8 bit 29000 - Jun 1, 1979 DIP IBM 1 st PC 80286 6- 20 MHz 16 bit 16 bit 16 bit 1,34,000 Protected Mode Feb1, 1982 DIP,PLCC, PGA In IBM pc clones 80386 SX, DX,SL 16-33 MHz 32 bit 32 bit 32 bit 2,75,000 Sleep mode for laptops Oct 17 , 1985 PGA, PQFP Used with win95 80486 sx,dx,dx2.dx3,dx4,sl 20-100MHz 32 bit 32 bit 32 bit Up to 1.6 Million 8 kb of cache memory in DX , Apr10, 1989 PGA,PQFP Desktop computers

Slide 58:

On June 6, 1978, Intel introduced its first 16-bit microprocessor, known as the 8086. It had 29,000 transistors, 16-bit registers, a 16-bit external data bus, and a 20-bit address bus to allow it to access 1 MB of memory.

CPU Pictures:

CPU Pictures 4004 8080 8085 8086 80286 80386-PGA 80386- PQFP 80486- PGA 80486- PQFP

Pentium Generation:

Pentium Generation The Pentium name came from- Penta (Greek- Five)+ ium ( Latin – Ending). It is sometimes also referred as 80586 processor.

Pentium Generation:

Pentium Generation The Technologies introduced in Pentium Generation- Pipelining- It is an execution engine which processes a complete instruction with in a single clock pulse. Superscalar Architecture- Pentium uses two pipelines which allows to process more than one instruction per clock pulse. To do this Pentium uses a architecture which includes- - one U pipe- Does processing for one complex instruction at a time. one V pipe- Does processing for simple instructions. Wider Data Bus and Register- Pentium uses 64bit data bus and register which means it can pull 64 bits of data from main memory in one fetch and can keep stored in internal register.

Pentium I Processor Family:

Pentium I Processor Family Processor Clock Speed(s) Intro Date(s) Mfg. Process/ Transistors Typical Use Intel® Pentium® Processor with MMX™ Technology 233 MHz 2-Jun-97 0.35-micron High-performance desktops and servers Intel® Pentium® Processor with MMX™ Technology 200 MHz Oct. xx, 1996 0.35-micron High-performance desktops and servers 166 MHz 4.5 million Intel® Pentium® Processor 200 MHz 10-Jun-96 0.35-micron High-performance desktops and servers 3.3 million Intel® Pentium® Processor 166 MHz Jan. 4, 1996 0.35-micron High-performance desktops and servers 3.3 million Intel® Pentium® Processor 133 MHz Jun-95 0.35-micron High-performance desktops and servers 3.3 million Intel® Pentium® Processor 120 MHz Mar. 27, 1995 0.6-micron Desktops and notebooks 0.35-micron 3.3 million Intel® Pentium® Processor 100 MHz Mar. 7, 1994 0.6-micron Desktops 3.3 million Intel® Pentium® Processor 75 MHz Oct. 10, 1994 0.6-micron Desktops and notebooks 3.3 million Intel® Pentium® Processor 66 MHz Mar. 22, 1993 0.8-micron Desktops 3.1 million


Pentium-Pro Processor Clock Speed(s) Intro Date(s) Mfg. Process/ Transistors Cache Bus Speed Typical Use Intel® Pentium® Pro Processor 200 MHz 180 MHz Jan.xx, 1996 0.35-micron 5.5 million 256KB 512KB 1MB L2 66 MHz High-end desktops, workstations and servers. Intel® Pentium® Pro Processor 200 MHz 180 MHz 166 MHz 150 MHz Nov. 1, 1995 0.6-micron 5.5 million 256 KB 512 KB L2 66 MHz High-end desktops, workstations and servers

Picture for Pentium Generation:

Picture for Pentium Generation Pentium I Pentium MMX Pentium Pro

Pentium II:

Pentium II Processor Clock Speed(s) Intro Date(s) Mfg. Process/ Transistors Cache Bus Speed Typical Use Intel® Pentium® II Processor 450 MHz Aug. 24, 1998 0.25-micron 7.5 million 512 KB 100 MHz Business and consumer PCs; 1- and 2-way servers and workstations. Intel® Pentium® II Processor 400 MHz 350 MHz Apr. 15, 1998 0.25-micron 7.5 million 512 KB 100 MHz Business and consumer PCs; 1- and 2-way servers and workstations. Intel® Pentium® II Processor 333 MHz Jan. 26, 1998 0.25-micron 7.5 million 512 KB 66 MHz Business and consumer PCs; 1- and 2-way servers and workstations. Intel® Pentium® II Processor 300 MHz 266 MHz 233 MHz May 7, 1997 0.35-micron 7.5 million 512 KB 66 MHz High-end business desktops, workstations and servers.

Pentium II Models:

Pentium II Models

Pentium III:

Pentium III

Pentium III:

Pentium III Clock Speed(s) Intro Date(s) Mfg. Process/ Transistors Cache Bus Speed Typical Use Intel® Pentium® III Processor 1 GHz 933 MHz 866 MHz 850 MHz Mar. 8, 2000 1 GHz Mar. 20, 2000 866 MHz 850 MHz May 24, 2000 933 MHz 0.18-micron 28 million 256 KB Advanced Transfer cache 100 MHz 133 MHz Business, consumer PCs; 1- and 2-way servers and workstations Intel® Pentium® III Processor 733 MHz 700 MHz 667 MHz 650 MHz 600 MHz 550 MHz 533 MHz 500 MHz Oct. 25, 1999 0.18-micron 28 million 256 KB Advanced Transfer cache 100 MHz 133 MHz Business, consumer PCs; 1- and Processor 2-way servers and workstations Intel® Pentium® III Processor 600 MHz 550 MHz 500 MHz 450 MHz Aug. 2, 1999 600 MHz May 17, 1999 550 MHz Feb. 26, 1999 500 MHz 450 Mhz 0.25-micron 9.5 million 512 KB 100 MHz Business, consumer PCs; 1- and 2-way servers and workstations

Pentium III:

Pentium III Processor Clock Speed(s) Intro Date(s) Mfg. Process/ Transistors Cache Bus Speed Core Voltage Wattage Typical Use Mobile Intel® Pentium® III Processor-M 1.33 GHz 1.26 GHz Sept. 16, 2002 0.13-micron 44 million 512 KB L2 cache 133 MHz 1.4V / 1.15V Battery Optimized <1.5 watts Battery Optimized Full-size and thin & light mobile PCs Mobile Intel® Pentium® III Processor-M 1.20 GHz 1.13 GHz 1.06 GHz 1 GHz Oct. 1, 2001 1.20 GHz Jul. 30, 2001 1.13 GHz 1.06 GHz 1 GHz 0.13-micron 44 million 512 KB L2 cache 133 MHz 1.4V / 1.15V Battery Optimized <2 watts Battery Optimized Full-size and thin & light mobile PCs Mobile Intel® Pentium® III Processor-M 933 MHz 866 MHz Jul. 30, 2001 0.13-micron 28 million 512 KB L2 cache 133 MHz 1.15V / 1.05V Battery Optimized <1 watt Battery Optimized Full-size and thin & light mobile PCs

Pentium III:

Pentium III Pentium III



Celeron Processors:

Celeron Processors Processor Clock Speed(s) Intro Date(s) Mfg. Process/ Transistors Cache Bus Speed Typical Use Intel® Celeron® Processor 533 MHz 500 MHz 466 MHz 433 MHz 400 MHz 366 MHz 333 MHz 300 MHz Jan. 4, 2000 533 MHz Aug. 2, 1999 500 MHz Apr. 26, 1999 466 MHz Mar. 22, 1999 433 MHz Jan. 4, 1999 400 MHz 366 MHz Aug. 24, 1998 333 MHz Aug. 24, 1998 300A MHz 0.25-micron 19 million 128 KB L2 cache 66 MHz Value PCs Intel® Celeron® Processor 300 MHz 266 MHz June 8, 1998 300 MHz Apr. 15, 1998 266 MHz 0.25-micron 7.5 million NA 66 MHz Value PCs

Celeron Processors:

