unit 3(BPR)

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Unit – 3 Implementation Process :

Unit – 3 Implementation Process By Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin Dept of Business Management

Process Re-design:

Process Re-design Two approaches to BPR: Systematic re-design identify / understand the existing process It is reviewing current processes and then making the relevant improvements Clean sheet approach Rethinking the way the product / service is delivered and design a new process from the start It is like demolishing an old building and rebuilding instead of patching it up.

Systematic Vs Clean sheet:

Systematic Vs Clean sheet

Process Redesign Issues:

Process Redesign Issues Some of the issues related to redesign include: Motivation – lack of motivation to enable redesign to processes Attitude – there may be resistance Knowledge – not all may have information on the processes Creativity – lack of creative ideas Innovation – not easy and challenging; thinking ‘out of the box’

Main and Supporting process:

11 Main and Supporting process 1. Core processes: Relate directly to external customers and central to business functions. 2. Support processes: They have internal customers and back-up of core-processes. They are more administrative, secondary activities 3- Management processes: by which plan, organize and control.

Function versus process-based organisation:

12 Function versus process-based organisation Sales New Product Development Order Fulfillment R&D Manufacturing Customer

Cross-Functionality of Processes:

13 Cross-Functionality of Processes Process: New product development process Needs Research Design Test Produ Process Design Equip design Product start Marketing R&D Manufacturing

Rationale of BPR:

Rationale of BPR Increase in Process Efficiencies Improvement in Customer Service Cost Reduction Data and Information Sharing Use of IT — right place at the right time Reduce Duplicate, Stove-Pipe Systems Reuse Technology Leverage New Technologies as Key Change and Efficiency Enablers

PowerPoint Presentation:

Foster fundamental re-thinking Focus efforts where impact is high Ensure a comprehensive, efficient effort Ensuring effective change management deal with how the business works rather than the structure to improve inefficient business processes; to be the industrial leader; to reorganize business functions; to improve current industry position; to be among the industry leaders; and to dramatically turn the company's position around.

KEY Enablers:

KEY Enablers Love and Gunasekaran [1997] consider four enablers: IT- Information and technology , Total Quality Management, Human Resources, Organization Organizational enablers are grouped within two categories: 1) Structural 2) cultural.

Structural enablers:

Structural enablers Structural enablers are used to demand a change in human resources management, mainly in training areas and reward systems Mainly, there are three major structural enablers: 1) Self managing work teams drive themselves and do not need a formal leader. 2) Cross-functional teams involve several functions, so their members collaborate among themselves to get a result. 3) General-purpose problem-solving teams are formed by persons from the same department and are in charge of solving different matters in a periodic way.

cultural enablers:

cultural enablers cultural enablers include those norms, values, and beliefs about how things should be done. In a company with a rigid culture where everything must be specified and suggested by a superior, process change would be much more difficult.

Human Resource enabler:

Human Resource enabler A third group of enablers is human resources. If a company needs motivated employees who accept changes, propose ideas, share, and are able to vary their style of working, then half of the effort should be centered around human resource management it would be necessary for workers to gain knowledge in team work and development of new tasks the company must motivate its employees through incentive systems and by allowing their involvement in the decision-making process

Information Technology enabler:

Information Technology enabler IT enabler is a facilitator Its role is crucial because it allows a company to alter processes in two ways: collaboration grade increase and mediation grade decrease through the implementation of shared databases and communication technologies. IT may help companies to obtain important improvements on variables such as costs, quality, and delivery time

IT opportunities in BPR:

24 IT opportunities in BPR Process Opportunities Economic scope Technology Eliminating activities Reduce costs of production Computation Integrating tasks and process would reduce time and space Reduce costs of coordination Communication Monitoring processes and task analyzing information Reduce cost of information Infoware

Technology for BPR :

