# unit - III

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### Forced Field Analysis:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 2 Forced Field Analysis A commonly used method of examining the conditions or forces which tend to drive a particular action or change as well as the forces which tend to prevent that action or change from occurring or succeeding. Once listed, strategies can then be devised to either increase one or more of the Driving Forces or decrease one or more of the Blocking Forces or some combination of both in order to move closer to the desired goal

### Force Field Analysis:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 3 Force Field Analysis Analysis tool used to identify forces that help or hinder a change or solution Helps teams focus on change from the “current state” to the “desired state” Highlights both weaknesses and strengths, pros and cons, barriers and opportunities Determine if change is feasible/viable

### Force Field Analysis Applications:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 4 Force Field Analysis Applications Assist in the analysis of cause and effect Assessment of the strength of opposing forces Help analyze and prioritize solutions to problems or areas needing improvement

### Developing a Force Field Analysis:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 5 Developing a Force Field Analysis 1) State topic of Force Field Analysis at top of flip chart/board 2) Draw a vertical line in center, write “Helping Forces” on the left and “Hindering Forces” on the right 3) Explain both forces, those that aid change are helping forces, and those that are barriers hinder change 4) Brainstorm forces for the selected topic and record in their respective category (helping or hindering)

### Developing a Force Field Analysis (cont.):

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 6 Developing a Force Field Analysis (cont.) 5) Discuss each force,reach consensus on their relative strength. Use simple 1(weak) to 5 (strong) scale 6) Draw arrows pointing to the left for hindering forces and to the right for helping forces, length of arrow varies according to strength of force. 7) The team can now focus on strengthening helping forces or on removing hindering forces

### Force Field Analysis Example:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 7 Force Field Analysis Example Helping Forces (+) Hindering Forces (-) Video Check Out Process Improvement Loyal customers Computer affordable Software available Mgt. Wants to change Customers dissatisfied Manual activities No computer expertise Unfriendly employees Store layout Employees turnover 5 4 1 1 3 2 4 2 3 3 Total: 16 Total: 12

### Benefits of FFA:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 8 Benefits of FFA Determination of the positives and negatives of a situation. Encouraging people to agree and prioritize the competing forces Identify the root causes.

### Affinity Diagram:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 9 Affinity Diagram A tool that is used to help groups identify the common themes that are associated with a particular problem This diagram allows the team to creatively generate a large number of issues/ideas and then logically group them for problem understanding and possible breakthrough solutions.

### Affinity Diagram:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 10 Affinity Diagram Affinity diagram (or) Affinity Chart (or) K-J method It was created in the 1960s by Japanese anthropologist Jiro Kawakita. organizes a large number of ideas in to their natural relationships This method taps a team’s creativity and intuition.

### Benefits:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 11 Benefits Easy grouping of large groups Encourage creativity Break down barriers Stimulate ownership of the process

### AQL :

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 12 AQL AQL Stands for Acceptable Quality Level. Also referred to as Assured Quality Level. The largest quantity of defectives in a certain sample size that can make the lot definitely acceptable; Customer will definitely prefer the zero defect products or services and will ultimately establish the acceptable level of quality. Competition however, will 'educate' the customer and establish the customer's values. There is only one ideal acceptable quality level - zero defects - all others are compromises based upon acceptable business, financial and safety levels .

### PDCA cycle (Deming wheel) The PDCA Cycle (Plan, Do, Check, Act), commonly known as the Deming wheel, is a well known model for CPI, or continual process improvement.   plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle A process for improvement pioneered by W. E. Deming. plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycle A quality improvement process pioneered by Walter Shewhart and used by W.E. Deming. 1) a plan to effect improvement is developed. 2) the plan is carried out, preferably on a small scale. 3) the effects of the plan are observed 4) the results are studied to determine what was learned and what can be predicted. :

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 13 PDCA cycle (Deming wheel) The PDCA Cycle (Plan, Do, Check, Act), commonly known as the Deming wheel, is a well known model for CPI, or continual process improvement. plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle A process for improvement pioneered by W. E. Deming. plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycle A quality improvement process pioneered by Walter Shewhart and used by W.E. Deming. 1) a plan to effect improvement is developed. 2) the plan is carried out, preferably on a small scale. 3) the effects of the plan are observed 4) the results are studied to determine what was learned and what can be predicted. Deming wheel