Celeron Processors Intel® Celeron® Processor 1.10 GHz 1 GHz 950 MHz 990 MHz 850 MHz 800 MHz Aug. 31, 2001 1.10 GHz 1 GHz 950 MHz Jul. 2, 2001 900 MHz May 21, 2001 850 MHz Jan. 3, 2001 800 MHz 0.18-micron 128 KB L2 cache 100 MHz Value PCs Intel® Celeron® Processor 766 MHz 733 MHz 700 MHz 667 MHz 633 MHz 600 MHz 566 MHz Nov. 13, 2000 766 MHz 733 MHz June 26, 2000 700 MHz 667 MHz 633 MHz March 29, 2000 600 MHz 566 MHz 0.18-micron 128 KB L2 cache 66 MHz Value PCs

Celeron Processors:

Celeron Processors Intel® Celeron® D Processor 345 340 335 330 325 320 3.06 GHz 2.93 GHz 2.80 GHz 2.66 GHz 2.53 GHz 2.40 GHz 2.26 GHz Nov. 23, 2004 345 Sep. 22, 2004 340 June 24, 2004 335 330 325 320 90 nm 256 KB L2 cache 533 MHz Value and Mobile PCs Intel® Celeron® Processor 2.80 GHz 2.70 GHz Nov. 5, 2003 2.80 GHz Sept. 24, 2003 2.70 GHz 0.13-micron 128 KB L2 cache 400 MHz Value and Mobile PCs Intel® Celeron® Processor 2.40 GHz 2.30 GHz 2.20 GHz 2.10 GHz Mar. 31, 2003 2.40 GHz 2.30 GHz Nov. 20, 2002 2.20 GHz 2.10 GHz 0.13-micron 128 KB L2 cache 400 MHz Value PCs Intel® Celeron® Processor 2 GHz Sept. 18, 2002 0.13-micron 128 KB L2 cache 400 MHz Value PCs Intel® Celeron® Processor 1.80 GHz 1.70 GHz June 12, 2002 1.80 GHz May 15, 2002 1.70 GHz 0.18-micron 128 KB L2 cache 400 MHz Value PCs Intel® Celeron® Processor 1.40 GHz 1.30 GHz 1.20 GHz May 15, 2002 1.40 GHz Jan. 3, 2002 1.30 GHz Oct. 2, 2001 1.20 GHz 0.13-micron 256 KB L2 cache 100 MHz Value PCs

Celeron pictures:


Pentium IV:

Pentium IV

Pentium IV:

Pentium IV Processor Clk. speed Intro Date Mgf. Process/transistors Cache Bus Speed Typical Use Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor 2.80 GHz 2.66 GHz 2.53 GHz 2.40 GHz 2.26 GHz Aug. 26, 2002 2.80 GHz 2.66 GHz May 6, 2002 2.53 GHz 2.40 GHz 2.26 GHz 0.13-micron 55 million 512 KB Advanced Transfer L2 cache 533 MHz Desktops and entry-level workstations Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor 2.60 GHz 2.50 GHz 2.40 GHz 2.20 GHz 2 GHz Aug. 26, 2002 2.60 GHz 2.50 GHz Apr. 2, 2002 2.40 GHz Jan. 7, 2002 2.2 GHz Aug. 27, 2001 2 GHz 0.13-micron 55 million 512 KB Advanced Transfer L2 cache 400 MHz Desktops and entry-level workstations Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor 2 GHz 1.90 GHz 1.80 GHz 1.70 GHz 1.60 GHz 1.50 GHz 1.40 GHz Aug. 27, 2001 2 GHz 1.90 GHz Jul. 2, 2001 1.80 GHz 1.60 GHz Apr. 23, 2001 1.70 GHz Nov. 20, 2000 1.50 GHz 1.40 GHz 0.18-micron 42 million 256 KB Advanced Transfer L2 cache 400 MHz Desktops and entry-level workstations

Pentium IV HT:

Pentium IV HT Hyper Threading- is a technology introduced in Pentium IV processor which enables the processor to handle multiple threads/ programs simultaneously with single core of the CPU. Dynamic branch prediction It virtually appears as two processors with in a singe chip to the operating system so few operating system like Windows’95 , ‘98 can not work with these processors. http://www.intel.com/products/processor_number/chart/pentium4.htm

Pentium IV HT:

Pentium IV HT Processor Clock Speed(s) Intro Date(s) Mfg. Process/ Transistors Cache Bus Speed Typical Use Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor supporting HT Technology 570 560 550 540 530 520 3.80 GHz 3.60 GHz 3.40 GHz 3.20 GHz 3 GHz 2.80 GHz Nov. 15, 2004 570 June 21, 2004 560 550 540 530 520 90nm 125 million 1 MB L2 cache 800 MHz Desktops and entry-level workstations Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor supporting HT Technology 3.40 GHz 3.20E GHz 3E GHz 2.80E GHz Feb. 2, 2004 90nm 125 million 1 MB L2 cache 800 MHz Desktops and entry-level workstations Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor supporting HT Technology 3.40 GHz 3.20 GHz 2.80C GHz 2.60C GHz 2.40C GHz Feb. 2, 2004 3.40 GHz June 23, 2003 3.20 GHz May 21, 2003 2.80 GHz 2.60 GHz 2.40 GHz 0.13-micron 55 million 512 KB Advanced Transfer L2 cache 800 MHz Desktops and entry-level workstations Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor supporting HT Technology 3 GHz Apr. 14, 2003 0.13-micron 55 million 512 KB Advanced Transfer L2 cache 800 MHz Desktops and entry-level workstations Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor supporting HT Technology 3.06 GHz Nov. 14, 2002 0.13-micron 55 million 512 KB Advanced Transfer L2 cache 533 MHz Desktops and entry-level workstations

Pentium IV HT:

Pentium IV HT Processor Clock Speed(s) Intro Date(s) Mfg. Process/ Transistors Cache Bus Speed Typical Use Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor Extreme Edition supporting HT Technology 3.73 GHz Feb. 21, 2005 90nm 169 million 2 MB L2 cache 1066 MHz Gaming and Computing Enthusiasts Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor Extreme Edition supporting HT Technology 3.46 GHz Nov. 15, 2004 0.13-micron 178 million 2 MB L3 cache; 512 KB L2 cache 1066 MHz Gaming and Computing Enthusiasts Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor Extreme Edition supporting HT Technology 3.40 GHz 3.20 GHz June 21, 2004 3.40 GHz (Intel® LGA775 package technology) Feb. 2, 2004 3.40 GHz Nov. 3, 2003 3.20 GHz 0.13-micron 178 million 2 MB L3 cache; 512 KB L2 cache 800 MHz Gaming and Computing Enthusiasts Intel® Pentium® 4 Processor supporting HT Technology 660 650 640 630 3.60 GHz 3.40 GHz 3.20 GHz 3 GHz Feb. 21, 2005 660 650 640 630 90nm 169 million 2 MB L2 cache 800 MHz Desktops and entry-level workstations

Pentium 64 Bit:

Pentium 64 Bit It’s a technology where 64 bit processing happens with the help of 64 bit Data and Address bus.

Pentium Dual Core:

Pentium Dual Core Dual Core- is a technology where dual cores are present within a single chip. http://www.intel.com/products/processor_number/chart/pentium4.htm

Other Intel products:

Other Intel products

Intel’s Latest Release:

Intel’s Latest Release Intel core 2 Quad Processor. Intel core 2 Extreme Processor.

Other Processor Manufacturer:

Other Processor Manufacturer AMD Cyrix Motorola

Processor and their Socket type and No:

Processor and their Socket type and No Socket1- 80486 Socket2- 80486 Socket3- 80486 Socket4- Intel Pentium 60/66 MHz Socket5- Intel Pentium 75-133 MHz Socket6- Pentium Socket7- Intel Pentium / Pentium MMX Socket8- Pentium Pro Socket370- Intel Pentium 3 / Celeron Socket 423- Intel Pentium 4 ( Willamette Core) Socket 478- Intel Pentium 4 / Celeron LGA 775- Pentium M/ Celeron M/ Core 2 Duo/ Core 2 Quad (lane grid array) Slot 1- Intel Celeron/ Pentium 2/ Pentium 3 Slot 2- Intel PII Xeon / P III Xeon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CPU_socket#Intel_Sockets

Sockets and Slots:

Sockets and Slots Socket 1 Socket 3 Socket 7 Socket 370 Socket 423 Socket 478 LGA 775 Slot 1

Mother Board:

Mother Board Mother Board is the biggest circuit board inside the CPU cabinet where all other devices inside the cabinet are connected on or from it.

