Auxiliary verbs

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Ld I : 

Ld I AUXILIARY VERBS PRIMARY AND MODAL

AUXILIARY VERB : 

AUXILIARY VERB An Auxiliary Verb is a verb thaT helps to form tenses, Voices, or moods of other verbs. It is also called a Helping Verb. Or a special verb .

AUXILIARY VERBS : 

AUXILIARY VERBS PRIMARY AUXILIARIES Be, do, have She is singing. They were waiting. I don’t sing. She has eaten. We had left before he came in. MODAL AUXILIARIES Shall, should, will, would, May, might, can, could, must, Ought, used, need, dare I will come. She can cross the river. We ought to work hard. The actor might come. Could I borrow your book?

Primary Auxiliaries : 

Primary Auxiliaries The Auxiliary ‘Be’ is used: 1.In the form of the continuous tenses ;as, I am working in an educational institute. He was writing a letter to his mother. 2. In the form of the passive ; as, The shop is opened by a peon. The boy was bitten by a dog. The Auxiliary ‘Have’ is used : 1. In the form of the perfect tenses ; as, I have finished my assignment on time. He had completed his graduation from our college. The Auxiliary ‘do’ is used: 1. In the form of the simple tenses ; as, I didn’t play the match. Doesn’t he work here anymore?

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MODAL AUXILIARIES Are also referred to as Modals Are never used alone. Are always followed by the Principal Verb. Don’t change their forms according to the number or person of the subject. FUNCTIONS OF MODALS CAN AND COULD ARE USED: FOR PERMISSION: You can go out and play football. He told me that I could accompany him. TO MAKE REQUESTS: Can I join your team, please? Could you help me in my work? TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY OR PROBABILTY: It could be true. I can visit her once a week . TO EXPRESS ABILITY: He can lift this heavy box. I could dance well when I was in college.

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FUNCTIONS OF MODALS MAY AND MIGHT ARE USED : TO MAKE REQUESTS: May I go to the dance party? Mr. President, might I come in?(very formal) To GIVE PERMISSION: Yes, you may go. TO EXPRESS POSSIBILITY: We might also join you. WILL IS USED: TO EXPRESS FUTURE TIME REFERENCE: We will need the money next month. TO EXPRESS DETERMINATION: I will succeed or die in the attempt. TO MAKE PROMISES: I will submit the lesson by tomorrow. TO ISSUE INVITATION: Will you have tea with me?

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FUNCTIONS OF MODALS WOULD IS USED TO : TO EXPRESS REQUEST: Would you lend me your book? TO EXPRESS PAST HABIT: I would sit for hours listening to music. AS THE PAST EQUIVALENT OF WILL: He said he would carry my bag to school. SHOULD IS USED TO : TO GIVE ADVICE: You should help the poor and needy people. TO GIVE INSTRUCTIONS: You should obey the teachers. To express a supposition: If he should catch me here, he will tell my parents. As the past equivalent of shall: He said he should get a first class.

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FUNCTIONS OF MODALS MUST IS USED TO EXPRESS: DUTY: You must inform your parents. OBLIGATION: I must improve my handwriting. NECESSITY: We must get up early. DETERMINATION: We must do some social work. CERTAINTY: She must have left already. SHALL IS USED IN THE SECOND OR THIRD PERSON TO EXPRESS: A COMMAND: He shall not enter my house again. A PROMISE: You shall have a holiday tomorrow. A THREAT: The boy shall be punished for not completing his work in class.

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FUNCTIONS OF MODALS OUGHT TO IS USED TO EXPRESS: MORAL OBLIGATION: We ought to help others. PROBABILITY: Prices ought to come down soon. NEED IS USED TO EXPRESS: NECESSITY: He need not attend the function. OBLIGATION: I need to reach the venue by two o’ clock. DARE IS USED : IN NEGATIVE sentences: I dare not cross his path. In interrogative sentences: How dare they come in my way?

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MADE BY RACHNA MARWAH

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