Digestion 5

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Ileocecal Valves:

4/7/2013 1 Ileocecal Valves Sphincter IV Between ileum and cecum Cecum is the third pouch Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon

PowerPoint Presentation:

4/7/2013 2 Colonic Events Secretion Mucous Lubricates Protects Adds bulk Prevents self-digestion Mucous Colitis Irritation to lining of the gut Mucous produced in bulk Most of feces is mucous Absorption Water Drugs Even food via enema Autointoxication Tone goes down (stops contracting) Water absorbed all the time Toxins remain too long Intoxicate colon

Water Balance:

4/7/2013 3 Water Balance Digestive tract receives about 9 L of water/day .7 L in food, 1.6 L in drink, 6.7 L in secretions 8 L is absorbed by the small intestine & .8 L by the large intestine Water is absorbed by osmosis following the absorption of salts & organic nutrients Diarrhea occurs when too little water is absorbed feces pass through too quickly if irritated feces contains high concentrations of a solute (lactose)

PowerPoint Presentation:

4/7/2013 4 Intestinal Flora Source of Vitamin K Vitamin K aids in blood clotting In newborn infants bleeding is hard to control because intestinal flora isn’t developed Born with sterile guts Inject Vitamin K or start feeding milk Contains bacteria that ferments cellulose Add bulk to diet Detoxify toxins or neutralize toxins Continue lower digestion in large intestine Antibiotics Affect on Intestinal Flora Digestion via intestinal flora Antibiotics wipe out flora-kill bacteria  bacteria

PowerPoint Presentation:

4/7/2013 5 Cathartics (natural) Brans, cereals, fiber bulk Oils (olive, saffron) Irritants (prunes, jalapenos) Skinned fruits (skinned apricots) Cathartic Action bulkpressure against wallsstimulates pressoreceptorsdefecation reflex Lubricate walls Decrease water reabsorptionfluidity of contents Stimulate mucous production via chemical or bulk action motility

Laxatives:

4/7/2013 6 Laxatives All laxitives are cathartics but not all cathartics are laxitives Laxitives are artificial cathartics Oils (castor oil, croton oil, mineral oil) Irritate walls mucous lubrication motility Irritants (exlax, black draught) irritate mucous motility water reabsorption Osmotic (magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia), sodium phosphate (Phosphate soda), PEG 3350 (Miralax)) Not reabsorbed  osmolarity in colon  water in feces

Defecation Reflex:

4/7/2013 7 Defecation Reflex 1. Distention of the rectum stimulates pressure receptors which notify the CNS that the rectum is full. 2. Reflex contraction of rectum & relaxation of internal anal sphincter (suppressor reflex*) 3. Voluntary relaxation of external sphincter *Cortical constipation –you can block this reflex.

Cortical Control:

4/7/2013 8 Cortical Control

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