Components on Motherboard:

Components on Motherboard Connectors and Ports Chip sets BIOS & CMOS CMOS Battery CPU Socket/Slots I/O Slots RAM Slots Jumpers / DIP Switches Other Controller chips.

Connectors and Ports:

Connectors and Ports Power Connectors Keyboard connector Serial Ports Parallel Port Display Port IDE Port FDD Port SATA port USB Port LAN Port PS/2 Port Modem Port Audio Port

Power Connectors:

Power Connectors Different types of Power Connectors- AT Power Connector- 12 pins ( 6*2) – 1no. ATX Power Connector- 20 pins- 1no. ATX 12v- 4 pins- 1no. M

Keyboard Connectors:

Keyboard Connectors Different Keyboard Connectors- DIN (Dutch Industrial Noum) PS/2 USB M

Serial Ports:

Serial Ports Two Serial Ports- COM1- address 3F8- 9 pin D type. COM2- address 2F8- 9 pin D type. Used to connect any serial devices. M

Parallel Port:

Parallel Port Only one parallel port- LPT1- address 378- 25 pin D type. Used to connect any Parallel Device. M

Display Port:

Display Port Display port is a 15 pin D type connector. Used to connect Monitor. M

IDE Port:

IDE Port IDE- Integrated Device Electronics It is a 40 pin port. Used to connect any IDE device. Like- HDD, CDROM, DVD ROM, DVD RW, CDRW etc. There will two IDE connectors on motherboard- IDE1/ Primary IDE2/Secondary M

FDD Port:

FDD Port It’s a 34 pin port. Only one port will be present on the Motherboard. Used to connect FDDs. M

SATA Ports:

SATA Ports Serial Advanced Technology Attachable. Used to attach HDDs with SATA interface. 2-4 no's will be present on the motherboard. M

USB Port:

USB Port Universal Serial Bus. It’s a another type of serial port. Used to connect any USB device. 4-6 no’s will be present on the motherboard. M

LAN Port:

LAN Port It is used to connect computers with Network. It is also known as RJ45 port. It will have 8 pins within it. M

PS/2 Ports:

PS/2 Ports It’s a 6 pin round shaped connector. Two ports will be present on motherboard. One for Keyboard ( Violet ). One for Mouse ( Green ). M

Modem Port:

Modem Port It is also known as RJ11. Will be present with Modem. Two ports will be there One for line in. One for Phone. M

Audio port:

Audio port It is a combination of 3 ports- Line out- Lime color. Line in- Blue color. Mic- Pink color. M


Chipsets Chipsets are some specialized chips on Motherboard which are used to control the communication between Processor, RAM, AGP and all other I/O devices. Mainly there will be a pair of chips on the Motherboard- North Bridge and South Bridge.


Chipsets North Bridge- In INTEL systems some times also referred as MCH ( Memory Controller Hub). Some chips contain Graphic controller also ( GMCH ). Its main job is to control the communication between Processor, RAM, AGP, PCI Express, and the South Bridge. It basically can support one or two types of Processor and RAM. The link between North Bridge and South Bridge is comparatively slower. South Bridge- It is also known as ICH ( I/O Controller Hub). It is the another controller chip on the mother Board which controls the slower devices like PCI, USB, IDE, BIOS etc. Its other functionalities are DMA controller, Interrupt controller, Real Time Clock( RTC), CMOS etc.

Different Chipset Manufacturer:

Different Chipset Manufacturer Intel VIA Technologies SIS ( Silicon Integrated System) NVIDIA etc.

Identifying a chipset :

Identifying a chipset There three different ways to identify a chipset- Directly check the marking on the chip.( Not recommended because Hit sink will be fixed on the Chipset.) Check with operating system.(Device Manage – System Devices.) With software utility. Software


BIOS and CMOS BIOS stands for BASIC INPUT OUTPUT SYSTEM. BIOS is basically a software which is used to be stored in a ROM chip. So some times referred as ROM-BIOS. In recent motherboards it is stored in a Flash chip. So time times referred as Flash-BIOS. It provides necessary interface between Hardware and operating system so it is also known as Firmware.

Different types of BIOS chips:

Different types of BIOS chips DIP Package. Quad Package.

Different BIOS Manufacturer:

Different BIOS Manufacturer American Megatrends. Award Software International. Phoenix Technologies.

How BIOS works:

How BIOS works Testing the System Hardware. Running POST with CMOS Setup Information. Booting by Bootstrap Loader. Providing BIOS Interrupts and System Service Routines. Searching and activating other BIOS present in the System.


BIOS The BIOS (basic input/output system) is a chip on your system that contains a program that controls the interface between the CPU and the rest of your system. The BIOS is read during the power on (boot) process and sets up the machine to load the Operating System. It is a EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) chip. This chip cannot be configured by the user. Some BIOS chips can be upgraded by using a technique known as flashing. This is done to allow the BIOS to support newer hardware.


CMOS The CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is a low power RAM chip that holds information about your system. Like any RAM chip (and unlike ROM), the chip needs power to retain its information. This power comes from the motherboard battery when the PC is powered off. The CMOS stores info about the particular hardware in your PC and certain variable settings. This info is read by the BIOS during the boot process. Which is why they are often confused

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The CMOS settings can be accessed during the boot process. How to access them will vary depending on the BIOS in the machine. Generally there will be a message during the boot process to press some key to enter the Setup. The CMOS settings are usually described in your computer or motherboard manual.

How the BIOS boots:

How the BIOS boots The BIOS runs from the PROM, EPROM or, most commonly, flash memory when the computer is powered on. It initializes several motherboard components and peripherals, including : The clock generator. The processors and caches. The chipset (memory controller and I/O controller). The system memory. All PCI devices (by assigning bus numbers and resources). The primary graphics controller. Mass storage controllers (such as SATA and IDE controllers). Various I/O controllers (such keyboard/mouse and USB).

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Layers : Computer hardware System BIOS Operating system Application software

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In most modern BIOS implementations, users select which device boots first: CD, hard disk, floppy disk, flash keydrive, and the like. This is particularly useful for installing operating systems or booting to Live CDs, and for selecting the order of testing for the presence of bootable media. Some BIOSes allow the user to select the operating system to load (e.g. load another OS from the second hard disk), though this is more often handled by a second-stage boot loader.

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BIOS setup program performs four distinct tasks: Tests the computer's main components by running its POST (Power-On-Self-Test) program to make sure that they are all functioning properly. Configures the main components that are part of the motherboard or that are attached to it so that the operating system knows what to do with them. The configuration role was essential to the operation of a computer, but it is decreasing all the time as the operating system continues to take over more and more of this role.

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3. - Boots the operating system from the hard disk drive or from a bootable floppy disk or CD/DVD disc at start-up. 4. - Provides access to some of the computer's components and features, such as the keyboard even when the operating system is up and running. The BIOS is programmed to run a small routine that handles the keyboard at the behest of the operating system.

Types of RAM:

Types of RAM The following are some common types of RAM: SRAM : Static random access memory uses multiple transistors, typically four to six, for each memory cell but doesn't have a capacitor in each cell. It is used primarily for cache. DRAM : Dynamic random access memory has memory cells with a paired transistor and capacitor requiring constant refreshing. FPM DRAM : Fast page mode dynamic random access memory was the original form of DRAM. It waits through the entire process of locating a bit of data by column and row and then reading the bit before it starts on the next bit. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 176 MBps.

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EDO DRAM : Extended data-out dynamic random access memory does not wait for all of the processing of the first bit before continuing to the next one. As soon as the address of the first bit is located, EDO DRAM begins looking for the next bit. It is about five percent faster than FPM. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 264 MBps.

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SDRAM : Synchronous dynamic random access memory takes advantage of the burst mode concept to greatly improve performance. It does this by staying on the row containing the requested bit and moving rapidly through the columns, reading each bit as it goes. The idea is that most of the time the data needed by the CPU will be in sequence. SDRAM is about five percent faster than EDO RAM and is the most common form in desktops today. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 528 MBps.

