Production Management : Production Management Unit III : Unit III Work Measurement : Work Measurement Procedure of Work Measurement : Procedure of Work Measurement Selection
Obtain All Necessary Information
Divide The Job Into Elements
Time The Elements
The Number Of Cycles To Be Timed
Rating The Operator
Allowances Work Sampling : Work Sampling “Work sampling is a technique consists of taking a sufficiently large number of spot observations at random time intervals over an adequate span of time .”
“Work sampling is a work measurement technique that randomly samples the work of one or more employees at periodic intervals to determine the proportion of total operations that is accounted for in one particular activity.” Slide 6: Work sampling
= Total time of the study × Ratio of the number of observation of the activity to the total no. of observations × Average performance rating for the activity
Total output of the activity, during the time study Advantages of work sampling : Advantages of work sampling Many operations or activities which are impractical or costly to measure by time study can be measured by work sampling.
A simultaneous work sampling study of several operators or machines may be made by a single operator.
It usually requires lesser man hours and costs less to make a work sampling study instead of making a continuous time study.
Stop watch is not needed for work sampling.
It improves the productivity. Disadvantages of Work sampling : Disadvantages of Work sampling Insufficient observations are likely to produce inaccurate results.
Work sampling is uneconomical for short cycle,
It can be biased by observer. Use of work sampling : Use of work sampling To determine the allowances for inclusion in standard times.
To indicate the nature of the distribution of work activities within a gang operation.
To estimate the percentage of utilization of groups of similar machines or equipments.
To indicate how materials handling equipments are being used.
To provide a basis for indirect labour time standards.
To determine the productive and non-productive utilization of clerical operations. Working Environment : Working Environment It is very important to make a healthy working environment which include both physical and mental environment.
The problem of working conditions and environment are multi-complex and cross sectoral in nature and can be solved through a multi-disciplinary approach. Poor working environment exerts undue strain on workers effort, reduce their efficiency and lower the productivity of the system. Slide 11: An environment can be divided as follows:-
Physical environment:- It includes physical working conditions as ventilation, noise, lighting, temperature, humidity etc.
Mental environment:- It includes psychological factors as fear for loosing job, pressure on mind, stress etc.
Social environment:- It includes culture of that particular factory or organization. It means relationship between employer and employee or worker. Working condition : Working condition Cleanliness:- It is essential for health. Dirt should be removed daily form all rooms, passage and stair and rest of factory area.
Lighting:- Worker’s efficiency directly depends on his ability to see the objects quickly and accurately. So it directly affects the productivity.
Temperature:- High temperature decrees productivity and increase stress. So there should be tolerable temperature in the factory premises. Slide 13: Ventilation:- There should be proper arrangement of entrance of air for that there should be more and more windows so that air can be pass.
Freedom from noise:- Noise may be unwanted sound in or outside the factory area. In increase deafness, migraine, indigestion etc type of diseases.
Humidity:- There should not be more humidity it increase suffocation. Industrial Safety : Industrial Safety Industrial safety has become the prime responsibility of management in the modern industrial . Industrial and labour legislations have made it obligatory on the ensure industrial safety.
Safety means freedom from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. Industrial safety or employee safety refers to the protection of the workers from the dangers of industrial accidents. Objectives of Industrial Safety : Objectives of Industrial Safety To reduce the number of all type of accidents which may cause loss of life, personal injury.
To reduce loss or damage to equipment loss or damage to equipment of operating efficiency.
To make healthy and safe environment for employee and worker. Effects of Accidents : Effects of Accidents “An accident is any unplanned, uncontrolled, unwanted or undesirable event or sudden mishap which interrupts an activity or junction.”
Injury - disability, pain or suffering etc.
Damage - of equipment, machine or building
Loss - of life, earning , output , profit
Emotion- following injury, pain, death etc. Causes of Accidents : Causes of Accidents Plant- faulty stairways, electrical hazards etc.
Equipment- defective guard, incorrect equipment
Environment- high noise, insufficient light etc
People- untrained, over-stressed, careless
Systems of work- poor procedures, bad housekeeping. Accident Prevention Process : Accident Prevention Process I. Workplace inspection-
Safety audits and reviews,
II. Accident or incident investigation and follow-up:-This is based on the following process:-
Collecting data and information relating to the accident or incident. Slide 19: Checking the validity of the evidence
Selecting evidence relevant to the investigation aims.
Analyzing the evidence without making assumptions or jumping to conclusions.
Decide the most likely causes of the accident or incident.
Take corrective and preventive action
III. Safety training Process planning : Process planning Process planning is concerned with determining the method of manufacture of a product, establishing the sequence and type of operations involved, tools and equipment’s required and analyzing how the manufacturing of a product will fit into the facilities.