### POKA-YOKE:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 14 POKA-YOKE (Mistake Proofing)

### Poka-Yoke:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 15 Poka-Yoke Japanese meaning fail-safe or mistake-proofing yokeru – to avoid poka – inadvertent errors Originally known as Baka-Yoke meaning idiot proofing Element of Zero Defect Quality (ZDQ) Tool used in 6 Sigma and Lean Manufacturing Used interchangeably with mistake-proofing

### Mistake Proofing Description:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 16 Mistake Proofing Description “ Creates a monitoring, gauging, and feedback system to instantly detect and correct trends and to shut down the process if necessary.” “Makes it impossible for the process to create defects.” “To engineer and instrument an activity or workstation so it is incapable of supplying a defective product or service.”

### Types of Human Error:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 17 Types of Human Error Forgetfulness Errors due to Misunderstanding Errors in identification Errors made by amateurs Willful errors Inadvertent errors Errors due to slowness Errors due to lack of standards Surprise errors Intentional errors

### Approach :

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 18 Approach Mistake prevention in the work environment Mistake detection (Self-checks) Mistake prevention (Source inspection) Prevention of the influence of mistakes John Grout’s Mistake-Proofing website

### Where Mistake Proofing works well:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 19 Where Mistake Proofing works well Manual operations where worker vigilance is needed Where miss-positioning can occur. Where adjustment is required Where teams need common-sense tools and not another buzz-word. Where SPC is difficult to apply or apparently ineffective.

### Where Mistake Proofing does not work well:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 20 Where Mistake Proofing does not work well Destructive tests. Production rate is very fast. Shifts occur more rapidly than they can be responded to. Self-checks when control charts are used effectively.

### What is a Gantt Chart?:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 21 What is a Gantt Chart? A visual representation of a project over time Used to schedule, coordinate, and allocate the resources needed to complete a project Shows start, end, and specific target dates called “milestones”

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 22 The first Gantt Chart was developed in 1896 by Karol Adamiecki , who called it a harmonogram . Because Adamiecki did not publish his chart until 1931 - and in any case his works were published in either Polish or Russian, languages not popular in the West - the chart now bears the name of Henry Gantt (1861–1919), who designed his chart around the years 1910-1915 and popularized it in the West

### Benefits of Gantt Charts:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 23 Benefits of Gantt Charts Efficiency Increase Project tracking Set deadlines Communication Increase Coordination Increase Provides motivation through scheduling Encourages creativity

### Disadvantages of Gantt Charts :

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 24 Disadvantages of Gantt Charts Activity descriptions often lack detail A lack of precedent and subsequent task relationships Does not allow for uncertain situations such as late or early finish times.

### Just In Time (JIT):

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 25 Just In Time (JIT) JIT is a process control method and production philosophy that provides parts, components, and assemblies to production at the exact time they are needed. It is a manufacturing organisation philosophy. It was pioneered by Taiichi ohno in Japan at the Toyota car Assembly plants in the early 1970’s.

### Results of JIT:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 26 Results of JIT Less inventory of raw materials Smaller inventories of parts Less work in process Shorter lead times

### Benefits of JIT:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 27 Benefits of JIT Significant reduction in floor space Less overhead Reduction in cost. Waste minimization Quality control Complexity reduction and transparency

### KAIZEN:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 28 KAIZEN Kaizen is a Japanese term for the philosophy that defines management’s role in continuously encouraging and implementing small improvements involving every one. A Japanese term that means gradual unending improvement by doing little things better and setting and achieving increasingly higher standards. The term “Kaizen” was made famous by Masaaki Imai.

### Key Elements of KAIZEN:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 30 Key Elements of KAIZEN Quality Effort Involvement of all employees Willingness to change Communication

### 5 Foundation elements of KAIZEN:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 31 5 Foundation elements of KAIZEN

### KAIZEN frame work:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 32 KAIZEN frame work

### Seven tools of quality:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 33 Seven tools of quality • Pareto charts • Flow charts • Cause-and-effect diagram • Check sheet • Histograms • Control charts • Scatter diagrams