Technology for BPR There is a relationship between BPR and information technology (IT). Hammer (1990) considers it to be the key implementation of BPR. He says the use of IT is to challenge the assumptions inherent in the work processes that have existed since before the advent of modern computer and communications technology. He argues that at the heart of reengineering is the idea of discontinuous thinking. Discontinuous thinking is a way to recognize and break away from the outdated rules and fundamental assumptions that underlie operations.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Whisler (1970) defines information technology as the technology of sensing, coding, transmitting, translating, transforming information. Hammer and Champy (1993) says that information technology is an integral part of reengineering as an enabler since it permits companies to reengineer business process. Davenport & Short (1990) say that Information Technology and BPR have a recursive relationship

PowerPoint Presentation:

It plays an important role by either enabling or constraining successful BPR IT can also become an inhibitor of Reengineering if the Organisations IT structure is inadequate or inflexible. IT has the power to break the rules and make people think inductively and give the company a competitive advantage IT can be used to make proactive decisions to improve business performance.

Cross-Functional Team:

Cross-Functional Team A cross-functional team is a group of people with different functional expertise working toward a common goal.It may include people from finance, marketing, operations, and human resources departments. Typically, it includes employees from all levels of an Organization.

When a cross functional team has to come together represent the team with linking lines:

When a cross functional team has to come together represent the team with linking lines Corporate Strategy Operations Technology Training Human Resources Sales Executive Committee Recruiting Marketing

Need for Cross functional Team :

Need for Cross functional Team Today's corporations have entered a new business era with rapidly changing markets and technology. With this rapidly changing and highly competitive world of business, companies are forced to produce in a timely and error-free manner. There is a never-ending pursuit for perfection with no room for error, as firms must compete for a limited market share for their goods and services. In light of this, traditional corporate structuring must be revised to address the needs of today's market place

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Cross-functional teams composed of members from different departments Cross-cultural teams composed of members from different cultures or countries

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Cross-functional teams are regarded as a means to manage social collaboration and concept creation. Some examples of cross-functional teams are teams established to: design and develop new products; chose and implement new technologies throughout organization; to improve the service-profit chain, and to control product costs.

Mentoring:

Mentoring By Mohammed Quadir Mohiuddin Dept of Business Management

Mentoring --- definitions:

Mentoring --- definitions Mentoring is a term used to help, advise and guide employees through the complexities of the business. Mentoring is a mutual learning partnership in which individuals assist each other with personal and career development through coaching, role modeling couseling, sharing knowledge and providing emotional support. Offline help from one person to another in making significant transitions in knowledge, work or thinking.

Mentoring --- definitions:

Mentoring --- definitions Creating possibilities and providing guidance and support to others in a relationship of trust; it includes facilitating, bringing visions to life and enabling people to achieve. A mentor is that person who achieves a one-to-one developmental relationship with a learner; and one whom the learner identifies as having enabled personal growth to take place.

A Mentor is a::

A Mentor is a: Friend Philosopher Guide

Identify your own mentors::

Identify your own mentors: Who took an interest in my welfare and development at a time when I was taking on challenges, such as starting a new job? Who has been a useful role model in my life? Who helped me uncover and use a hidden talent or ability? Who helped me face and resolve a difficult situation in my personal and / or professional life? Who challenged me to acquire a new vision and take a new direction?

Dimensions of Mentoring:

Dimensions of Mentoring (Directive) INFLUENCE (Non-Directive) INFLUENCE INTELLECTUAL NEED EMOTIONAL NEED (Challenging) (Nurturing) COACH GUARDIAN NETWORKER/ FACILITATOR COUNSELLOR

A Mentor & a Coach: the difference:

A Mentor & a Coach: the difference Coaching earlier seen as a remedial activity; mentoring as positive, developmental intervention Coaching is seen more skill related, with specific capabilities-linked outcomes Line managers often called upon to coach. Mentoring positioned much more around the whole person and the big picture Line manager, due to performance management responsibility, not seen as appropriate to take a mentoring role. Coaching normally short term; Mentoring is long term. Coaching addresses specific issues; Mentoring --- larger issues Coaching (the How); Mentoring (the Why)

Important aspects of mentoring::