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DDR SDRAM : Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM is just like SDRAM except that it has higher bandwidth, meaning greater speed. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 1,064 MBps (for DDR SDRAM 133 MHZ).

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RDRAM : Rambus dynamic random access memory is a radical departure from the previous DRAM architecture. Designed by Rambus, RDRAM uses a Rambus in-line memory module (RIMM) , which is similar in size and pin configuration to a standard DIMM. What makes RDRAM so different is its use of a special high-speed data bus called the Rambus channel. RDRAM memory chips work in parallel to achieve a data rate of 800 MHz, or 1,600 MBps.

General Features of BIOS:

General Features of BIOS IBM BIOS Compatibility. OS Compatibility. CPU Support. Jumper less Operation. Chipset Support. Memory Support. ACPI/APM Support. Drive Support. PC-99 Support. I/O Support. Boot Versatility Support. Plug-and-Play Support. AGP Support.(Accelerated Graphic Port USB Support. Security Support. CPU Monitoring.

Identification of BIOS:

Identification of BIOS AMI and AWARD BIOS have unique ID strings which identify the manufacturer and chipset of the board. But Phoenix BIOS, in most cases do not provide such ID strings. The AMI or AWARD BIOS ID appears at the bottom of the screen when the system is switched on and remains displayed till the memory count is over. Another way to view the BIOS ID strings for a long time is to shut down or either unplug the keyboard, or hold down a key when the system is switched on. This will cause a keyboard error, and the strings will remain displayed. We can also use diagnostic programs like MSD or DEBUG to know the essential BIOS details.


CMOS CMOS stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. In PC-AT286, IBM decided to store the system’s hardware configuration and other setup parameters in a small, low power 64-byte non-volatile RAM built inside a CMOS chip that also contained the RTC of the system. The CMOS was made non-volatile by using an onboard Lithium or Nickel-Cadmium battery to power it when the system remains switched off.

What are the contents of CMOS:

What are the contents of CMOS 16 bytes of RTC data. 32 bytes of ISA configuration data. 16 bytes of BIOS-specific configuration data. 64 bytes of extended CMOS data. Pentium motherboards use 256 bytes to store the CMOS setup along with an ESCD (Extended System Configuration Data) information needed by the PC’s plug-and-play system.

Power-On Self Test :

Power-On Self Test Every time a PC is turned on or reset using the Reset button or Windows Restart command, the computer is rebooted and reset to its basic operating condition. The POST sends out standardized commands that check every primary device . The POST has two stages : Test 1 occurs before and during the test of the video. Test 2 occurs after the video has been tested.

BIOS Beep Codes during and after video test:

BIOS Beep Codes during and after video test Number of Beep Possible Problem 1 DRAM refresh failure 2 Parity circuit failure 3 Base 64 KB or CMOS RAM failure 4 System timer 5 Processor failure 6 Keyboard controller or Gate A20 error 7 Virtual mode exception error 8 Display monitor write/read test failure 9 ROM BIOS checksum error 10 CMOS RAM shutdown register failure 1 long, 3 short Conventional/extended memory test failure 1 long, 8 short Display test and display vertical and horizontal retrace test failure

Troubleshooting after Beep:

Troubleshooting after Beep Problem Solution RAM refresh failure Reset and clean the RAM chips. Parity error RAM bit error Base 64-KB error Replace individual memory chips until the problem is corrected. 8042 error (keyboard chip) Reset and clean keyboard chip. Gate A20 error Check operating system. Replace keyboard. Replace motherboard. BIOS checksum error Reset ROM chip. Replace BIOS chip. Video errors Reset video card. Replace video card . Cache memory error Reset and clean cache chips. Verify cache jumper settings are correct. Replace cache chips . Any other problems Reset expansion cards. Clean motherboard. Replace motherboard.

Numeric Error Codes:

Numeric Error Codes Error Code Problem 301 The keyboard is broken or not plugged in. 1701 The hard disk drive controller is bad. 7301 The floppy disk drive controller is bad. 161 The battery is dead. 1101 The serial card is bad.

CMOS Battery:

CMOS Battery It’s a +3v Lithium Battery which provides power to hold the CMOS configuration

I/O Slots:

I/O Slots I/O Slots are also known as Expansion Slots or Expansion Buses or Add-on slots. It gives the configuration flexibility when the Devices are connected to the system.

Different Expansion Slots:

Different Expansion Slots ISA 8 bit ISA 16 bit EISA MCA VESA PCI AGP PCI EXPRESS PCMCIA

ISA 8 bit:

ISA 8 bit ISA stands for Industrial Standard Architecture. It was used by IBM PC and IBM PC XT with Intel 8086 and 8088 processors in 1980’s. 8 bit Data Bus width. 62 pins. Clock Speed 4.77MHz. Data Transfer Rate 2 MB/s. One device can be connected with one slot. XT machines had total 4 DMA channels. They are distributed as follows-

ISA 8 bit:

ISA 8 bit Single PIC 8259 chip and 8 Interrupt lines in PC XT. link DMA channel Expansion Standard function 0 No Dynamic RAM refresh 1 Yes Add-on cards 2 Yes Floppy disk controller 3 Yes Hard disk controller

ISA 8 bit:

ISA 8 bit

ISA 16 bit:

ISA 16 bit It was introduced by IBM PC AT machines in1984. Data Bus width 16 bit. Compatible with ISA 8 bit and 16 bit both. Totally 98 pins. Clock speed 8.33MHz. 7 DMA and 15 IRQ channels. Data transfer rate 5-6MB/s ( Theoretically 16 MB/s )

ISA 16 bit:

ISA 16 bit


EISA EISA stands for Extended Industrial Standard Architecture. Introduced by Gang of Nine (The IBM Competitors. These companies were AST Research , Compaq Computer , Epson , Hewlett-Packard , NEC , Olivetti , Tandy , WYSE , and Zenith Data Systems . ) in 1988. 32 bit Data Bus Width. Clock speed 8.33 MHz. One Device per slot. Compatible with 8 bit, 16 bit ISA and 32bit EISA cards. Total 98+ 100 inlay pins. Data transfer speed 20MB/s ( Theoretically 33MB/s).




MCA MCA stands for Micro Channel Architecture. A proprietary product of IBM. It was introduced in 1987 with IBM PS/2 , 80486 Microprocessor. Clock speed 10MHz. Initially had a Data Bus width of 32 bit but later on to reduce the cost they introduced 16 bit version too. Had a Data transfer rate 40 MB/s ( Theoretically 66 MB/s).


VESA VESA stands for Video Electronic Standard Association. It is also known as VESA Local Bus ( VLB). Data Bus width 32 bit. Total 112 pins. Clock Speed 25-50MHz. It had a Brown color extension along with ISA 16 bit slot. So it is compatible with ISA 8bit, 16bit and VESA cards. Data Transfer Rate 100-127MB/s.




PCI PCI stands for Peripheral Component Interconnect. Introduced in Mid-1993. Data Bus Width 32bit / 64 bit. Clock Speed 33/66MHz. Data Transfer Rate 133MB/s for 32bit slots and 266MB/s for 64bit slots. PCI 2.1(PCI-X) 64bit/66MHz/508MB/s and PCI 2.2(PCI-X) 64bit/66MHz /1024MB/s. Total 124 pins.




PCI EXPRESS Very often it is also referred as PCI-e / PCI-E. It is available in different speed . Like x1,x2,x4, x8,x16 and x32 ( Lane). Each lane is bidirectional and able to transfer 250MB/s data in one way. So a x32 PCI-e card can have total transfer rate of- 32(Lanes)* 250(MB/s)*2(Bidirectional)=16GB/s. Developed in year 2004 by Intel. Lower no of Lane Devices can be supported on higher no of Lane slot but vice versa is not possible. The no of lane on Device and slot is negotiated at the time of power on or by software. PCI-E 2.0 supports data transfer rate up to 500MB/S per Lane.




