Saad ShahidBS Telecommunications Systems5th SemesterBZU Multan : Saad ShahidBS Telecommunications Systems5th SemesterBZU Multan Ad-hoc Networks Contents : Contents Introduction
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Infrastructure based Networks and Infrastructure-less Networks.
Mobile Ad-hoc Network Routing Protocols
Setting up a simple Mobile Ad-hoc Network
Pros and Cons.
Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks
Classification, types, network structure, basic requirements.
Difference between Cellular and Ad-hoc Networks
Future Research Directions
Conclusions Ad Hoc NetworksThe Need of “TIME”. : Ad Hoc NetworksThe Need of “TIME”. Today the networks normally developed are of
the type having some fixed infrastructure. What
would be the solution if the network is required to be
made for some short period of time? Introduction : Introduction An Ad-hoc network is a local area network or some other small network, especially one with wireless (or temporary plug in connections), in which some of the network devices are the part of the network only for the duration of a communications session.
Allows new network devices to be quickly added.
Each user has a unique network address that is recognized as the part of the network. A Simple Ad Hoc Network Example : A Simple Ad Hoc Network Example Nodes or devices can join together to make up a simple ad-hoc network. Every device owes an equal status or designation in the network. A Comparison Example : A Comparison Example One organization, for example arranges a conference, and the attendees use their laptops or notebook computers to connect to the nearby computers and the Internet through the wireless router. A Comparison Example cont’d… : A Comparison Example cont’d… A better solution to this kind of network will be an ad-hoc network in which the wireless router is replaced by a wireless computer that can well act as a wireless router.
The computers communicate directly with each other. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks : Mobile Ad-hoc Networks On the basis of infrastructure we can classify the Ad-hoc networks into two main categories. They are
A network with pre-constructed infrastructure that is made of fixed network nodes and gateways, with typically network services delivered via these preconfigured infrastructures.
For example, cellular networks are infrastructure-based networks built from PSTN backbone switches, MSCs, base stations, and mobile hosts.
Each node has its strict specific responsibility in the network. WLANs typically also fall into this category. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks : Mobile Ad-hoc Networks Infrastructure-less networks
In this case a network is formed dynamically through the cooperation of an arbitrary set of independent nodes.
For example, two PCs equipped with wireless adapter cards can set up an independent network whenever they are within range of one another.
In mobile ad hoc networks, nodes are expected to behave as routers and take part in discovery and maintenance of routes to other nodes.
Network is decentralized where the topology discovering and the message delivering must be executed by the nodes themselves. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing Protocols : Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing Protocols Ad-hoc Networks require efficient routing protocols because determining successful routing paths and delivering messages in a decentralized environment where network topology fluctuates is not a well defined problem.
An optimal route at a certain time may not work seconds later.
Discussed below are three categories that existing ad-hoc network routing protocols fall into:
Table Driven Protocols
On Demand Protocols
Hybrid Protocols Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing Protocols : Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing Protocols Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing Protocols : Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing Protocols Table Driven Routing Protocol
Send periodic updates of the routes.
Each node uses routing information to store the location information of other nodes in the network and this information is then used to move data among different nodes in the network.
Have lower latency since routes are maintained at all times
On Demand Routing Protocols
Establish routes only when required to route data packets.
Route discovery process
Have longer transmission delays. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing Protocols : Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) Routing Protocols Hybrid Routing Protocols
Combine Table Based Routing Protocols with On Demand Routing Protocols.
They use distance-vectors to establish the optimum routes, and report routing information only when there is a change in the topology of the network.
Each node in the network has its own routing zone, the size of which is defined by a zone radius, defined by a metric such as the number of nodes.
Each node keeps a record of routing information for its own zone. Data Routing : Data Routing Data Routing : Data Routing Route Discovery in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks : Route Discovery in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks Route Discovery in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks : Route Discovery in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks An Interesting Scenario : An Interesting Scenario Cont’d… : Cont’d… Cont’d… : Cont’d… Cont’d… : Cont’d… Cont’d… : Cont’d… Key Benefits of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks : Key Benefits of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks No expensive infrastructure must be installed
Use of unlicensed frequency spectrum
Quick distribution of information around sender
Use of ad-hoc networks can increase mobility and flexibility, as ad-hoc networks can be brought up and torn down in a very short time.