Important aspects of mentoring: Need to be both people and task oriented Should like to contribute to professional development of others Must be a good listener Have empathy, not sympathy Must be creative Should not injure the mentee’s self-esteem Need political savvy Good at generating alternatives Need comfort at the feeling level

Important aspects of mentoring (contd.)::

Important aspects of mentoring (contd.): Held in high esteem by people working with Don’t make decisions for the mentee Don’t develop dependency Be a role model to the mentee Should have actively sought mentors themselves

Possible forms of Mentoring help::

Possible forms of Mentoring help: Specific learning functions: - Learning technical skills and knowledge - Learning current jobs - Learning organisational culture - Learning organisational policies - Being prepared for future jobs / promotions

Possible forms of Mentoring help::

Possible forms of Mentoring help: General Career Development functions: - Obtaining challenging tasks - Obtaining protection - Obtaining sponsorship, recommendations - Obtaining endorsement for acts / views - Making career moves - Getting achievements showcased - Clarifying work / Career goals

Possible forms of Mentoring help::

Possible forms of Mentoring help: Personal help functions: - Obtaining counselling - Obtaining moral support / encouragement - Obtaining a Role Model - Obtaining praise - Obtaining a confidante - Achieving friendship - Achieving trust

The Mentoring Process: Exploration:

The Mentoring Process: Exploration Take the lead Pay attention to the relationship and develop it Clarify aims and objectives of mentoring; Support and counsel Listen; ask open questions Negotiate an agenda Take lead in creating rapport Show your commitment to your mentee Give it time; be patient Help mentee arrive at his / her own answer Resist temptation to give advise

The Mentoring process: New understanding:

The Mentoring process: New understanding Support and counsel Give constructive feedback Coach and demonstrate skills Listen and challenge; ask closed and open questions Recognize strengths and weaknesses Establish priorities; identify developmental needs Give information and advice Share experiences and tell stories Be flexible and resourceful; offer encouragement once on the track If mentee is resistant, be supportive and sensitive Challenge positively; Help cope with new changed conditions

The Mentoring process: Action Planning:

The Mentoring process: Action Planning Examine options for action and their consequences Attend to the mentoring process and the relationship Negotiate and action plan Encourage new and creative ways of thinking Help to make decisions and solve problems Agree action plans; monitor progress and evaluate outcomes Plans are followed through when the mentee owns the solution Give advice and direction sparingly Enhance commitment to change by clear agreements and target setting Look after the relationship; don’t expect every meeting to end in an action plan Affirm and celebrate progress

Who is in charge?:

Who is in charge? When the mentor takes responsibility, it is directive If mentor encourages the mentee to set the agenda, initiate meetings, come to his / her conclusions, stimulate development of self-reliance, the relationship is relatively non-directive If mentor plays the role of the expert, mentee feels less empowered The most effective relationship (where personal development is desired) are those in which the mentee is relatively proactive and the mentor is relatively passive or reactive. Effective mentors keep wisdom to themselves

The Meeting and Sharing process:

The Meeting and Sharing process The Mentor: - Listens - Questions - Summarizes - Seeks options - Seeks goals - Asks for priorities The Mentee: - Informs - Clarifies - Listens - Lists options - Selects goals - Prioritizes The Mentee decides

Mentee expectations from mentors::

Mentee expectations from mentors: Abilities: Listening skills Questioning Competence  Technical; quality of excellence Functional skills Sympathetic understanding  Empathy Guide Contacts Analytical ability

Mentee expectations from mentors::

Mentee expectations from mentors: Qualities: Varied perspective Broad perspective Stimulating foresight  nourish his drive Relationship and process change as assignment progresses Approachable Loyal friend

Mentee expectations from mentor::

Mentee expectations from mentor: Attitudes: Respectful Non-critical Forthright Positive attitude Supportive

Tips for Mentors::