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 34 Pareto analysis is a statistical technique in decision making that is used for selection of a limited number of tasks that produce significant overall effect. It uses the Pareto principle - the idea that by doing 20% of work you can generate 80% of the advantage of doing the entire job. Or in terms of quality improvement, a large majority of problems (80%) are produced by a few key causes (20%). Pareto analysis is a formal technique useful where many possible courses of action are competing for your attention. In essence, the problem-solver estimates the benefit delivered by each action, then selects a number of the most effective actions that deliver a total benefit reasonably close to the maximal possible one.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 35 Pareto analysis is a simple analytical technique that helps managers choose the most effective response to a problem. The Pareto Principle says that by doing 20% of the work you can generate 80% of the advantage of doing the entire task. Pareto analysis helps identify the changes that will produce the greatest benefits. It is particularly helpful where there are multiple possible answers.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 36 Pareto Chart Method of prioritizing problems or causes by frequency of occurrence or cost Based in the 80-20 rule: 80% of the problem is caused by 20% of the sources “Vital few” and “trivial many” Depicted by a vertical bar graph arranged from left to right descending order

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 37 Focuses efforts on problems with greatest potential for improvement Distinguishes the critical causes from the less significant causes Helps prevent “shifting the problem” where the solution removes some causes but worsens others Advantages of a Pareto Chart

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 38 Measure the impact of improvement projects when comparing charts “before” and “after” The chart shows the relative importance of problems in a simple, quickly interpreted, visual format. Progress is measured in a highly visible format that provides incentive to push on for more improvement. Advantages of a Pareto Chart (cont.)

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 39 35% 61% 79% 91% 97% 100 % 50 % Frequency Cum % Example of a Pareto Chart

### What is a Quality Circle?:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 40 What is a Quality Circle? Voluntary groups of employees who work on similar tasks or share an area of responsibility They agree to meet on a regular basis to discuss & solve problems related to work. They operate on the principle that employee participation in decision-making and problem-solving improves the quality of work

### Quality Circles:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 41 Quality Circles Group of 6-12 employees from same work area Meet regularly to solve work-related problems 4 hours/month Facilitator trains & helps with meetings © 1995 Corel Corp.

### History and Practices:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 42 History and Practices Quality Circles were first seen in the United States in the 1950’s Circles were developed by Dr, Kaoru Ishikawa in Japan in the 1960’s Circles were re-exported to the US in the early 1970’s 1980’s brought Total Quality Management and a reduction in the use of Quality Circles Quality Circles can be a useful tool if used properly

### How Do Quality Circles Work?:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 43 How Do Quality Circles Work? Characteristics Volunteers Set Rules and Priorities Decisions made by Consensus Use of organized approaches to Problem-Solving

### How Do Quality Circles Work?:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 44 How Do Quality Circles Work? All members of a Circle need to receive training Members need to be empowered Members need to have the support of Senior Management

### How Can They be Used in an Organization?:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 45 How Can They be Used in an Organization? Increase Productivity Improve Quality Boost Employee Morale

### Problems with Quality Circles:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 46 Problems with Quality Circles Inadequate Training Unsure of Purpose Not truly Voluntary Lack of Management Interest Quality Circles are not really empowered to make decisions.

### Cost-Benefit Analysis:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 47 Cost-Benefit Analysis It is a technique that can be used to evaluate government projects and programs. It encompasses an appraisal of a policy based on the costs and benefits of the project

### Cost-Benefit Analysis:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 48 Cost-Benefit Analysis A technique for systematically estimating the efficiency impacts of policies Valuable in identifying and categorizing costs and benefits for rational decision making in the public arena Used with variable success in a broad range of public policy areas Success of use depends on the degree to which cost and benefits can be monetized It can answer logical, rational questions

### Limitation to Cost Benefit Analysis:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 49 Limitation to Cost Benefit Analysis Most policies involve budget allocation costs. Many policies are neither tangible or economically visible

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 50 Flow Charts Pictorial representation of the steps and decision points in a process. Flow charts are used to identify the actual path of a product or service. Flow charts show: Sequential work activities Inputs for each action Outputs from each activity

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 51 Advantages of a Flow Chart Provide common understanding of how a process works. Identifies problem areas, unexpected complexity, redundancies, and areas of potential improvement Serves as a training aid Provides basis for documentation. Identifies location where additional data can be collected and investigated

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 52 Symbols of a Flow Chart Shows an activity performed in the process Shows a point in the process where a Yes/No question is being asked or a decision is required A Identifies a break in the flow chart and is continued elsewhere on the same page or another page Shows the flow of the process Shows the beginning and end process

