fever with rash

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appraoach to a child with fever and rash

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Measles and Neonatal Tetanus: Clinical Signs and Treatment:

Measles and Neonatal Tetanus: Clinical Signs and Treatment Prof. Pushpa Raj Sharma Institute of Medicine Kathmandu Measles and Neonatal Tetanus: Clinical Signs and Treatment

Measles Case definition:

Measles Case definition Laboratory confirmation in the absence of recent immunization (1-14 days) with measles containing vaccine: Detection of measles virus from urine or throat/nasopharyngeal swabs or Significant rise in the measles antibody titre between acute and convalescent sera or Positive serologic test for measles IgM antibody using a recommended assay.

Measles: Basic Characteristics:

Measles: Basic Characteristics Also known as “dadura”/”bhosa kai” / rubeola / fourth day disease/ first fever Acute viral illness Primarily affects children Highly contagious Paramyxovirus RNA, single stranded Vaccine preventable Potential to be eliminated

Measles: Signs and Symptoms:

Measles: Signs and Symptoms Incubation period: 10-12 days (8-16 range) Prodrome Cough NP, worsens over 4 days, then improves Lasts through entire illness (7-10 days) Conjunctivitis (purulent), coryza May include photophobia Lasts 6-8 days Fever: 38-40 o C: subsides after 1 week Diarrhea Chronic, serious if previously malnourished

Measles: Signs and Symptoms:

Measles: Signs and Symptoms Koplik’s spots Part of prodrome: day 1-3 before rash Raised papules on buccal mucosa and conjunctiva Usually adjacent to molars Often white on red base Disappear about time rash occurs

Measles: Signs and Symptoms:

Measles: Signs and Symptoms Erythematous papular eruption Travels inferior over 2-3 days Coalesces into macular “splotches” Often desquamates at end of illness Hairline Behind Ears Face Trunk Limbs Rash

Measles: Signs and Symptoms:

Measles: Signs and Symptoms Peak of Illness 2-4 days after onset of rash Other signs and symptoms Anorexia, malaise, hemorrhagic, Resolution Rapid improvement at end of febrile period (1 week) Complete recovery in 10-14 days

Summary: Diagnosis / Clinical:

Summary: Diagnosis / Clinical Clinical illness includes all of the following symptoms: Temperature of 38.3 °C or more. Cough, coryza or conjunctivitis Generalized maculopapular rash for at least three days following temperature and cough, coryza or conjunctivitis. Koplik’s spots can be classic, but easily missed

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Maculopapular Rash with Fever Rubella Roseola Infantum Enteroviruses Echoviruses Mononucleosis Reoviruses Dengue Kawasaki Measles Scarlet Fever

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Six Case Studies

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Low grade fever, headache and mild URI symptoms Erythematous facial flushing. “Slapped cheek appeaarence

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High fever for three days. Developed generalized seizure on the third day. No specific localizing signs. Investigations including LP normal Developed rash on the fourth day after the fever subsided. Rash first appeared on trunk sparing palm and sole

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Presented with Jaundice and drowsiness, ascitis Started ampicillin Developed rash on 4 th day.

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Fever and rash for three day Forehead and cheeks flushed Non itchy, maculo-papular, punctate, granular generalized, first noticed over neck. Bilateral periorbital edema not associatedwith generalized edema Maculopapular rash

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Mild fever and cough for two days Developed rash on the second day of fever which appeared on face first and spread allover in one day. Fever: 99.2 axillary; enanthem on the soft palate; tender discrete lymph nodes over retro auricular, sub occipital and posterior cervical region. Rash cleared on third day.

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Exanthem a common clilnical manifiestation Nonspecific febrile illness (no coryza and conjunctivitis) Rubeolliform rash Rash and fever same time Rash last 3-5 days

Case history::

Case history: Five years , child moderate fever, a hacking cough, runny nose, red eyes for three days. On examination enanthem was present on the hard and soft palate. Grayish white dots were seen opposite the lower molars. On fourth day temperature: 104 ºF. Faint macules on the upper lateral parts of neck, behind the ears, along the hair line, and on the posterior parts of neck was noticed.