AGP AGP stands for Accelerated Graphic Port. Introduced in year 1997. Only used for attaching Graphic Cards. AGP has different versions- 1x, 2x, 4x, 8x. AGP 1x is a 32bit slot, works at 66MHz, maximum data rate 266MB/s. AGP 2x is a 32bit slot, works at 66MHz, maximum data rate 533MB/s. AGP 4x is a 32bit slot, works at 66MHz, maximum data rate 1066MB/s. AGP 8x is a 32bit slot, works at 66MHz, maximum data rate 2133MB/s. AGP has 64bit version also. 132 pin connector.




PCMCIA PCMCIA stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. It is also known as PC Card. These are basically used with Laptops and Notebook Computers. It has different types- Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV. Type I is specifically used for RAM, SDRAM and Flash Memory Cards. It is an 16bit interface . They are 3.3mm thick. Type II is used for many I/O devices like Modem, TV Card and Network Cards. They can support both 16 or 32 bit. They are 5mm thick. Type III is used to connect Hard Disk Drive Cards or Interface cards. They are 10.5 mm thick. They can support both 16bit and 32bit cards. Total 138 pins in two rows.

RAM Slots:



DIP DIP stands for Dual in-line Package. Initially it used to come with 8 pins but later on it started to come with 14-24 pins( any even number). These types of RAMs are basically DRAM kind of chip. They were being used at the time of 8086 / 8088. Those Motherboards used to have sockets/IC Bases where these types of RAMS used to be fixed.


SIPP SIPP stands for single in-line Pin package . It is an electronic device package which has one row of connector pins . It was not as popular as DIP but it has been used for packaging RAM chips .


SIMM It stands for single in line memory module. SIM used to comes with two different variants 30 pins and 72 pins. 30 pin SIMM has a data bus width of 8 bits(9 bits with parity). 72 pin SIMM has a data bus width of 32 bits ( 36 bits with parity). 30 pin SIMM had different module size of 256Kb/ 1MB/ 4 MB / 16 MB. 72 pin SIMM had different module size of 1MB/ 2MB/4MB/16MB/ 32MB/64MB/128MB. the earliest SIMM sockets were conventional push-type sockets. These were soon replaced by ZIF (Zero Insertion Force) sockets SIMMs were using EDO( Extended Data out) / FPM( First Page Mode) kind of RAM.


DIMM DIMM stands for Dual Inline Memory Module. DIMM supports different types of RAM Modules like – SDRAM, DDRRAM, DDR2, DDR3 etc. SIMM had maximum of 32bits data paths where as DIMM had 64bits of data path to support Intel’s Pentium Processors. DIMM slots have pin connectors at both side. Different types of DIMM Slots- small outline Slot Type of RAM No of Pins DIMM EDO/ FPM 72 SO-DIMM EDO/FPM 72 DIMM SDRAM 100 SO-DIMM SDR SDRAM 144 DIMM SDR SDRAM 168 DIMM DDR SDRAM 184 SO-DIMM DDR& DDR2 200 DIMM DD2 AND FB- DIMM 240




RIMM RIMM stands for Rambus In-line Memory Module. It has 184 pins. It supports a speed 400-1066MHz. It supports only Rambus DRAMs(RDRAM). It was introduced in the 1999.


MEMORY Memories are the storage devices where Data can be stored. In computer memories data is stored in terms Binary forms that is 1’s & 0’s. Memories are broadly classified into two different types-


MEMORY Depending on the properties Primary and Secondary memories are classified into different types- PRIMARY SECONDARY 1. These are directly accessible by the CPU. These are not directly accessible and they are accessed through I/O channels. 2. These are primary requirement to a system. 2. These are optional. 3. It can store a limited amount of Data. 3. These are for Bulk Storage.


PRIMARY MEMORY Primary memories are broadly classified in to two types-


RAM Stands for Random Access Memory. Volatile in nature. Semiconductor Storage Device. Requires periodic refreshing (DRAM, 10-64ms). DRAM SRAM 1. These are slower in nature. 1. These are faster. 2. Requires periodic refreshing. 2. As long as power is applied need not to refresh. 3. Cheaper. 3. Costlier. 4. Consumes less power. 4. Consumes More power. 5. Typically used as main system Memory. 5. Typically used as cache Memory.


DRAM DRAM are arranged in array of DRAM cells. Each cell contains a transistor and a capacitor which is capable of storing 1’s or 0’s in terms of electrical signals. A 4 BY 4 DRAM ARRAY


DRAM Different types of DRAMs- Asynchronous DRAM : It is the basic form of DRAM from which all others are derived. It has power signal , few Address lines ( Typically 12), few Data lines( 1-4) and 4 active-low signals( /RAS,/CAS, /WE, /OE). VRAM(Video RAM) : These are basically Dual-Ported RAM, one INPUT port and other OUTpuT port . Both can work simultaneously . The Output port is write protected. Specifically used in video adapters. But now a days it is almost obsolete because of SDRAM’s performance and rate. FPM DRAM( First Page Mode DRAM): These RAMs are quite faster than normal DRAMs. Extended Data Out RAM( EDO RAM): These are even faster than FPM DRAM by 5% because they can fetch for new cycle of data while sending out the previous cycle of Data. BEDO( BURST EDO): They could process 4 address locations at one Burst . This is done by adding an extra memory counter on the memory chip. ECC RAM(Error Checking and Correction): These rams are capable of error checking correcting the RAM information using parity bits.


SDR SDRAM SDRAM( Synchronous Dynamic RAM): These are synchronized with system Bus and thus with the Processor. It can accept the incoming instructions before it has finished the previous processing. SDRAMs are again classified in to two different types depending on Performance. That is- SDR( Single Data Rate) & DDR (Double Data Rate) SDR SDRAM: Reads or Writes single word per clock cycle. There are different variations of SDRAM- PC66, PC100, PC133 etc. It can be fixed with DIMM( 100,144,168) connections. SDRAM CLOCK SPEED DATA BUS WIDTH SLOT DATA TRANSFER RATE PC66 66MHz 64 bit DIMM 168/144 533MB/s PC100 100MHz 64 bit DIMM 168/144 800MB/s PC133 133MHz 64 bit DIMM 168/144 1064 MB/s


DDR SDRAM Reads or Writes two words per clock cycle. Reads or Writes on rising and falling edges of the clock cycle. DDR RAM many other variations – DDR2 , DDR3 etc. DDR2- it has the ability to work at a double speed than a DDR chip contains. DDR3- it can work at triple speed than a chip contains. It can be connected with DIMM(184,200,240) connections . DDR RAM CLOCK SPEED DATA BUS WIDTH SLOT DATA TRANSFER RATE PC 1600 100MHz 64bit DIMM 184/200 1.600GB/s PC 2100 133MHz 64bit DIMM 184/200 2.133GB/s PC 2700 166MHz 64bit DIMM 184/200 2.667GB/s PC 3200 200MHZ 64bit DIMM 184/200 3.200GB/S


RDRAM RDRAM stands for Rambus Dynamic Ram. It can Read and Write on both rising and falling edges of the clock pulse. RD RAM CLOCK SPEED DATA BUS WIDTH SLOT DATA TRANSFER RATE PC 600 300MHz 16bit RIMM 184 1200MB/s PC 700 355MHz 16bit RIMM 184 1420MB/s PC 800 400MHz 16bit RIMM 184 1600MB/s PC 1066 533MHZ 16bit RIMM 184 2133MB/S PC 1200 600MHz 16bit RIMM 184 2400MB/s RIMM 3200 400MHz 32bit RIMM 3200MB/s RIMM 4200 533MHz 32bit RIMM 4200MB/s RIMM4800 600MHz 32bit RIMM 4800MB/s RIMM 6400 800MHz 32bit RIMM 6400MB/s




CONVENTIONAL MEMORY The first 640KB of space in the memory is known as Conventional Memory. It contains several other areas with in it- Interrupt Vector Area. DOS Area. Device Driver Area. Command Shell Area. TSR Program Area. (Terminate and stay resident) User Program Area. The IBM PC had a limited addressable space up to 1MB. So this conventional area was very important.


EXPANDED MEMORY It is a part of 384 KB of space with in first 1MB of Memory space. It was using first 64 KB of space from that area. When 80286 came into the market it started supporting Real and Protected Mode of operation and the programs became more memory hungry. So they wanted more addressable space from the Memory to support larger program and to communicate with peripherals. This was possible with EMM386.EXE ( for DOS and Windows) memory manager file from 80386 Microprocessor.