Tips for Mentors: Maintain regular contact Always be honest Avoid being judgemental Recognize that you have your own need for support. You may need a mentor as well Don’t expect to have all the answers Help your mentees access resources and further support Be clear about expectations and boundaries Stand back from the issues raised by mentee but work on them together Respect confidentiality If the relationship falters, hang on there

Tips for Mentees::

Tips for Mentees: Accept challenges willingly Maintain a positive view of self Share with the mentor how you feel about the way the relationship is working Be active in your own development Have faith and trust in your own mentor Be willing to discuss issues openly Take a few risks in order to progress Don’t expect too much of your mentor Think about other ways to develop yourself outside the mentoring relationship Talk about the end of your relationship when it comes

Implement BPR :

Implement BPR

The basic approach to BPR :

The basic approach to BPR Develop the vision and identify the customer driven objectives Focus on the result, and identify what you want to see changed. For example, it could be cost reduction, better quality product or services, etc. Don’t think about tasks right now just concentrate on your objectives.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Identify the processes that need to be redesigned Hammer and Champy suggested that a redesign be done, totally ignoring the existing processes, so as not to hamper the creative process. This is one way of doing it. Though analyzing a process to judge what went wrong, can help you avoid making the same mistakes in the redesign.

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Identify areas of improvement Identify the areas in the process that need improvement and must be focused on during the redesign. An important task during this step is benchmarking. Develop strategies for redesign of processes Strategise and develop the new designs for the processes. Ensure that you analyse all the factors involved such as cost and time involved

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Implement the reengineered process This is the most difficult phase of BPR as changing a process completely is never easy. It is human nature to resist any kind of change. Seek continuous improvement Implementing the reengineered process is not the last step. Reengineering is a continuous process. Monitor the redesigned processes and analyse the results for positive improvements

Critical Success Factors :

Critical Success Factors Success factors are a collection of lessons learned from reengineering projects. Reengineering team members and consultants that have struggled to make their projects successful success factors that lead to successful outcomes for reengineering projects. These include: Top Management Sponsorship (strong and consistent involvement) Strategic Alignment (with company strategic direction) Compelling Business Case for Change (with measurable objectives) Proven Methodology (that includes a vision process) Effective Change Management (address cultural transformation) Line Ownership (pair ownership with accountability) Reengineering Team Composition (in both breadth and knowledge)

Methodologies of BPR:

6/26/2012 QUADIR MOHIUDDIN BPR - 3 73 Methodologies of BPR

BPR Methodologies:

6/26/2012 QUADIR MOHIUDDIN BPR - 3 74 BPR Methodologies Muthu, Whitman, and Cheraghi (1999) summarize 5 methodologies: Methodology #1: Underdown (1997) Methodology #2: Harrison and Pratt (1993) Methodology #3: Furey (1993) Methodology #4: Mayer and Dewitte (1998) Methodology #5: Manganelli and Klein (1994)

Tools and Techniques of BPR:

6/26/2012 QUADIR MOHIUDDIN BPR - 3 77 Tools and Techniques of BPR Flowcharting Waste analysis Ownership Analysis Benchmarking Resource Domination Analysis Product life cycle analysis Force field analysis Pareto Analysis Segmentation Input / Process / Output diagrams Control Systems Design Measures of Performance Design Culture Development Supplier development Postponement and Mass Customization Impact / Ease Analysis Risk analysis Simulation

Other Tools and Techniques:

Other Tools and Techniques 1.Decision support system 2.Knowledge-based models 3.Work flow reengineering 4.Control Systems Design (A method of identifying appropriate control systems techniques for the new situation. 5. Risk analysis, SWOT, and FMEA 6. Simulation (One of the methods of testing the new design prior to implementation.)

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7. Benchmarking (To identify alternative strategies, organisation, processes, procedures and methods.) 8. "Flowcharting" (To identify current or future information, material, or document flows.) 9. Change management (Force field Analysis & Relationship Mapping) (To identify cultural constraints) 10. Waste analysis (To identify waste in the current process.) 11. Pareto Analysis (To sort the wheat from the chaff, in products, processes, value, space utilisation etc.)

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