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 53 Team is given task to write procedure Develop outline Complete draft Review draft Revise Draft with changes Complete Final version Send to Release Dept. Draft approved Release procedure yes No Example of a Flow Chart

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 54 Control Charts Line graph of measurements of a process overtime that has statistically based control limits placed on it Process control charts monitor and display variations in a process output. Control limits are based on process variation Define expected variation range due to common causes +/- three standard deviations from centerline Centerline represents the average of all measurements used

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 55 Control Chart is a graphic representation of a characteristic of a process, showing plotted values of some statistic gathered from that characteristics and one or two control limit Control limit is a line on a control chart used as a basis for judging the significance of the variation form subgroup to subgroup. Control limits are calculated from the process data.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 56 Types of Control Charts Two primary types are: Control charts for variables: Most used: X –R X is average values R is range Others: Run charts, moving range charts (MX –MR charts) Control charts for attributes: p chart: fraction defective np chart: number of defectives c chart: number of defects

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 57 Advantages of Control Charts Focuses attention on detecting and monitoring process variation over time Distinguishes “special” from “common” causes Helps predict performance of a process Helps improve a process to perform consistently Provides a common language to discuss process behavior

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 58 Upper control limit Lower control limit Centerline 3 std.deviations 3 std.deviations Data plot Point out-of-control (out of the control limits boundaries ) Example of a Control Chart

### Run Charts or Trend Charts:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 59 Run Charts or Trend Charts A Run chart is a line graph in which data are plotted over time. Run charts shows the performance and the variation of a process or some quality or productivity indicator over time. Run Charts summaries data in a graphical fashion that is easy to understand and interpret, identify process changes and trends overtime.

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 61 Check Sheets Tool used to record and compile frequency of observations as they occur Used for Pareto charts and histograms Design varies depending on information needed

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 62 Advantages of a Check Sheet Patterns of information are clearly detected and shown Easy-to-understand data from a simple process Based on facts, not opinions Forces agreement on the definition of each condition

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 63 Example of a Check Sheet

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 64 Histograms Graphical representations of the frequency distribution of data in bar form. Summarizes data from a process that has been collected over a period of time Provide a quick representation of the “spread” and “centering” of a process

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 65 A histogram is a summary graph showing distribution of data points measured that falls within various class-intervals. A class interval is a division of a range of values into sets of non-overlapping intervals for plotting a histogram. It is drawn with rectangles side by side with the area of each rectangle being proportional to the frequency of the observations falling into the corresponding class-interval. The word histogram is derived from Greek : histos 'anything set upright' (as the masts of a ship, the bar of a loom, or the vertical bars of a histogram); gramma 'drawing, record, writing'

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 66 Advantages of a Histogram Display large amounts of data that are difficult to interpret in a tabular form Show the relative frequency of occurrences of the various data values Reveal the variation, centering, and distribution shape of the data Very useful when calculating capability of a process Helps predict future performance of a process

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 67 Example of a Histogram

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 68 Scatter Diagrams Chart used to identify the possible relationship between two process characteristics • Advantages of the scatter diagram • Provides visual and statistical means to test the strength of a potential relationship • Provides a good follow-up to the cause and effect diagram to find out if there is a connection between the cause and the effect

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 69 The Scatter Diagram is another Quality Tool that can be used to show the relationship between "paired data", and can provide more useful information about a production process Variable 1 Variable 2

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 70 Cause and Effect Analysis Pictorial representation of all possible causes contributing to a problem. Developed by Dr.Kaoru Ishikawa Also known as “Fishbone” or “Ishikawa” diagrams

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 71 Advantages of a Cause and Effect Diagram Clearly illustrates the various causes affecting a process: Relationship between these causes Where are they occurring Helps in finding the most basic cause of the problem Motivates team members participation

### PowerPoint Presentation:

8/7/2012 Quadir Mohiuddin 72 Late deliveries Method Material Manpower Machinery/equipment Drivers get lost Drivers don’t Show up Unreliable trucks Not enough trucks Poor dispatching Poor handling of large orders Run out of products Not capacity for peak periods Wrong address on shipper Database Input error Poor planning Lack of training Lack of training Example of a Cause and Effect Diagram