Major Complications:

Major Complications Acute Post-infectious Encephalitis Occurs in 1-4/1000, 2-6 days after rash Mild to fulminant (death in 24 hours) 25% morbidity; 15% mortality Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis–SSPE 2-15 years after infection Progressive behavioral changes Secondary infections: Pneumonia; flaring of tuberculosis. Myocarditis Corneal ulcer

Measles: Prognosis:

Measles: Prognosis Mortality varies by age / nutritional status Historically 1-5% Higher with close contact secondary cases from presumed high viral exposure West Africa/Asia: 25% Death: pneumonia, malnutrition, diarrhea Risk factors Immune compromise, Vitamin A deficiency

Measles: Treatment:

Measles: Treatment Supportive Care Rest, hydration, nutrition, prn meds Look for and treat bacterial super-infections Rinse eyes daily (saline or sterile water) Vitamin A May decrease mortality by 40% Benefit may be independent of deficiency WHO recs for both hospitalized and less ill Ribavirin Inhibits viral replication in cell culture Limited benefit in immune compromised patients High cost makes = impractical in developing world

Measles: Treatment*:

Measles: Treatment* Vit-A  Age Initial Dose Final Dose 2 weeks later 0 – 5 Months 50,000 IU / day X 2 days 50,000 IU 6 – 11 Months 100,000 IU / day X 2 days 100,000 IU >12 Months 200,000 IU / day X 2 days 200,000 IU *WHO Recommendations

Some Myths:

Some Myths Over clothing is essential. Do not use antipyretics. Do not give meat / egg / fruits / oil. Keep in a room with windows closed. Religious Puja. Herbal medicines in eye. My child has three episodes of measles within one year.

Measles: Prevention:

Measles: Prevention Maternal antibodies Protect for 3-12 months; usually 6 months Presence of Ab’s makes vaccine less effective Passive Immunization Gamma globulin (0.25mg/kg) For: high risk pts and exposure within 6 days Pregnant, immune suppressed, children too young for vaccine, active TB, leukemia, known HIV Impractical for developing world

Measles: Prevention:

Measles: Prevention Vaccine Immunization Live attenuated vaccine Efficacy (seroconversion) Lifelong immunity 9 months : 80-85% Second dose with MMR at 16 months: >90% Contraindications (live vaccine) Immune suppressed, leukemia, lymphoma, pregnancy, anaphylaxis to neomycin or gelatin Most recommend vaccinating HIV patients

Measles: Prevention:

Measles: Prevention Vitamin A National Vit. A programme Targets children >= 6 months old Decrease mortality by improving nutrition Benefit likely involves many infections, but measles is at the top

Neonatal Tetanus:

Neonatal Tetanus First described by Hippocrates Etiology discovered by Carle and Rattone in 1984 Passive immunity used for treatment and prophylaxis during World War I Tetanus toxoid first widely used during World War II

Tetanus Pathogenesis:

Tetanus Pathogenesis Anaerobic condition helps to germinate spores and production of toxins. Toxins binds to the central nervous system Interferes with the neurotransmitter release to block inhibitory impulses. Leads to unopposed muscle contraction and spasm.

Clinical Features:

Clinical Features Incubation period: 8 days (3-21 days). Three clinical forms: Local (not common) Cephalilc (rare) Generalised most common Descending symptoms of trismus, difficulty swallowing, muscle rigidity and spasm. Spasm continues ( consciousness retained)

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Neonatal tetanus A conscious spasm

Tetanus: complications:

Tetanus: complications Laryngospasm Hypoglycemia Nosocomial infections Myoglobinuria Aspiration Iatrogenic apnoea Death

Management: Principles:

Management: Principles Eradication of C. tetani. Penicillin G 100,000 U / kg / 24 hrs. Neutralizing the toxin Human tetanus immunoglobulin: 500 IU IM TAT: 10,000 – 100,000 U (I/2 IM and ½ IV) Prevent spasm: Diazepam: 0.1 – 0.2 mg every 3 – 6 hourly intravenously. Dantrolene; chlorpromazine; baclofen Vecuronium and pancuronium with Mechanical ventilation (best survival rate)

Management: contd.:

Management: contd. IV line. Nasogastric tube feeding. Minimal handling. A separate room.

Prevention:

Prevention An entirely preventable disease Mortality <10% (intensive care treatment) > 70% without intensive care treatment. Antenatal Tetanus Toxoid

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Thank you www.prsharma.com.np

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