Process planning establishes the shortest route that is followed from raw material stage till it leaves as a finished part or product. Framework of Process Planning : Framework of Process Planning Product planning (product development and product final design) Process design (workstation selection, work flow analysis, operation design) Process planning Functions or Activities of Process Planning : Functions or Activities of Process Planning Making list of operations to be performed and their sequence.
Making specifications of the machines and equipment required.
Giving the manufacturing details of each operation to be performed.
Giving the estimated or processing times of operations. Factors Affecting Process Planning : Factors Affecting Process Planning Volume or quantity of production
Delivery dates for components or products.
Accuracy and process capability of machines.
The skill and expertise of manpower.
Accuracy requirements of components or parts. Process and Equipment Selection : Process and Equipment Selection The following considerations are to be given while selecting a process or machine:
Production rate and unit cost of production
Quality and reliability aspects
Minimum setup and put away times
Longer productive life of machine or equipment. Aggregate planning : Aggregate planning Aggregate or intermediate term planning is the process of determining the company’s production, inventory, and personnel level for 3-12 months ahead.
Aggregate plans act as an interface between strategic decisions, which fix the operating environment, and short-term scheduling and control decisions which guide the firm’s day-to-day operations. Goals of Aggregate Planning : Goals of Aggregate Planning It has to satisfy a number of goals:-
It has to provide the overall level of output, inventory, personnel plan.
It has to use the facility’s capacity in a manner consistent with the organization’s strategy.
Aggregate plan should be consistent with company’s goals and planning regarding its employees. Steps For A Good Aggregate Plan : Steps For A Good Aggregate Plan Indentifying the planning variables Forecasting Implementing an aggregate plan Approach to Aggregate Planning : Approach to Aggregate Planning Top down approach:- to aggregate planning involves development of the entire plan by working only at the highest level of consolidation of products. It consolidates the products into an average product then develop the plan.
A bottom approach:- It involves development of plans for major products or product families at some lower level within the product line. Scheduling : Scheduling Scheduling is the process of prescribing when each operation in a production process is to be executed. In other words it involves designing the time table of manufacturing activities indicating the time required for the production of units at each stage.
According to Kimball and Kimball, “ The determination of time that is required to perform each operation and also the time required to perform the entire series as routed is scheduling.” Objectives of Scheduling : Objectives of Scheduling To plan the sequence of different work and operation.
To minimize idle time of machines, labor etc. for having maximum utilization of plant and reducing the cost of wages.
To prevent unbalanced allocation of time among various departments and work centers. Classification of Schedules : Classification of Schedules Operation Schedules:- It determines the total time required to do a piece of work with a given machine or process.
Master Schedules:- It is the overall schedule for all operations and activities.
Sequential Schedule:- It is mainly for the multiproduct plant, which pass through a number of departments .
Scheduling Devices (Gantt Charts, CPM and PERT method etc.) Unit iv : Unit iv Material management : Material management “Material management is the planning, directing, controlling and coordinating those activities which are concerned with material and inventory requirements.”
Material management is the process of uniting the actives involved in the acquisition and use of materials employed in the production of finished goods products. Slide 34: “Material management deals with controlling and regulating the flow of material in relation to changes in variables like demand, prices , availability, quality, delivery schedules etc.” Objectives of material management : Objectives of material management Material Selection
Low operating costs
Receiving and controlling material safely and in good condition.
Issue material upon receipt of appropriate authority.
Identification of surplus stocks and taking appropriate measures to reduce it. Duties of material manager : Duties of material manager Purchasing
Inventory and Stores Control
Physical distribution Factors responsible for providing economy in materials management : Factors responsible for providing economy in materials management Volume of purchases
Plant near to the source of materials
Fluctuations in prices of the materials
Design and engineering of the product
Design of equipment
Inspection the material before placing the order Importance if material management : Importance if material management Regular supply of the materials is ensured, reducing the chances of any interruption in production process.
Procurement costs and transportation costs associated with the material and checked.
Efficient store and stock control minimizes waste of material.
Inspection of material at the time of procurement minimizes the possibility of finished product being rejected by the consumer Slide 39: Better utilization of labour, capital and equipment
Congestion in stores and at different stages of production can be avoided by and effective materials management system.
Shortage can be eliminated. Inventory : Inventory “Inventory means all the materials, parts, supplies, expense tools and in-process or finished products recorded on the books by an organization and kept in its stocks, ware houses or plant for some period of time.” Inventory control : Inventory control “Inventory control is the technique of maintaining the size of the inventory at some desired level keeping in view the best economic interests of an organization.”
“Inventory control is a system of ordering based on the maintenance of the stocks in a store using a re-order rule based on the stock level.” Objectives of inventory control : Objectives of inventory control Protection against fluctuation in demand
Better use of men, machines and material
Protection against fluctuations in output
For production economies
Control of stock volume