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Indian Constitution

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Pyarelal Meel T.G.T.-Sosc :

Pyarelal Meel T.G.T.- Sosc

INDIAN CONSTITUTION:

INDIAN CONSTITUTION BY Pyarelal Mell

THE CONSTITUTION - MEANING:

THE CONSTITUTION - MEANING A set of rules and principles that all persons in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In 1934, the Indian National Congress made the demand for a Constituent Assembly. During the Second World War, this assertion for an independent Constituent Assembly formed only of Indians gained momentum and this was convened in December 1946. Between December 1946 and November 1949, the Constituent Assembly drafted a constitution for independent India. Free to shape their destiny at last, after 150 years of British rule, the members of the Constituent Assembly approached this task with the great idealism that the freedom struggle had helped produce. The photo alongside shows Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru addressing the Constituent Assembly.

PREAMBLE:

PREAMBLE An introduction in which the purpose of the Constitution is given.

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute INDIA into a Sovereign, Socialist,Secular,Democratic, Republic and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, LIBERTY EQUALITY FRATERNITY, assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nations; in our CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this CONSTITUTION. :

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute INDIA into a Sovereign, Socialist,Secular,Democratic, Republic and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, LIBERTY EQUALITY FRATERNITY, assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nations; in our CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this CONSTITUTION.

NEED OF THE CONSTITUTION:

NEED OF THE CONSTITUTION ( 1) First, it lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country that we as citizens aspire to live in . Or, put another way, a Constitution tells us what the fundamental nature of our society is. A Constitution helps serve as a set of rules and principles that all persons in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed.

Let us try and understand what we mean by this through two contrasting situations in the recent history of Nepal:

Let us try and understand what we mean by this through two contrasting situations in the recent history of Nepal a country that borders India on the north. Until quite recently, Nepal was a monarchy. The previous Constitution of Nepal, which had been adopted in 1990, reflected the fact that the final authority rested with the King. A people’s movement in Nepal fought for several decades to establish democracy and in 2006 they finally succeeded in putting an end to the powers of the King. Now the people have to write a new Constitution to establish Nepal as a democracy. The reason that they do not want to continue with the previous Constitution is because it does not reflect the ideals of the country that they want Nepal to be, and that they have fought for.

2. Constitution is to define the nature of a country’s political system:

2. Constitution is to define the nature of a country’s political system The second important purpose of a Constitution is to define the nature of a country’s political system. For example, Nepal’s earlier Constitution stated that the country was to be ruled by the King and his council of ministers.

3. safeguards against misuse OF Powers :

3. safeguards against misuse OF Powers In a democracy, we choose our leaders so that they can exercise power responsibly on our behalf. However, there is always the possibility that these leaders might misuse their authority and the Constitution usually provides safeguards against this.

4. dominant group does not use its power against other:

4. dominant group does not use its power against other Another important function that a Constitution plays in a democracy is to ensure that a dominant group does not use its power against other, less powerful people or groups.

5. save us from ourselves:

5. save us from ourselves This may sound strange but what is meant by this is that we might at times feel strongly about an issue that might go against our larger interests and the Constitution helps us guard against this.

GOOD CONSTITUTION:

GOOD CONSTITUTION A good Constitution does not allow to change its basic structure. It does not allow for the easy overthrow of provisions that guarantee rights of citizens and protect their freedom.

THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: BACKGROUND:

THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: BACKGROUND Under the British, Indians had been forced to obey rules that they had very little role in policy making. The long experience of authoritarian rule under the colonial state convinced Indians that free India should be a democracy in which everyone should be treated equally and be allowed to participate in government.

Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar:

Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar is known as the Father of the Indian Constitution. Dr Ambedkar believed that his participation in the Constituent Assembly helped the Scheduled Castes get some safeguards in the draft constitution. But he also stated that although the laws might exist, Scheduled Castes still had reason to fear because the administration of these laws were in the hands of ‘caste Hindu officers’. He, therefore, urged Scheduled Castes to join the government as well as the civil services.

THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: KEY FEATURES:

THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION: KEY FEATURES Parliamentary Form of Government A federal system Separation of Powers Fundamental Rights Secularism

A FEDERAL SYSTEM :

A FEDERAL SYSTEM The existence of more than one level of government in the country Central Government State Government Local Government

PARLIAMENTARY FORM OF GOVERNMENT :

PARLIAMENTARY FORM OF GOVERNMENT The people of India have a direct role in electing their representatives

PowerPoint Presentation:

Madhur Pandey, K.V. Baad

PowerPoint Presentation:

सर्वभोमिक मताधिकार (UNIVERSAL ADULT FRANCHISE) का मतलब हैं की अपने प्रतिनिधियों के चुनाव में देश के सभी लोग की सीधी भूमिका होती हैं, इसके अलावा हर व्यक्ति खुद भी चुनाव लड़ सकता हैं. Madhur Pandey, K.V. Baad

SEPARATION OF POWERS:

SEPARATION OF POWERS Legislature, The executive and The judiciary

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS:

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS 1. Right to Equality 2. Right to Freedom 3. Right against Exploitation 4. Right to Freedom of Religion 5. Cultural and Educational Rights 6. Right to Constitutional Remedies

RIGHT TO EQUALITY:

RIGHT TO EQUALITY All persons are equal before the law. This means that all persons shall be equally protected by the laws of the country.

RIGHT TO FREEDOM:

RIGHT TO FREEDOM the right to freedom of speech and expression, the right to form associations, the right to move freely and reside in any part of the country,and the right to practise any profession, occupation or business.

RIGHT TO EXPLOITATION:

RIGHT TO EXPLOITATION The Constitution prohibits trafficking, forced labour, and children working under 14 years of age.

RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION:

RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION Religious freedom is provided to all citizens. Every person has the right to practise, profess and propagate the religion of their choice.

CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS:

CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS The Constitution states that all minorities, religious or linguistic, can set up their own educational institutions in order to preserve and develop their own culture.

RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES:

RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES This allows citizens to move the court if they believe that any of their Fundamental Rights have been violated by the State.

Which Fundamental Rights will the following situations violate: :

Which Fundamental Rights will the following situations violate: - If a 13-year old child is working in a factory manufacturing carpets. - If a politician in one state decides to not allow labourers from other states to work in his state. - If a group of people are not given permission to open a Telugu-medium school in Kerala. - If the government decides not to promote an officer of the armed forces because she is a woman.

EVALUATION:

EVALUATION Why does a democratic country need a Constitution? What are the key features of Indian Constitution?

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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