Ad-hoc networks can be more economical in some cases, as they eliminate fixed infrastructure costs and reduce power consumption at mobile nodes.
Because of multi-hop support in ad-hoc networks, communication beyond the Line of Sight (LOS) is possible at high frequencies. Key Benefits of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks : Key Benefits of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks Multi-hop ad-hoc networks can reduce the power consumption of wireless devices. More transmission power is required for sending a signal over any distance in one long hop than in multiple shorter hops. It can easily be proved that the gain in transmission power consumption is proportional to the number of hops made.
Because of short communication links (multi-hop node-to-node communication instead of long-distance node to central base station communication), radio emission levels can be kept low. This reduces interference levels, increases spectrum reuse efficiency, and makes it possible to use unlicensed unregulated frequency bands. Mobile Ad-hoc Design Issues and Constraints : Mobile Ad-hoc Design Issues and Constraints They are Infrastructure-less
Dynamically Changing Network Topologies
Physical Layer Limitation
Limited Link Bandwidth and Quality
Variation in Link and Node Capabilities
Quality of Service
Network Management and Reliability
Energy Constrained Operation Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks : Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks A wireless ad hoc sensor network consists of a number of sensors spread across a geographical area.
Each sensor has wireless communication capability and some level of intelligence for signal processing and networking of the data. Examples of Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks : Examples of Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks Military sensor networks to detect and gain as much information as possible about enemy movements, and other phenomena of interest. In a military sensor network, track an enemy tank as it moves through the geographic area covered by the network.
Also the military sensor networks designed to maintain a low probability of intercept and/or a low probability of detection. Hence the nodes prefer to radiate as little power as necessary and transmit as infrequently as possible, thus decreasing the probability of detection and interception.
Sensor networks to detect and characterize Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive material. Classification of Wireless Sensor Networks : Classification of Wireless Sensor Networks Individually addressable nodes.
Group or mixed addressable nodes. Basic Requirements of Ad-hoc Sensor Networks : Basic Requirements of Ad-hoc Sensor Networks Network self-organization: For large number of nodes and their potential placement in hostile locations, it is essential that the network be able to self-organized, manual configuration is not feasible. Moreover, nodes may fail (either from lack of energy or from physical destruction), and new nodes may join the network. Therefore, the network must be able to periodically reconfigure itself so that it can continue to function. Individual nodes may become disconnected from the rest of the network, but a high degree of connectivity must be maintained.
Large number of (mostly stationary) sensors: Required for the collection of information from different regions Basic Requirements of Ad-hoc Sensor Networks : Basic Requirements of Ad-hoc Sensor Networks Collaborative signal processing: Yet another factor that distinguishes these networks from MANETs is that the end goal is detection/estimation of some events of interest, and not just communications.
Querying ability: A user may want to query an individual node or a group of nodes for information collected in the region. Various local nodes will collect the data from a given area and create summary messages.
Low energy use: Since in many applications the sensor nodes will be placed in a remote area, service of a node may not be possible. In this case, the lifetime of a node may be determined by the battery life, thereby requiring the minimization of energy expenditure. Ad-hoc Network Sensor Types : Ad-hoc Network Sensor Types Acoustic used as the sound sensors.
Seismic for the prediction of earth quake.
Infrared for short range communication.
Still/Motion video camera. Difference between Cellular and Ad-hoc Networks : Difference between Cellular and Ad-hoc Networks Future Research Directions : Future Research Directions Routing Protocol Optimization
Standardization and Interoperability Conclusions : Conclusions Ad hoc networking will play an important role in this evolution. Its intrinsic flexibility, ease of maintenance, lack of needed infrastructure, auto configuration, self-administration capabilities, and significant cost advantages make it a prime candidate for becoming the stalwart technology for personal pervasive communication
In moving forward and successfully fulfilling this opportunity, developing and seamlessly integrating MANET with other wireless networks and fixed internet infrastructures, the successful addressing of many of the open research and development issues will play a critical role Thanks for Your Concentration.Any from your side is welcomed? : Thanks for Your Concentration.Any from your side is welcomed? Slide 36: Feedback @