Traditional Drugs 6th sem

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This presentation covers in detail the traditional drugs of pharmacognosy-V of semester 6 in Gujarat Technological University

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TRADITIONAL DRUGS Of 6th SEMESTER (According to Gujarat Technological University):

TRADITIONAL DRUGS Of 6 th SEMESTER (According to Gujarat Technological University) Purvi H. Kakrani, Lecturer, L.B.R.I.P.E.R

ARJUNA BARK:

ARJUNA BARK 2 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

ARJUNA BARK:

BIOLOGICAL SOURCE : Arjuna consists of the dried stem bark of Terminalia arjuna W.& A. FAMILY : Combretaceae GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE : The tree is common in Indian peninsula. It is grown by the side of streams and very common in Chotta-Nagpur region. Sub Himalayan tracts & Eastern India, Bihar Bengal, Southern India CULTIVATION & COLLECTION : Raised by sowing seeds or by means of stumps. The seeds take about 21 days of generation. Needs moist fertile alluvial loam soil; rainfall in the range of 75 to 190 cm; temperature 45 0 C. Yield per tree varies from 9 to 55 kg. ARJUNA BARK 3 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

ARJUNA BARK:

MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERS : Color: Outer side- Grey brown Inner side of bark- Pinkish Odour: None Taste: Astringent Size: The pieces of various-sizes, about 15 x 10 x 1 cm. Shape: Flats. Sometimes, curved, recurved, channelled to half quilled Surface: Outer surface- smooth Inner surface- Pinkish Fracture: Short on inner side Laminated on outer side Extra features: As arjuna is collected from the old trees, the cork gets removed due to exfoliation. ARJUNA BARK 4 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

ARJUNA BARK:

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS : About 15% of tannins (hydrolysable). Also contains triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid, arjunic acid, arjunogenin. In addition, β – sitosterol, ellagic acid, and arjunic acid. The crystallisable compounds reported are arjunine and arjunetine. Flavonoids: Arjunetin, arjunolone and arjunone. Calcium, aluminum and magnesium salts, along with coloring matter and sugar are the other constituents of arjuna. ARJUNA BARK 5 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

ARJUNA BARK:

ARJUNA BARK Arjunolic acid 6 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

ARJUNA BARK:

CHEMICAL TEST : Etherial extract of arjuna shows pinkish flourescence under ultra-violet light USES : Arjuna bark is used as a cardiotonic. It is also styptic, febrifuge and antidysentric. It possesses diuretic and tonic properties. The drug exhibits hypotensive action with vasodilation and decreased heart rate. The diuretic activity is due to arjunolic acid. Arjuna bark is used extensively in the tanneries and also as a timber. ARJUNA BARK 7 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

ARJUNA BARK:

ADULTERANTS : The dried bark of the plant Terminalia tomentosa is used as an adulterant for the drug. However, It can be distinguished from arjuna bark by fluorescence test: Ethereal extract of arjuna gives pinkish fluorescence, while T. tomentosa gives pale blue. ARJUNA BARK 8 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

ARJUNA BARK- Formulations:

9 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER ARJUNA BARK- Formulations

KAREN:

KAREN 10 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

KAREN:

KAREN SYNONYM : Yellow oleander, Trumpet flower, Lucky nut tree BOTANICAL SOURCE : Obtained from dried seeds of Thevetia peruviana Merill syn. Thevetia neriifolia FAMILY: Apocynaceae GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE: West Indies, Florida, Hawaii, America, throughout India. HABITAT : Large evergreen shrub 450-600cm tall Flowers: Bright yellow flowers in terminal cymes Fruit: Bears triangular fleshy drupes containing 2-4 seeds. Leaves: 10- 15cm in length, linear, acute Taste: Seeds are very bitter, when chewed produce numbness 11 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

KAREN:

Color: seeds are green to greenish black Odour: None Shape: Oblong hard CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS : Major constituent: Thevetin Cardiac glycoside Thevetin is the mixture of 2 triosides: Thevetin A + Thevetin B (Cerebrosides) Monosides separated from thevetia seeds: cerberin, neriifolin, peruvoside, theveneriin, Perruvosidic acid Enzymatic biotransformation of peruvoside & neriifolin from yellow oleander gives digoxin 12 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER KAREN

KAREN:

GLYCOSIDE AGLYCONE SUGARS Thevetin B Digitoxigenin L- Thevetose + 2 D-glucose Thevetin A Cannogenin L- Thevetose + 2 D-glucose Peruvoside Cannogenol L- Thevetose Neriifolin Digitoxigenin L- Thevetose Theverin Cannogenol L- Thevetose Peruvosidic acid Cannogenic acid L- Thevetose 13 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER KAREN