RESERVED MEMORY This is a part of the first 1 MB space from the memory ( 704 KB-1024KB). This location was divided in to two different area for two different purpose- BIOS programs for different peripherals and Video Memory.


HIGH MEMORY AREA This is an area above first 1 MB of the memory up to 1088KB. This area is used after 80286 came in to the market. It is used to support bigger DOS programs to run in this area. It needs a device driver file to work with this area – HIMEM.SYS.


EXTENDED MEMORY Above HMA rest all space is allocated to Extended Memory Area. The total Memory is Divided in to 64 KB of pages. Each page is capable of running individual programs to run in Windows environment for Multi tasking.


VIRTUAL MEMORY Memory can be addressed that doesn't currently reside in the main memory and the operating system and the Hardware will load the required memory in the auxiliary storage memory. This is how it supports extra main memory virtually.


SECONDARY MEMORY Secondary memories are for bulk storage in the system. These are basically not semiconductor storage devices. These memories are optional. Depending on memory functionality these memories are broadly classified into two different types- Eg. HDD, FDD, ZIP DRIVE, TAPE DRIVE etc. Eg. CDROM, DVDROM etc.


FLOPPY DISK DRIVE These are magnetic storage devices. These are portable storage devices. These were the primary means of storage for OS and other programs. FDDs are classified into different types depending on different issues-






FLOPPY DISK Video for floppy Spindle Motor grip Index Hole

Floppy Disk:

Floppy Disk Inside the floppy there will be a thin plastic film coated with Ferro oxide or Cobalt oxide. There the data is actually stored. It is again divided in to Tracks and Sectors.


FLOPPY DISK GEOMETRY Track: The concentric circles on the media where the data is actually stored is known as track. In a 1.44MB , 3.5 inch floppy there will be 80 Tracks. Sector : The subdivision of the Tracks from center towards the edge of the media is known as Sector. In a 1.44MB , 3.5 inch floppy there will be 18 Sectors. Any Track per sector it contains 512 Bytes. Cluster : Combination of multiple Tracks and Sectors. The size may vary from 4 - 64KB.


DISK ORGANIZATION A Floppy disk has different areas with in it . Those are- DBR( Disk Boot Record) FAT( File Allocation Table) Root Directory Data Area


DBR It contains the information about bootable files with in the disk( If the disk is bootable). This is placed in Track0 and Sector1.


FILE ALLOCATION TABLE The file allocation table (FAT) is used to keep track of which clusters are assigned to each file. The FAT also keeps track of which clusters are open and available for use. When an application needs to create (or extend) a file, it requests more clusters from the operating system, which finds them in the file allocation table. Two copies of FAT will be present in a disk for redundancy. It is just placed after DBR.


ROOT DIRECTORY It is just placed after two copies of FAT. A hierarchical directory structure is used to organize the files that exist on any disk volume. This "logical tree" is used on almost every file system.


DATA AREA It is the area where actually data is stored. It is placed after root directory.


FRONT SIDE OF FDD Front Bay Floppy Eject Switch LED




INTERNAL COMPONENTS OF FDD Motors. Read Write Heads. Sensors. Mechanical Assembly. PCB


Motors Two Motors- Spindle Motor: Used to rotate the media internally. Uses +12v. 300 RPM. Stepper Motor: Used to move the head in to and fro motion. Uses +12v.

Read Write Heads:

Read Write Heads Two Heads for two sides of the floppy. Both can perform Read and Write Operation. Lower Head is Head-0 and Upper Head is Head-1.


Sensors Track 0 sensor. Index hole Sensor. Write Protect Sensor. Density Sensor. Disk Change Sensor.

Writing on the Disk:

Writing on the Disk To Read and Write into the disk it uses two different algorithms- MFM ( Modified Frequency Modulation). pp/np RLL ( Run Length Limit). ppp/pnp Where ‘1’ represented as PP and ‘0’ represented as NP.


INSTALLATION OF FDD Maximum two Drives can be fixed in a system. One is represented as A and other is B.

Troubleshooting of FDD:

Troubleshooting of FDD Floppy disk fail (40). Floppy disk fail (80). LED not glowing. Continuously LED Glowing. Disk write protected.


HARD DISK DRIVE These are Magnetic Storage Devices. These are permanent storage devices. These are also known as Fixed Disks. It can store huge amount of data.


HARD DISK DRIVE Different sizes of HDD- Standard Name Width Largest capacity to date (2007) Platters (Max) 5.25" FH 146 mm 47 GB [12] 14 5.25" HH 146 mm 19.3 GB [13] 4 [14] 3.5" 102 mm 1.2 TB 5 2.5" 69.9 mm 320 GB [15] 3 1.8" ( PCMCIA ) 54 mm 160 GB [16] 1.8" (ATA-7 LIF ) 53.8 mm


HARD DISK DRIVE Different Types Interfaces of HDD- ST-506 ESDI (Enhanced Small Disk Interface) IDE ( Integrated Device Electronics) EIDE ( Enhanced IDE) SATA ( Serial Advanced Technology Attachable) SCSI ( Small Computer System Interface)


ST-506 It was the first 5.25” Hard Disk Drive. Introduced in 1980’s by Shugart Technologies ( Seagate Technology). The capacity was 5-10MB. This type of interface had two connector which used be connected with controller card. One connector is of 34 pins ( to control the drive) and other of 20 pins ( to transfer data). Data transfer rate 5-7.5 Mb/s.


ENHANCED SMALL DISK INTERFACE Interface was same like ST-506 that is one 34 pin ( Control signal) and one 20 pin ( Data). Data transfer speed was 10, 15 & 20 Mb/s. Came into the market in mid-1980’s.


INTEGRATED DEVICE ELECTRONICS It had different variants and names- Standard Other Names Transfer Modes Added (MB/s) Maximum disk size Other New Features pre-ATA IDE PIO 0 2.1 GB 22-bit logical block addressing (LBA) ATA-1 ATA, IDE PIO 0, 1, 2 (3.3, 5.2, 8.3) Single-word DMA 0, 1, 2 (2.1, 4.2, 8.3) Multi-word DMA 0 (4.2) 137 GB 28-bit logical block addressing (LBA) ATA-2 EIDE, Fast ATA, Fast IDE, Ultra ATA PIO 3, 4: (11.1, 16.6) Multi-word DMA 1, 2 (13.3, 16.6) ATA-3 EIDE S.M.A.R.T. , Security ATA/ATAPI-4 ATA-4, Ultra ATA/33 Ultra DMA 0, 1, 2 (16.7, 25.0, 33.3) aka UDMA/33 AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI), i.e. support for CD-ROM, tape drives etc., Optional overlapped and queued command set features, Host Protected Area (HPA) ATA/ATAPI-5 ATA-5, Ultra ATA/66 Ultra DMA 3, 4 (44.4, 66.7) aka UDMA/66 80-wire cables ATA/ATAPI-6 ATA-6, Ultra ATA/100 UDMA 5 (100) aka UDMA/100 144 PB 48-bit LBA, Device Configuration Overlay (DCO), Automatic Acoustic Management ATA/ATAPI-7 ATA-7, Ultra ATA/133 UDMA 6 (133) aka UDMA/133 SATA/150 SATA 1.0, Streaming feature set, long logical/physical sector feature set for non-packet devices ATA/ATAPI-8 ATA-8 — Hybrid drive featuring non-volatile cache to speed up critical OS files


A FEW TERMINOLOGIES PIO(Programmable Input Output): It is a method of transferring data between CPU and other peripherals like network adapter or Disk storage. Before DMA it was the only one method of transferring data. It has different modes they vary in data transfer rate because of cycles. PIO modes Mode Maximum transfer rate (MB/s) Minimum cycle time Standard where spec is defined Mode 0 3.3 600 ns ATA-1 Mode 1 5.2 383 ns ATA-1 Mode 2 8.3 240 ns ATA-1 Mode 3 11.1 180 ns ATA-2 Mode 4 16.7 120 ns ATA-2 Mode 5 20 100 ns CompactFlash 2.0 Mode 6 25 80 ns CompactFlash 2.0


