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The drugs which are used to lower the blood glucose level i.e. to treat diabetes mellitus. CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS : Insulin/ P arenteral antidiabetic agent Synthetic antidiabetics/oral hypoglycaemics ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS


Sulfonyl ureas : Eg : Tolbutamide , carbutamide glipizide , glimepiride Biguanides : Eg : phenformin , metformin Non- sulfonyl ureas : Eg : R osiglitazone , P ioglitazone N ateglinide SYNTHETIC ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS

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α - glucosidase inhibitors: Eg : A carbose , voglibose Miglitol Aldose reductase inhibitors: Eg : S orbinil , tolrestat Miscellaneous: Eg : Linogliride , pirogliride


Various analytical methods like radioimmunoassay, HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, LC/MS, TLC, UV have been successfully developed and utilized for the estimation of sulfonyl ureas . SULFONYLUREAS

Capillary electrophoresis::

CE separation was carried out using Beckman Instrument Equipped with monochromatic ultraviolet detector set at 200 nm 3-min prerinse with the running buffer & 1-min rinse with the washing buffer, followed by 1 min with 0.1 mol/L NaOH . The dried samples were reconstituted with 30–60 μL of acetonitrile:water (60:40, by volume) Capillary electrophoresis :


Instrument composed of two pumps, an autosampler and a double-beam ultraviolet detector set at 225 nm was used. The column was a LiChrospher 100 RP-18 . The dried samples were reconstituted with 120 μL of K 2 HPO 4 :methanol (40:60, by volume), and 20–100 μL was injected into the column. HPLC:


Hypurity C18 column , particle size 5 µm with the temperature maintained at 30 °C. Samples were eluted with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile + 1 g/ Lformic acid in purified water (50:50 by volume), delivered at a flow rate of 0.3 mL /min. Nitrogen was used as drying and nebulizing gas. LC/MS:


Thin layer chromatography(IP method): Coated with silica gel Solvent mixture: methanol & methylene chloride Mobile phase: 25vol. Anhydrousformicacid+25vol. Ethylacetate+50 vol. methylene chloride examine in the ultraviolet light at 254nm GLIPIZIDE:


Chromatographic system a stainless steel column 15 cm x 4.6 mm packed with octadecylsilyl silica (5 µm), mobile phase : a mixture of 17 volumes of acetonitrile & 83 volumes of a 0.35 per cent w/v of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, adjusted to pH 8.0 with ortho phosphoric acid, flow rate:1 ml per minute. spectrophotometer set at 274 nm, LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY:


Thin layer chromatography ( IP method): Mobile phase: A mixture of 90 volumes of chloroform,8 volumes of methanol and 2 volumes of anhydrous formic acid. Test solution: Dissolve 0.5 g of the substance under examination in 10 ml of acetone. Reference solution : A 0.015 per cent w/v solution of 4-toluene sulphonamide in acetone. gives a very faint blue colour with potassium iodide and starch solution TOLBUTAMIDE


Metformin chemically 1,1-dimethyl biguanide . HPTLC METHOD : Mobile phase - water:methanol:ammonium sulphate TLC chamber was saturated for 45 min The mobile phase was run up to a distance of 8 cm Takes approximately 30 min for complete development of the TLC plate. BIGUANIDES

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Liquid chromatography : Chromatographic system a stainless steel column 30 cm x 4 mm, packed with octadecylsilane bonded to porous silica (10 µm) mobile phase : a solution containing 0.087 per cent w/v of sodium pentane sulphonate and 0.12 per cent w/v of sodium chloride, adjusted to pH 3.5 using 1 per cent v/v solution of ortho phosphoric acid flow rate: 1 ml per minute, spectrophotometer set at 218 nm ,

spectrophotometric method::

The primary amino group of metformin hydrochloride reacts with ninhydrin in alkaline medium to form a violet colour chromogen , which is determined spectrophotometrically at 570 nm. HPLC: mobile phase: a mixture of 10 mM aqueous octane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt solution at pH 3.0 + acetonitrile gradient grade in a proportion of 80/20 (v/v) flow rate of 1.2 mL /min. spectrophotometric method :


Rosiglitazone : Liquid chromatography(IP method) : a stainless steel column 25 cm x 4.6 mm packed withoctadecysilane bonded to porous silica (5 µm mobile phase: a mixture of 65 volumes of 0.01 M potassium hydrogen phosphate adjusted to pH 3.0 with orthophosphoric acid+25 volumes of acetonitrile + 10 volumes of methanol, flow rate. 1 ml/min spectrophotometer set at 235 nm, Non- sulfonylureas :


oral antidiabetic agent belonging to the class of thiazolidine diones . HPTLC method : stationary phase: pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 aluminum sheets (20×10 cm) (pre-washed with methanol. and dry in air); mobile phase: Toluene:methanol:ammonia (7:3:0.1 v/v); Chamber saturation time:30 min; Temperature, 29±4 wavelength of detection, 268 nm PIOGLITAZONE:

α-glucosidase inhibitors::

Miglitol : RP-HPLC method : (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography) amino C 18 column mobile phase: acetonitrile +monobasic sodium phosphate pH 7.5 (80:20, v/v) flow rate- 1.5 ml/min Detection - UV/Vis detector at 220 nm. retention time for miglitol was 13.93±0.0367 α - glucosidase inhibitors :


UV- Spectroscopic method: Solvent- methanol Maximum absorption at 282nm Spectrofluorimetric method: Solvent-methanol( methanolic voglibose shows fluorosense ) excitation wavelength-282nm emission wavelength – 345nm VOGLIBOSE:


anti diabetic drugs are mainly determined by the analytical techniques i.e. chromatograpy spectroscopical & electrophoresis methods. CONCLUSION :


Indian pharmacopia 2007 Internet REFERENSE :

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