KAREN:

USES : Entire thevetia plant is poisonous; seeds are most poisonous Tincture: Cathartic, emetic, febrifuge Seeds: Abortifacient In rheumatism Purgative Peruvoside: In treatment of mild cardiac insufficiency & weak heart High degree of therapeutic index compared to digoxin 14 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER KAREN

SHATAVARI:

SHATAVARI 15 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

SHATAVRI:

SHATAVRI Synonyms : Shatamuli Biological source : The Shatavari mostly comprises of the dried roots & the leaves of the plant known as Asparagus racemosus Will. Family: Liliaceae Geographical source : Throughout tropical regions of Africa, Australia, Asia & India Found in Himalayan range up to an altitude of 4000-4500 ft. Also found in dry & deciduous forests of Maharashtra 16 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

SHATAVRI:

Chemical constituents: Steroidal saponins: 0.2% Contains 4 steroidal saponins: Shatavarins I – IV Shatavarin I is the major glycoside present 17 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER SHATAVRI Shatavarin IV

SHATAVRI:

USES : Employed as galactogogue to promote the flow of milk Invariably used as tonic & diuretic Extensively employed as a medicinal oil for the control & management of nervine disorders & rheumatism In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, widely used in threatened abortion & safe delivery because of its distinct uterine blocking activity. 18 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER SHATAVRI

SHATAVARI FORMULATIONS:

SHATAVARI FORMULATIONS 19 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

MALKANGNI:

MALKANGNI 20 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

MALKANGANI:

MALKANGANI Synonyms : Staff tree, Jyotishmati , malakangana ( gujrati ) Biological source : It consists of fruits of Celastrus paniculata Family : Celastraceae Habitat : Grows almost all over India, up to altitude of 1,800 meter It is also found in SriLanka , Malayadeep , Phillipines . Globally the species occurs in the tropical and subtropical regions of India, Myanmar, China, Malaysia, SriLanka and Philippines and also in North America. Within India, it occurs in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh 21 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

MALKANGANI:

22 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER MALKANGANI

MALKANGANI:

MORPHOLOGY : Large, woody, climbing shrub. Leaves: Ovate oblong-elliptic Flowers: unisexual, small greenish white or yellowish green, the capsules are globose, yellow 1-6 seeded and transversely wrinkled Seeds: Ellipsoid or ovoid, yellowish or reddish-brown in color enclosed in scarlet aril, which stains yellowish orange. Odour- unpleasant Chemical Constituents : The seeds yield brownish yellow oil 52.2% with an unpleasant taste. This oil is reported to contain acetic acids & benzoic acids in addition to the higher amount of the fatty acids 23 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER MALKANGANI

MALKANGANI:

Alkaloids: Celastrin, paniculatin Other minor alkaloids: celapagine, celapanigine, celapanine Standards : Foreign matter: Not more than 2 per cent. Total Ash: Not more than 6 per cent Acid-insoluble ash: Not more than 1.5 per cent. Alcohol-soluble extractive: Not less than 20 per cent. Water-soluble extractive: Not less than 9 per cent Oil contents: Not less than 45 per cent. 24 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER MALKANGANI

MALKANGANI:

Uses : Anti-convulsant Analgesic Sedation For sharpening the memory Cures sores, ulcers, rheumatism & gout Hypotensive Formulations: Jyotismati taila Abana capsules (Himalaya) 25 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER MALKANGANI

KALIJIRI:

KALIJIRI 26 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

KALIJIRI:

KALIJIRI Synonyms : Somraj BIOLOGICAL SOURCE : It is obtained from fruits & seeds of Centratherum anthelminticum syn. Vernonia anthelmintic Family : Asteraceae Habitat : Throughout India Altitude up to 1650m in Himalayas; Khasi hills 27 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

KALIJIRI:

Morphology : Size: 4.5- 6mm long Color: Dark brown Odour: Characteristic Taste: Intensely bitter Surface: 10 ridges covered with trichomes Shape: Oblong shape, pointed from one side and hairy tapered from other end Microscopy : Single cell outermost layer of epidermis Unicellular bulb shape trichomes in epidermis Under epidermis, there are round structures of collenchymatous cell arranged in bundles giving an appearance of ridge from outside the seed. 28 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER KALIJIRI

KALIJIRI:

Vascular bundles below the ridge Followed by discontinuous and laterally extending schlerenchymatous tissues Testa is single layered Thin walled parenchymatous cells of cotyledon Aleurone grains Chemical constituents : Sterols: Avenasterol, vernosterol A bitter principle Essential oil Resins Fixed oils: myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, vernolic acids. 29 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER KALIJIRI

KALIJIRI:

Standards : Foreign matter: NMT 2% Total ash: NMT 7.5% Acid insoluble ash: NMT 4.5% Alcohol soluble extractive: NLT 20% Water soluble extractive: NLT 14% Uses : Athelmintic, esp. against threadworms Used in asthma & cough Kidney troubles Tonic, stomachic Skin infections: leucoderma, psoriasis Formulations : Madhusnuhi rasayan 30 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER KALIJIRI

SHILAJIT:

SHILAJIT 31 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

shilajit:

shilajit Synonyms : Silaras , Asphalt, Bitumen mineral Biological source : The Charaka Samhita states that, “Stones of metal like gold etc., in the mountains get heated up by the sun and the exudates that comes out of them in the form of smooth and clean gum is called shilajit The Sushruta Samhita states that “A gelatinous substance that is secreted from the side of the mountains, when they have become heated by the rays of the sun in the months of Jyaishta and Ashadha . This substance is what is know as Çilájatu and it cures all distempers of the body.” Jyaishta is May-June and Ashadha is June-July. Geographical source : Shilajit is a blackish-brown exudation, of variable consistency, obtained from steep rocks of different formations found in: Himalayas at altitudes between 1000 to 5000 meter From Arunachal Pradesh in the East to Kashmir in the West. Also found in Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, China, Tibet and U.S.S.R ( Tien -Shan, Ural and Caucasus) 32 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

shilajit:

Types of shilajit : There are four types based on stones of four types of metals from which it exudes: Gold (Red variety) Silver (White variety) Copper (Blue variety) Black iron (Blackish brown variety): Shilajit from the last type is the best Morphology : Kind of a resin that oozes out from Himalayan mountains due to heating effect in summer Color: Pale brown to blackish Texture: Soft, slimy to touch, heavy Soluble in water 33 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER shilajit

shilajit:

34 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER shilajit

shilajit:

shilajit Chemical constituents : Albuminoids Fatty acids Trace elements, waxes Fulvic acid- 7- methoxy carboxy biphenyl Uses: General tonic stimulent Aphrodisiac Purifies blood Strengthens functioning of pancreas Strengthens immunity system of human body. 35 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

DHATAKIPUSHPA:

DHATAKIPUSHPA 36 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

DHATAKIPUSHPA:

DHATAKIPUSHPA Synonyms : Dhai, dhataki, dhai-k-phool Biological source: It consists of flower of Woodfordia fruticosa Family : Lythraceae Geographical source : Throughout the greater part of India, upto 1600m in Himalaya Himachal Pradesh- upto 1500m in open dry slopes, rocky fields & waste lands Morphology : Large, much branched deciduous shrub with bark scaling off in patches Leaves: opposite or in sworls of 3, ovate- lanceolate 37 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

DHATAKIPUSHPA:

Flowers: Color: Red Arranged in sort, clustered panicles in the axil of fallen leaves on the old wood& appear before the leaves Flowering season: March-june 38 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER DHATAKIPUSHPA

DHATAKIPUSHPA:

39 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER DHATAKIPUSHPA

DHATAKIPUSHPA:

Chemical constituents: Saponins: Hecogenin, lupeol , betulin, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid Hydrolysable tannins: 1,2,3,6-tetra- O -galloyl- β- d-glucose, 1,2,4,6-tetra- O -galloyl- β- d-glucose, 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O -galloyl- β- d-glucose, tellimagrandin, gemin D, heterophylliin A and oenothein B. Novel constituents structurally characterized are: woodfordins A–C, woodfordin D, oenothein A, as also isoschimawalin A and woodfordins E–I. Of the new hydrolysable tannins, isoschimawalin A is monomeric, woodfordins A, B, C and G–I are dimeric, woodfordins D, E and oenothein A are trimeric, while woodfordin F ( 14 ) is tetrameric. Woodfruticosin from the leaves, which was found to be identical with woodfordin C. 40 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER DHATAKIPUSHPA

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Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER 41

DHATAKIPUSHPA:

Uses: Immunomodulatory Used in asavas & arishtas for inducing fermentation Antibacterial, antimicrobial Produces constipation Used in leprosy, skin diseases According to the Indian Systems of Medicine, this flower is pungent, acrid, cooling, toxic, alexiteric , uterine sedative, and anthelmintic , and is useful in thirst, dysentery, leprosy, erysipelas, blood diseases, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and toothache. 42 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER DHATAKIPUSHPA

APAMARGA:

APAMARGA 43 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

APAMARGA:

APAMARGA Synonyms : Aghedo , Prickly chaff flower, Chirchita , Latjira Biological source : Apamarga consists of dried whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Family : Amaranthaceae Morphology : Root : Shape: Cylindrical tap root, gradually tapering, Surface: Rough due to presence of some root scars, secondary and tertiary roots present Size: 0.1-1.0 cm in thickness, Color : yellowish-brown; Odour: not distinct. 44 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

APAMARGA:

45 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER APAMARGA

APAMARGA:

Stem: 0.3 - 0.5 cm in cut pieces, yellowish-brown, erect, branched, cylindrical, hairy, solid, hollow when dry. Leaf – Simple, Petiole: subsessile , Type: exstipulate , opposite, decussate, Margin: wavy margin, Shape: obovate , Apex: slightly acuminate Surface: pubescent due to the presence of thick coat of long simple hairs. 46 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER APAMARGA

APAMARGA:

Flower – Arranged in inflorescence of long spikes, greenish-white, numerous, sessile, bracteate with two bracteoles Fruit – An indehiscent dry utricle enclosed within persistent, perianth and bracteoles, Seed – Sub- cylindric , truncate at the apex, round at the base, endospermic, Brown. 47 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER APAMARGA

APAMARGA:

Standards : Foreign matter: Not more than 2 per cent, Total Ash: Not more than 17 per cent Acid-insoluble ash: Not more than 5 per cent Alcohol-soluble extractive: Not less than 2 per cent. Water-soluble extractive: Not less than 12 per cent Chemical constituents : Triterpenoid saponins: Oleanolic acid as aglycone Hormone: Ecdysterone Alkaloids: Betaine, Achyranthine Seeds contain Achyranthes saponin A & its ester named as achyranthes saponin B3 Tannins, essential oil, glycosides in shoots 48 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER APAMARGA

APAMARGA:

49 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER Oleanolic acid Betaine APAMARGA

APAMARGA:

Uses : Herb: Astringents, diuretic, antiperoidic, purgative, Used in piles, skin eruptions, ophthalmia, dysentry, rheumatism, leprosy Leaves: In Gonorrhoea Root: In cancer, stomach troubles, bladder stones Seeds: Renal dropsy, bronchial infections, in leprosy 50 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER APAMARGA

ECLIPTA:

ECLIPTA 51 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

ECLIPTA:

ECLIPTA Synonyms : Bhringraj, Bhangaro Biological source : Bhringaraja consists of whole plant of Eclipta alba Hassk. Family : Asteraceae Geographical source : Morphology : Root – Well developed, A number of secondary branches arise from main root, upto about 7 mm in dia., Cylindrical Greyish. Stem – Herbaceous, Branched, occasionally rooting at nodes 52 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

ECLIPTA:

cylindrical or flat, Rough due to oppressed white hairs, node distinct Greenish, occasionally brownish. Leaf – Opposite, sessile to subsessile , 2.2 - 8.5 cm long, 1.2 - 2.3 cm wide, oblong, lanceolate , sub-entire, sub-acute or acute, strigose with appressed hairs on both surfaces. Flower – Solitary or 2, together on unequal axillary peduncles; involucral bracts about 8, ovate, obtuse or acute, strigose with oppressed hairs; ray flowers ligulate , ligule small, spreading, scarcely as long as bracts, not toothed, white 53 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER ECLIPTA

ECLIPTA:

54 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER ECLIPTA

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55 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER Ligulate floret, typical for flowers of some members of the family Asteraceae: A. ovary B. pappus C. theca D. ligule E. style with stamen

ECLIPTA:

Fruit – Achenial cypsella, one seeded (small, dry, indehiscent one-seeded fruit with a thin wall cuneate, with a narrow wing, covered with warty excrescences, brown. Seed – 0.2 - 0.25 cm long, 0.1 cm wide, dark brown, hairy non endospermic 56 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER ECLIPTA

ECLIPTA:

57 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER ECLIPTA FRUIT

ECLIPTA:

Chemical constituents : Coumestan-type compounds: wedelolactone and dimethyl wedelolactone polypeptides, polyacetylenes, thiophene-derivatives, steroids, triterpenes and flavonoids Uses : Coumestans are known to possess estrogenic activity Wedelolactone: hepatitis and cirrhosis Coumestans have immunoactive property against surface antigen of Hepatitis B virus Oil soluble extracts help in promotion of growth & color of hair 58 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER ECLIPTA

VASAKA:

VASAKA 59 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

VASAKA:

VASAKA Synonyms : Vasaka, adulsa, arusa, ardusi, malabar nut Biological source : Vasaka consists of the fresh or dried leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees. Family: Acanthaceae Geographical source : The plant is distributed all over the plains of India & in lower Himalayan ranges, ascending to a height of 1,500m. Morphology: Size: 10-30 cm long and 3-10 cm broad, Shape: lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, Apex: slightly acuminate, Base: tapering, Petiolate; petioles 2-8 cm long, exstipulite, 60 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

VASAKA:

Surface: glabrescent, 8-10 pairs of lateral vein bearing few hairs; Color: dried leaves dull brown above, light greyish brown below; Odour: characteristic; Taste: bitter. 61 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER VASAKA

VASAKA:

VASAKA Leaves: an essential oil and quinazoline alkaloids vasicine, N-oxides of vasicine, vasicinone, 6- hydroxyvasicine Other alkaloids: vasicol, adhatonine, vasicinol, vasiciolone, aliphatic hydroketones viz., hydroxyhexateracont-l-en-15-one and 37-hydroxy hentetracontam-19-one. The roots are known to contain vasicinolone, vasicol, peganine and 2' - hydroxy - 4 - glucosyl -oxychalcone. The flowers contain b-sitosterol-D-glucoside, kaempferol, its glycosides and quercetin. 62 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

VASAKA:

VASAKA 63 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER VASICINONE

VASAKA:

Uses : bronchodilatory & expectorant properties of the leaves possesses abortifacient activity & significant antimicrobial activity against gingival inflammation and pyorrhea. Antimicrobial, Antitussive, Anticancer, useful in infinite atopical dermatitis, anti-tubercular, anti-allergic Formulations : Cough syrups – Hoopex, Cofsin 64 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER VASAKA

AMLA:

AMLA 65 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

AMLA:

AMLA Synonyms : Amlaki, aonla Biological source : It consists of pericarp of dried mature fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Syn. Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Family : Euphorbiaceae Cultivation : Medium sized tree, found both in natural state in mixed deciduous forests of the country ascending to 1300 m on hills; Cultivated in gardens, home yards or grown as a road side tree. 66 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

AMLA:

Morphology : Shape: curled pieces of pericarp of dried fruit occuring either as separated single segment; Size: 1-2 cm long or united as 3 or 4 segments; Color : bulk colour grey to black pieces Surface: a broad, highly shrivelled and wrinkled external convex surface to somewhat concave, transversely wrinkled lateral surface, external surface show s a few whitish specks, occasionally some pieces show a portion of stony testa Texture: rough, cartilaginous, tough; Taste: sour and astringent. Whole fruit: Fruits, fleshy, 2.24 cm in diameter. The stone of the fruit is six ribbed, splitting into three segments. Each contains usually two seeds: seeds 4–5 mm long, 2–3 mm wide. E 67 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER AMLA

AMLA:

AMLA 68 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

AMLA:

Chemical constituents : Rich source of Vitamin C. Phyllemblin Tannins, polyphenolic compounds: 1,3,6-trigalloylglucose, Terchebin , Corilagin, Ellagic & Phyllenbic acids Alkaloids: Phyllantidine and Phyllantine High amount of pectin Uses : Hair tonic Expectorant Cardiotonic Anti-oxidative In treatment of skin diseases & atherosclerosis Formulation : Chyawanprash 69 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER AMLA

CHAKRAMADU:

CHAKRAMADU 70 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

CHAKRAMADU:

CHAKRAMADU Synonyms : Chakramarda , Cassia obtusifolia , Senna obtusifolia , Ring worm plant Biological source : Drug consist of dried leaves and seeds of Cassia tora ( C. obtusifolia ). Family : Caesalpiniaceae . Morphology : Seed : Size: 1 cm long, 3-4 mm thick, Shape: oblong or rhombohedral , both ends appear as if cut off obliquely, Color : greenish-brown to brownish-black, Surface: smooth and shiny; Odour: odourless; Taste: bitter. 71 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

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72 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER SEEDS

CHAKRAMADU:

Leaves : Type: compound, Shape: obovate -oblong, Surface: glabrous, more or less pubescent, Base: somewhat oblique, usually rounded, Venation: 6-10 prominent veins, divergent venation. 73 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER CHAKRAMADU

CHAKRAMADU:

Chemical constituents : Seed : Two lactones – isotoralactone and cassialactone . Naptho -  - pyrone-toralactone , rubrofusarin-6-  - gentiobioside , Anthraquinone glycoside: 8 hydroxy-3-methyl anthaquinone , 1-  - gentiobioside , chrysophanol , physcion , emodin , rubrofusarin and chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone. Leaf : 1,6,8, trihydroxy-3methyl Anthraquinone , emodin , triacontan-1-ol, Stigmasterol ,  - sitosterol -  -D- glucoside , Palmitic , stearic , succinic , tartaric acid, uridine , myoinositol , Flavanoids : Kaempferol , quercetin , astragalin , quercitrin and isoquercitrin . 74 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER CHAKRAMADU

CHAKRAMADU:

Uses : In ringworm, leprosoy, skin disease, hepatic disorders, helminthiasis, flatulence, colic, dysentery, colic, dyspepsia, constipation, ophthalmic diseases, cough, bronchitis, cardiac disorders. Formulations: Mahavisgarbha taila 75 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER CHAKRAMADU

CHITRAK:

CHITRAK 76 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

CHITRAK:

CHITRAK BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: It consists of dried root and root bark of plant obtained from Plumbago species White flower – Plumbago zylenica Red flower- Plumbago rosea Neel or black- Plumbago campenses Family: Plumbaginaceae 77 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

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78 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

CHITRAK:

MORPHOLOGY: Habitat: Perennial herb Size: 5-6 cm in length. Shape: Cylindrical wavy and branch Surface: Shows number of root scars and transversely elongated Lenticels. Fracture: Very short and fibrous. Colour: Extremely Reddish brown internally pale brown. Taste: Acrid and bitter. Odor: Disagreeble. 79 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER CHITRAK

CHITRAK:

80 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER CHITRAK

CHITRAK:

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Napthaquinone glycoside i.e. plumbagin and plumbegic acid Biplumbagin, chutanon, zeylanone, Isozeylanone, Steroidal glycoside, Alkaloid Enzyme like proteases, invertase Amino with like glycine, phenylalanine, tyrosine. Flavonoids. 81 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER CHITRAK

CHITRAK:

Uses : Anti bacterial, Anti-cancer, antifungal, Used in hyperlipidimia, diarrhea, As antifertility agent, abortifacient, Antileprotic, analgesic and used in rheumatism. Entire drug having antibacterial action. Formulation : Chitrakadi vati 82 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER CHITRAK

DHAMASO:

DHAMASO 83 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

DHAMASO:

DHAMASO Synonyms : Duralabh, Dhanvysakah, Virgin Mantle’s tea Biological source : It consists of dried whole plant of Fagonia cretica Linn. syn. F. Arabica Linn., F. bruguieri DC. Family : Zygophyllaceae Geographical source : It is found in Alicante Province, Spain and the Balearic Islands . 84 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

DHAMASO:

Morphology: Root: Tap root Color: Externally brownish green; core yellowish-green Surface: rough, with longitudinal striations Fracture: fibrous. Leaf : Small, subsessile, Shape: oblong, Margin: entire, Color: green or blackish brown, Size: 0.5 to 1.5 cm in length, 0.05 to 0.1 cm in width 85 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER DHAMASO

DHAMASO:

Flower – Small, Color: pale rose or purple, Fruit – Pentagonous schizocarp, composed of five compressed, two valved cocci. 86 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER DHAMASO

DHAMASO:

Chemical constituents: Alkaloids : Harmine Amino acids: alanine, glycine, leucine, arginine,isoleucine, lysine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine and valine Terpenoids of oleanane group. Flavonoids: Qurcetin, kaempferol Flavonoids ; Anthraquinones; Tannins ; Alkaloids; Saponins; Carbohydrates and / or Glycosides ; Irodoids; Coumarins ; Chlorides and Sulphates ; Sterols and / or Triterpenes; Cardiac glycosides and sublimable substances 87 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER DHAMASO

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88 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER

DHAMASO:

Uses: Acrid, astringent, bitter, febrifuge, tonic Anti-inflammatory Anticancer- used specifically in Breast cancer Formulation: Sudarshan churna, durlabhi kwath 89 Purvi Kakrani, Traditional Drugs, LBRIPER DHAMASO

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