A FEW TERMINOLOGIES DMA( Direct Memory Access): It is an advanced transfer method than PIO. It has two different modes- Single and Multi. In Single mode the DMA controller transfers one word(16bit) and requests the CPU control and in Multi mode once the transfer is began it will transfer all words. DMA Modes Mode Max Transfer Rate ( MiB /s) Bits Min cycle time Defining standard Single 0 2.1 16 960 ns ATA-1 Single 1 4.2 16 480 ns ATA-1 Single 2 8.3 16 240 ns ATA-1 Multi 0 4.2 16 480 ns ATA-1 Multi 1 13.3 16 150 ns ATA-2 Multi 2 16.7 16 120 ns ATA-2 Multi 3 20 16 100 ns CompactFlash 2.1 Multi 4 25 16 80 ns CompactFlash 2.1


INTEGRATED DEVICE ELECTRONICS LBA( Logical Block Addressing): It is a scheme of addressing each block in a Hard Disk. In modern systems each Block is of 512 or 1024 Bytes. It can be a 28 or 48 bit address which results in disk size limit of 128GB or 128 PB. It was first introduced with ATA-2. Addressing is done with indexing with a number like LBA0, LBA1 and so on. Before LBA for addressing each block of hard disk CHS ( Cylinder, Head, Sector) scheme was used. In CHS scheme initially there was a limitation in addressing large disks. That is , maximum it could support 1024 cylinders , 16 Heads and 63 sectors. With those values it could maximum support 1024*16*63*512Bytes=504MB. Later on because of advanced BIOS feature they could virtualized the no of Head from 16 to 255 and they could address maximum 7.8GB of HDD. This scheme is known as ECHS( Extended cylinder-Head-Sector).


SMART Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology , or S.M.A.R.T. , is a monitoring system for computer hard disks to detect and report on various indicators of reliability, in the hope of anticipating failures.




SATA Stands for Serial ATA. Mainly designed for communicating between CPU and Hard Disk Drives. As because it is a serial link so longer cables can be supported. Cables are thinner so better air ventilation inside the cabinet. Faster communication; 1.5Gb/s, 3Gb/s and 6Gb/s. Interface uses a 7 pin connector for data and 15 pin connector for power. One device per port can be connected.


SCSI Stands for Small Computer System Interface. Mainly used in server computers. This interface can support a variety devices like HDD, Optical Drives, Scanners, Printers etc. It supports more number of devices per connector in a Daisy Chain. The same SCSI adapter can support both internal and external devices. A SCSI adapter uses its own BIOS and firmware to talk to it’s devices. There a Variety of SCSI devices-


SCSI Interface Alternative names Specification document Connector Width (bits) Clock [3] Maximum Throughput [4] Length (single ended) [5] Length LVD Length HVD Devices [6] SCSI-1 SCSI-1 IDC50; Centronics C50 8 5 MHz 5 MB/s 6 m NA 25m 8 Fast SCSI SCSI-2 IDC50; Centronics C50 8 10 MHz 10 MB/s 1.5-3 m NA 25m 8 Fast-Wide SCSI SCSI-2; SCSI-3 SPI 2 x 50-pin (SCSI-2); 1 x 68-pin (SCSI-3) 16 10 MHz 20 MB/s 1.5-3 m NA 25m 16 Ultra SCSI Fast-20 SCSI-3 SPI IDC50 8 20 MHz 20 MB/s 1.5-3 m NA 25m 8 Ultra Wide SCSI SCSI-3 SPI 68-pin 16 20 MHz 40 MB/s 1.5-3 m NA 25m 16 Ultra2 SCSI Fast-40 SCSI-3 SPI-2 50-pin 8 40 MHz 40 MB/s NA 12m 25m 8 Ultra2 Wide SCSI SCSI-3 SPI-2 68-pin; 80-pin ( SCA /SCA-2) 16 40 MHz 80 MB/s NA 12m 25m 16 Ultra3 SCSI Ultra-160 SCSI-3 SPI-3 68-pin; 80-pin ( SCA /SCA-2) 16 40 MHz DDR 160 MB/s NA 12m NA 16 Ultra-320 SCSI 68-pin; 80-pin ( SCA /SCA-2) 16 80 MHz DDR 320 MB/s NA 12m NA 16 Ultra-640 SCSI 68-pin; 80-pin 16 160 MHz DDR 640 MB/s ?? 16


RPM Rotation Per Minute. It defines the speed of the spindle Motor inside the HDD. It can be of different types- 3600, 5400, 7200 & 10000.

Internals of a HDD:

Internals of a HDD Platters Motor Voice Coil Air Filter R/W Heads PCB


A FEW TERMINOLOGIES WRITE PRECOMPENSATION: All sectors store 512 Bytes of data. The sectors at the outer side are more longer than the sectors at the inner side. So, earlier HDDs were facing difficulty to store data. Because of that some compensation has to be made to avoid the difficulty. For that some value has to be set in BIOS specifying that from which Track compensation to start. But in modern disk that is auto detected.


A FEW TERMINOLOGIES LANDING ZONE: This is the area where head is parked when HDD stops working. Actually this area contains no data. In modern systems that is placed at the outer side of the disk.


INSTALLATION OF HDD Physical connectivity. Jumper setting. Primary Master, Primary Slave, Secondary Master and Secondary Slave with IDE port and Jumper setting. CMOS configuration.




PARTITIONING Partition: Partitions are logical divisions of a hard drive. A computer might have only one physical hard drive (called hard drive 0), but it can have anywhere from 1 to 24 logical drives, identified as C to Z. Partitions exist for two reasons: To divide the disk into several drive letters to make it easier to organize data files. Some users separate data, programs, and operating system files onto different drives. To accommodate more than one operating system. To support large Disk. For data security. Different types of Partitions: Primary Partition. Extended Partition. Logical Partition.


FORMATTING Disk formatting is the process of preparing a hard disk or other storage medium for use. There two different types of Formatting. Low-Level : Low-level formatting means creating all the sectors, tracks, cylinders, and head information on the drive, and this is the third step in installing hard disk drives; generally, it applies only to older drives. Low-level formatting by the end user has virtually been eliminated with today's drives (it's done at the factory). A low-level format performs three simultaneous functions: It creates and organizes the sectors, making them ready to accept data. It sets the proper interleave (records the sector header, trailer information, and inter sector and inter track gaps). It establishes the boot sector.


FORMATTING High-Level: The high-level format is simply called "format" (the program used to perform a high-level format is called FORMAT.COM). This is the same format command used to prepare floppy disk drives. The high-level format performs two major functions: It creates and configures the file allocation tables (Fats). It creates the root directory, which is the foundation on which files and subdirectories are built.

Slide 221:


HCNE Core Computer Hardware:

HCNE Core Computer Hardware Printers


Introduction Ever since PCs were launched, printers and monitors have been two most popular output devices. Often we need to have a permanent copy of important copy important documents and send it to another place. In such situations, printer is the only solution. Printers give a hardcopy of the result on the paper, which can be viewed, filed, and used at a later stage. A parallel or serial interface links a printer with the computer. Commands and data from the computer are sent to through the cable interface. Present day printers send their status and identification information to the computer through the same interface, i.e. modern PC to computer communication id bidirectional .

Classification of Printers:

Classification of Printers There are several ways to classify printers based on following parameters: Printing Mechanism. Type of characters printed on the paper. Number of characters printed at a time. Print Quality. Type of interface. Print Direction.

Print Mechanism:

Print Mechanism Based on printing mechanism, printers are categorized as follows: Impact Printers. Non-Impact Printers.

Types of Characters Printed on Paper:

Types of Characters Printed on Paper On the basis of continuity / discontinuity in the character impression on paper, there are two broad categories of Printers: Fully formed character printer. Bit Image Printer.

Number of characters printed at a time:

Number of characters printed at a time Based on this parameter we have three types of printers: Character Printer. Line Printer. Page Printer.

Print Quality:

Print Quality This parameter gives us three types of printers: Draft Quality Printers. Letter Quality Printers. Near Letter Quality Printers.

Types of Interface:

Types of Interface Parallel Interface Printers. Serial Interface Printers.

Print Direction:

Print Direction Unidirectional Printer. Bi-directional Printer.

