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SYLLABUS Concept of Entrepreneurship and Evolution of Entrepreneurial class. Theories and Importance of entrepreneurship, Women Entrepreneur . Stages in entrepreneurship development Environmental factor affecting entrepreneurship ,Entrepreneur and Managers, Intrapreneurs . Classification of Entrepreneur Process of generating business ideas, screening and selection. Business plan . Industry development, identification of opportunities for industries.


INTRODUCTION The word Entrepreneurship is derived from the French verb “ENTERPRENDRE”. The French men who organized and led military expeditions in the early 16th Century were referred to as Entrepreneurs. Around 1700A.D. the term Entrepreneur was used for architects and contractors of public work.


DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEUR According to Oxford Dictionary “one who undertakes an enterprise, especially a contractor – acting as intermediary between capital and labor” According to Peter .P. Drucker “Innovation is the specific tool of entrepreneurs, the means by which they exploit changes as an opportunity for different business or a different service”


CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ENTREPRENEUR Mental Ability – Entrepreneur must have creative thinking and must be able to analyze problems and situations. He should be able to anticipate changes. Business Secrecy – He should guard his business secrets from his competitors. Clear Objectives – He must have clear objectives as to the exact nature of business or the nature of goods to be produced.

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Human Relations – He must maintain good relation with his customers, employees, etc. To maintain good relationship he should have emotional stability, personal relations, tactfulness and consideration. Communication Ability – He should have good communication skills means both the sender and the receiver should understand each others message.

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Technical Knowledge – He should have sufficient technical knowledge.


PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ENTREPRENEUR Long term involvement – An entrepreneur must be committed to the project. Motivator Moderate risk taker Initiative

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High energy level – He should be able to work for long hours, for which his energy level should be high. Goal setter Self confidence


DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP According to A.H.Cole “Entrepreneurship is the purposeful activity of an individual or group of associated individuals, undertaken to initiate, maintain or aggrandize profit by production or distribution of economic goods or services”.

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According to Peter .P. Drucker “Entrepreneurship is neither a science nor an art. It is a practice. It is knowledge base. Knowledge in entrepreneurship is a means to an end, that is ,by the practice”.


THEORIES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP The Economist’s View According to the economist entrepreneurship and economic growth will take place in those situation where particular economic conditions are most favorable. According to J.B.Say rationally combining the forces of production into a new producing organization is the function of an entrepreneur.

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According to Cantillon an entrepreneur is an uncertainty bearer buying at a fixed price and selling at an uncertain price. Entrepreneur connects different markets, he is capable of gap-filling, he is input completer and he creates or expands things.

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Small industry is a natural habitat of the entrepreneur where his role is like that of a striker who keeps the fire burning. The entrepreneurship development in a particular country largely depends upon the economic policy, programme and economic environment of that country.

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The Sociologist’s View It emerges under a specific social culture. According to sociologist’s social sanctions, cultural values and role expectations are responsible for the emergence of entrepreneurship. Society values are most important determinants of attitudes and role expectation.

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Sociologist’s consider the entrepreneur as a role performer corresponding to the role expected by the society. According to Flavia ,the function of an entrepreneur is to co-ordinate at every stage i.e. beginning, maintenance and expansion. Every entrepreneur needs two qualities they are Optimistic outlook and Dynamism

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e.g. Protestant ethic from west emerge as new class of industrialist . Samurai from Japan , Christians from Lebanon, Halai Memon Industrialist in Pakistan , Marwaris & Parsis in India

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The Psychologist’s view It is most likely to emerge when a society has sufficient supply of individuals possessing particular psychological characteristics. It’s the high need for achievement which drives people towards entrepreneurial activities . Individual with high achievement motive tend to take keen interest in situation of high risk ,desire for responsibility and desire for task performance

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Entrepreneur possesses three things i.e. an institutional capacity to see things in a way which later proves to be true, a kind of effort of will and mind to overcome fixed habits of thinking, lastly the capacity to overcome social opposition against doing something new. Frank Young describes an entrepreneur as a change agent T.V. Rao describes entrepreneurship as a creative and innovative response to environment.

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Managerial Views This view gives more importance to the managerial aspects like perception of market opportunities and operational skills as qualities required to carry out an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the out come of complex and varying combination of socio economic, psychological and other factors.


EVOLUTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA The concept of entrepreneur and entrepreneurship includes basic qualities of leadership enterprise, innovation, vision, hard work and profit maximization. In India 70% of the total sales comes from family business e.g.Tata’s makes trucks, Mahindra’s make jeeps etc.

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The Indian entrepreneur, intrapreneur or manager of the 90’s have to molded in psycho-philosophy rot in the Indian context and values.


FACTORS AFFECTING ENTREPRENEURIAL GROWTH ECONOMIC FACTORS Lack of adequate overhead facilities: Profitable innovations require basic facilities like transportation, communication power supply etc. They reduce cost of production and increase profit.

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Non availability of capital Inventions are capital oriented. In less developed countries most capital equipment have to be imported which involves foreign exchange which acts as a difficult problem. Great risk Risk is high in case of less developed countries as there is lack of reliable information, markets for good and services is small etc.

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Non availability of labor and skills Though there is abundant labor supply there is generally scarcity of skills at all levels. SOCIAL FACTORS A society that is rational in decision making would be favorable for decision making. Education, research and training is given less importance in less developed countries therefore there is very little vertical mobility of labor.

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CULTURAL FACTORS if the culture is economically or monetarily oriented entrepreneurship would be applauded and praised. In less developed countries people are not economically motivated. People have ample opportunities of attaining social distinction by non economic pursuits.

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PERSONALITY FACTORS In less developed countries the entrepreneur is looked upon with suspicion. Public opinion in the less developed nations sees in the entrepreneur only a profit maker and exploited.


IMPORTANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN DEVELOPED ECONOMY The nature of a developing economy is quite different from a developed economy. The developing economy can be an agricultural country moving towards the industrialization or it may be the one where in the industry may be in its infancy lacking advance technology.

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The modern era is an era of changes. The whole world is becoming a village due to the industrial revolution and fast developing communication technology. The globalization of industry and commerce is bringing a vast change in various aspects of life. Economic development of a country is the outcome of purposeful human activity.

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Economic development is a highly dynamic process characterized by the pattern of demand shifts, new products are needed, appear for the production of goods within a country. A developing country needs entrepreneurs who are competent to perceive new opportunities and are willing to incur the necessary risk in exploiting them.

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A developing economy is required to be brought out of the vicious circle of low income and poverty. Entrepreneur can break this vicious circle. Entrepreneurs and helping government can change a developing economy in developed economy .


MOTIVATION Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action, to push the right button to get the desired results.


MOTIVATING FACTORS Education background Occupational experience Family background Desire to work independently in manufacturing line Assistance from financial institution Availability of technology Other factors

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