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Slide 1: 

Heat and Temperature

Kinetic molecular theory : 

Kinetic molecular theory Collective hypotheses about the particulate nature of matter and the surrounding space Greeks - earliest written ideas on atoms Current view Matter comprised of microscopic particles - atoms Atoms combine to form molecules Many macroscopic phenomena can be traced to interactions on this level

Molecular motions : 

Molecular motions Characterized by average kinetic energy in a large sample Temperature Measure of average kinetic energy on the molecules making up a substance Proportional to average KE

Molecular motions : 

Molecular motions Evidence Gases diffuse quicker at higher temperatures Expansion/contraction with increasing/decreasing temperature

Temperature : 

Temperature A measure of the internal energy of an object Thermometers Used to measure temperature Rely on thermometric properties Example: bimetallic strips and thermostats

Temperature scales : 

Temperature scales Defined w.r.t various reference points Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin Conversion formulas Fahrenheit to Celsius Celsius to Fahrenheit Celsius to Kelvin

Heat : 

Heat A form of energy transfer between two objects External energy - total potential and kinetic energy of an every-day sized object Internal energy - total kinetic energy of the molecules in that object External can be transferred to internal, resulting in a temperature increase

Heat versus temperature : 

Heat versus temperature Temperature A measure of hotness or coldness of an object Based on average molecular kinetic energy Heat Based on total internal energy of molecules Doubling amount at same temperature doubles heat

Heat : 

Heat Definition A measure of the internal energy that has been absorbed or transferred from another object Two related processes “Heating” = increasing internal energy “Cooling” = decreasing internal energy

Heat : 

Heat Heating methods Temperature difference: Energy always moves from higher temperature regions to lower temperature regions Energy-form conversion: Transfer of heat by doing work

Measures of heat : 

Measures of heat Metric units calorie (cal) - energy needed to raise temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius kilocalorie (kcal, Calorie, Cal) - energy needed to raise temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius

Measures of heat : 

Measures of heat English system British thermal unit (BTU) - energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water 1 degree Fahrenheit Mechanical equivalence 4.184 J = 1 cal

Specific heat : 

Specific heat Variables involved in heating Temperature change Mass Type of material Different materials require different amounts of heat to produce the same temperature change Measure = specific heat Summarized in one equation

Heat flow : 

Heat flow Three mechanisms for heat transfer due to a temperature difference Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation Natural flow is always from higher temperature regions to cooler ones

Conduction : 

Conduction Heat flowing through matter Mechanism Hotter atoms collide with cooler ones, transferring some of their energy Direct physical contact required; cannot occur in a vacuum Poor conductors = insulators (Styrofoam, wool, air…)

Sample conductivities : 

Sample conductivities

Convection : 

Convection Energy transfer through the bulk motion of hot material Examples Space heater Gas furnace (forced) Natural convection mechanism - “hot air rises”

Radiation : 

Radiation Radiant energy - energy associated with electromagnetic waves Can operate through a vacuum All objects emit and absorb radiation Temperature determines Emission rate Intensity of emitted light Type of radiation given off Temperature determined by balance between rates of emission and absorption Example: Global warming

Evaporation and condensation : 

Evaporation and condensation Individual molecules can change phase any time Evaporation: Energy required to overcome phase cohesion Higher energy molecules near the surface can then escape Condensation: Gas molecules near the surface lose KE to liquid molecules and merge

Relative Humidity : 

Relative Humidity Ratio of how much water vapor is in the air to how much water vapor could be in the air at a certain temperature Expressed as a percentage

Thermodynamics : 

Thermodynamics The study of heat and its relationship to mechanical and other forms of energy Thermodynamic analysis includes System Surroundings (everything else) Internal energy (the total internal potential and kinetic energy of the object in question) Heat engines - devices converting heat into mechanical energy

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