Dot Matrix Printers:

Dot Matrix Printers Dot Matrix Printers (DMPs) have been one most popular printers in the computer industry because of their simple operation, low cost, low maintenance, low operating expense, ruggedness and easy serviceability. A unique feature of DMPs is their ability to print different types of text fonts as well as graphics format on almost any type of paper without changing the print-head setup. DMP printers can print in both Draft and NLQ modes. These are Impact Printers. These are Bit Image Printers. Connected with Parallel Interface or Network Interface.

What are the advantages of DMP ?:

What are the advantages of DMP ?

Let’s talk about some disadvantages.:

Let’s talk about some disadvantages.

Types of Dot Matrix Printers:

Types of Dot Matrix Printers Dot Matrix Printers can be classified in different ways based on different parameters: Number of Pins in the Print Head. Number of Printing Columns. Color of Printing.

Construction and Working of DMPs:

Construction and Working of DMPs A typical DMP has four major subassemblies: Power Supply Unit. Printer Controller Circuitry. Printer Controller Microprocessor. Reset Circuitry. Buffered RAM. ROM. Carriage Motor Control Logic. Print Head Control Logic. PC Interface. Control Panel Electro-Mechanical Print Mechanism ( Print Head). Sensors Home Position Sensor Paper Sensor

Inkjet Printers:

Inkjet Printers Although Inkjets were available in the 1980s, it was only in the 1990s that prices dropped enough to bring the technology to the common PC buyers. Inkjet technologies have made rapid technological advances in recent years with each new product on the market showing improvements in performance, usability and output quality. With the process of refinement continuing, prices of Inkjet printers are also showing a steady downward trend. These are Non-Impact Printers. These are Bit-Image Printers. These can provide both Black and Colour Print outs. Mostly they come with USB Interface.

Inside an Inkjet Printer:

Inside an Inkjet Printer Printer Head Assembly. Print Head. Ink Cartridges. Print Head Stepper Motor. Belt. Stabilizer Bar. Paper Feed Assembly. Paper Tray/Feeder. Paper Feed Stepper Motor. Power Supply. Control Circuitry. Interface Port. Sensors Paper Sensor Home Sensors

Types of Inkjet Technology:

Types of Inkjet Technology Thermal Inkjet Technology. Piezo-electric Inkjet Technology.


DISPLAY SYSTEMS Under Display system in a computer there are Major two components- Display Card. Monitor.

Display Card:

Display Card It is a device which generates the output Images for Display Devices ( Monitors). They are also known as Display Adapter, Video Adapter, Video Card or Graphic Accelerator Cards.

Display Card:

Display Card Different types of Display cards- Year Text Mode Graphics Mode Colors Memory MDA 1981 80*25 - 1 4 KB CGA 1981 80*25 640*200 16 16 KB HGC 1982 80*25 720*348 1 64 KB EGA 1984 80*25 640*350 16 256 KB IBM 8514 1987 80*25 1024*768 256 - MCGA 1987 80*25 320*200 256 - VGA 1987 720*400 640*480 256 256 KB SVGA 1989 80*25 1024*768 256 2 MB XGA 1990 80*25 1024*768 65,536 1 MB MDA : Monochrome Display Adapter. CGA : Colour Graphic Adapter. HGA: Hercules Graphic adapter. EGA : Enhanced Graphic Adapter. MCGA : Multi Colour Graphic Adapter. VGA : Video Graphic Adapter. SVGA: Super Video Graphic Adapter. XGA : Extended Graphic Adapter.

Display Card:

Display Card Different Motherboard Interface for Display Cards- Bus Width (bits) Clock rate (MHz) Bandwidth (MB/s) Style ISA XT 8 4,77 8 Parallel ISA AT 16 8,33 16 Parallel MCA 32 10 20 Parallel EISA 32 8,33 32 Parallel VESA 32 40 160 Parallel PCI 32 - 64 33 - 100 132 - 800 Parallel AGP 1x 32 66 264 Parallel AGP 2x 32 133 528 Parallel AGP 4x 32 266 1000 Parallel AGP 8x 32 533 2000 Parallel PCIe x1 1*32 25 / 50 100 / 200 Serial PCIe x4 1*32 25 / 50 400 / 800 Serial PCIe x8 1*32 25 / 50 800 / 1600 Serial PCIe x16 1*32 25 / 50 1600 / 3200 Serial

Display Cards:

Display Cards Components on a Display Card- VRAM: Video RAM. It holds the information which has to be displayed on the Monitor. It might be shared from the main RAM module or might be dedicated on Display Card. GPU: Graphic Processing Unit. It is a dedicated processing unit for the Display Card. Who's main job is to processing normal, 2D and 3D images and controlling overall operation of the Display Card. BIOS: It contains the Basic Program to control the basic operation of the Display Card and provides instructions to communicate between system and the Display Card. RAMDAC: Random Access Memory Digital-Analog Converter. It is responsible for converting the computers Digital signal to Analog signal for Monitor. VRAM GPU BIOS RAMDAC

Display Card:

Display Card Outputs from a Display Card -

Display Card:

Display Card Signals going out from a Display Card- RED GREEN BLUE HSYNC VSYNC RGND GGND BGND SGND 1. RED 2. GREEN 3. BLUE 4. NC 5. GND (HSYNC) 6. RGND 7. GGND 8. BGND 9. 5V 10. GND 11. NC 12. SDA 13. HSYNC 14.VSYNC 15.SCL

Display Card:



MONITOR It is the primary Display Unit. Its basically a interface between the computer system and user. Monitor gets the information from computer system via Display card. It shows the soft copy of the output.


OPTICAL DRIVES These are Secondary Storage Devices to store huge amount of data. They use optical properties to read data from the media. They use portable storage media.




DIFFERENT INTERFACES USED FOR OPTICAL DRIVES EIDE(ATAPI)-Internal Only. SCSI( Small Computer System Interface)- Internal and External. USB- External only.


CD –ROM Stands for Compact Disc Read Only Memory. These are basic optical storage devices. These are basically a polycarbonate media where data is stored in terms of PITs and LANDs. A reflective coating of Silver or aluminum is also provided. It uses spiral tracks. Tracks are numbered from 1 and the inner most track is Track 1. A 650MB CD has 22,188 tracks. It can be available in different capacities and different physical sizes- Physical size Audio Capacity CD-ROM Data Capacity 12 cm (standard) 74–80 min 650–703 MB 8 cm (mini-CD) 21–24 min 185–210 MB


CD ROM Front and Back side of CDROM Drive.


INSIDE THE CDROM DRIVE Motors ( Spindle and Stepper). Lens assembly. PCB. Mechanical Assembly.


CDROM DRIVE SPEED AND ACCESS TIME Performance of the CDROM Drive depends on two values- Speed: Refers to the data transfer rate. Represented by X. X means 150kbps. To determine the speed of the CDROM Drive multiply the Value with X. Like 2X means 300kbps is the speed for the drive. Access Time: It refers to the time taken to move the head over half the tracks. Typically access time is 200-400ms. Lesser the value better the performance.


INSTALLATION OF CDROM DRIVE Installation CDROM drive – Physical Installation. CMOS configuration. Under DOS environment. Under Windows .




DVD Stands for Digital Versatile Disk or Digital Video Disk. Theoretically it can store up to 17GB. Data can be stored in multiple layers and multiple sides. Dimension of PITs are smaller compared to CD. Tracks are more closer than CD. So it needs a more powerful lens assembly.


DVD ROM SPEED In case of DVD sped is measured with X values. In case of DVD X=1352.54kbps. DVD Read/Write Speed Transfer Rate bytes/sec Transfer Rate KB/sec Transfer Rate MB/sec Equivalent CD-R/CD-RW read/ write speed 1x 1,385,000 1,352.54 1.32 9x 2x 2.770,000 2,705.08 2.64 18x 3x 4,155,000 4,057.62 3.96 27x 4x 5,540,000 5,410.16 5.28 36x 5x 6,925,000 6,762.70 6.60 45x 6x 8,310,000 8,115.23 7.93 54x 8x 11,080,000 10,820.31 10.57 -- 10x 13,850,000 13,525.39 13.21 -- 12x 16,620,000 16,230.47 15.85 -- 16x 22,160,000 21,640.63 21.13 --


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Circuit Diagram for SMPS :

Circuit Diagram for SMPS

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