post partum Depression

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Theorist: Cheryl Tatano BeckPostpartum DepressionTheory : 

Theorist: Cheryl Tatano BeckPostpartum DepressionTheory By: Melissa Stroud

Cheryl Tatano Beck1949 to present : 

Cheryl Tatano Beck1949 to present 1970 BSN Western Connecticut State University 1972 Master’s degree and Nurse Midwife from Yale University 1982 Doctorate in Nursing Science From Boston University

History of Theory : 

History of Theory Beck’s Timeline ranges from 1972 to present (see table 34-1 pg 745 of Tomey and Alligood) text. 1993 “Teetering on the Edge” Post Partum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) Post Partum Depression Predictors Inventory (PDPI)

Influences : 

Influences Jean Watson Theory of Caring Feminist Theory Sichel and Driscoll Earthquake Model Robert Gable: Instrument Development in the Affective Domain.

Purpose : 

Purpose To develop a better understanding of Post Partum Depression. Beck’s Goal: to explain her understanding in a clear way that both professionals and lay public could benefit. Develop screening programs, acceptance, intervention, and treatment.

Statistics : 

Statistics 75-80% women suffer from maternity blues (tomey and Alligood) 13 to 25% of women suffer Postpartum depression (tomey and Alligood) 1 to 2 women per 1000 births suffer from Postpartum Psychosis

Breaking the Silence In 2005 Actress Brook Shields interviewed with Oprah about her struggles and survival of Post Partum Depression. Archives 2005

Content : 

Content 22 Major concepts developed in stages over time. Concepts 1 and 2 were developed in the early stages. Postpartum Mood Disorders 2) Loss of Control

Post Partum Mood Disorders : 

Post Partum Mood Disorders Postpartum Depression Maternity Blues Postpartum Psychosis Postpartum Obsessive-Compulsive disorder Postpartum-onset Panic Disorder

Loss of Control : 

Loss of Control Foundation for the theory development Teetering on the Edge 4 stages (Encountering Terror, Dying of Self, Struggling to Survive, Regaining Control).

Concepts 3 to 15Predictors/Risk Factors : 

Concepts 3 to 15Predictors/Risk Factors 3) Prenatal Depression 4) Child Care Stress 5) Life Stress 6) Social Support 7) Prenatal Anxiety 8) Marital Satisfaction 9) History of depression 10) Infant Temperament 11) Baby Blues 12) Self-Esteem 13) Socioeconomic Status 14) Marital Status 15) Unplanned or Unwanted Pregnancies

Concepts 16 to 22Symptoms : 

Concepts 16 to 22Symptoms 16) Sleeping and Eating Disturbances 17) Anxiety and Insecurity 18) Emotional Lability 19) Mental Confusion 20) Loss of Self 21) Guilt and Shame 22) Suicidal Thoughts

Relationships : 

Relationships Concepts can stand alone as not all women experience all 22 factors. All are related to the purpose of theory and link together to define the theory.

Structure : 

Structure The most central relationship is her original concept of Loss of Control. Loss of Control is the theme driving the relationships between the concepts and definitions. Grounded and Phenomenology

Assumptions : 

Assumptions Nursing: interpersonal interactions Person: Wholeness Health: Contexts of women’s lives Environment: individual and outside

Clarity : 

Clarity Beck’s purpose was to explain her theory in a clearly understanding manner. Theory: is clearly defined and easily understood with clear ideas, definitions, and language for all to understand.

Simplicity : 

Simplicity The development follows a simple and logical progression Postpartum Depression is a complex experience and theory to research. Beck makes it make sense, simply and useful.

Specific or General : 

Specific or General Specific as it focused on a very narrow subject area. General in that within the narrow spectrum it affects different cultures and contexts.

Accessibility : 

Accessibility Many other disciplines besides nursing have used Beck’s Theory and screening tools. Her goal and outcomes are realistic and relatable all around the world.

Scope of Theory : 

Scope of Theory Class Discussion Based on what has been discussed so far what type of theory would you classify Post Partum Depression theory as? Grand, Middle range, Macro, Micro theory

Middle Range : 

Middle Range Middle range theories are defined as theories focused on concepts of interest that may be of importance in many contexts. More accurately defined as “Substantive Theory” (SSTs)

Level of Functioning : 

Level of Functioning Factor Isolating: Describing postpartum depression Factor Relating: Loss of Control Situation Relating: Predicts and promotes risk factors of postpartum depression Situation Producing: Goal of Beck was her outcome a Prescriptive theory that defines, prevents, and treats.

Person : 

Person Person in this theory has multiple meanings. Pregnant women, soon to be mother Students Professionals: doctors, mental health workers, social service agencies.

Health : 

Health Beck never truly defines health in her theory. However two types can be concluded from her work. Mental health Holistic health

Environment : 

Environment Very interpersonal theory as it affects the individual women but has outward affects on family. Setting is specific to the individuals personal context in life.

Nursing : 

Nursing Clearly an obstetric nursing theory Immediate accessibility and dynamic Nurses are able to read the theory and understand it is applicable to their own practice settings.

Contagiousness : 

Contagiousness This theory is new only being approximately 10 years old. It has illuminated a subject that has been around since women gave birth but never explored or talked about More disciplines such as physicians, mental health workers, public health, social service agencies are acknowledging and using theory.

Did you Like this Theory? : 

Did you Like this Theory? Yes, being 33 weeks pregnant myself it was very applicable to my life now even though not directly related to my nursing practice area. Breaks down the social stigma allowing women to address these feelings and get help without feeling embarrassed or guilty.

WebCT Question : 

WebCT Question Because this theory is so specific there is two options for the WebCT question. Can you apply this theory to your nursing practice? Have you experienced or witnessed someone dealing with Postpartum Depression? How could or did this theory apply to that situation?

References : 

References Alligood, M. and Tomey, A.(2006) Nursing Theorists and their Work. St. Louis, Missouri. Mosby. Archives 2005.

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