Sudan- South Sudan Border Conflict

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

ONGOING WARS / CONFLICTS IN THE WORLD

PowerPoint Presentation:

South SUDAN – SUDAN Border Conflict

PowerPoint Presentation:

The 2012 South Sudan–Sudan border war (26 th March 2012 – Present) is an armed conflict between the nations of South Sudan and the Republic of Sudan in 2012 over oil-rich regions between the South Sudan's Unity and the Sudan's South Kordofan . The oil rich region Heglig is well under the control of the Republic of Sudan.

PowerPoint Presentation:

South Sudan's independence was preceded by two civil wars , from 1955 to 1972 and from 1983 to 2005 , in which 2.5 million people were killed and more than 5 million externally displaced. Relations between the two states have been marked by conflict over the Greater Nile Oil Pipeline and the disputed region of Abyei , even though Sudan was the first state to recognise South Sudan. In January 2012, South Sudan shut down all of its oil fields in a row over the fees Sudan demanded to transit the oil. In May 2011, it was reported that Sudan had seized control of Abyei , a disputed oil-rich border region, with a force of approximately 5,000 soldiers after three days of clashes with South Sudanese forces. The precipitating factor was an ambush by the South killing 22 northern soldiers. The northern advance included shelling, aerial bombardment and numerous tanks. BACKGROUND

PowerPoint Presentation:

Initial reports indicated that over 20,000 people fled. The interim South Sudanese government declared this as an "act of war," and the United Nations sent an envoy to Khartoum , the Sudanese capital, to intervene. South Sudan says it has withdrawn its forces from Abyei . A deal on militarization was reached on 20 June 2011.The United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei , consisting of Ethiopian troops were deployed under a UNSC resolution from 27 June 2011. In early December 2011, Jau , a town in Unity state in South Sudan, was occupied by Sudanese forces. In early March 2012, the Sudanese Air Force bombed parts of Pariang county . Both countries accuse the other of supporting rebels on their soil as part of the ongoing internal conflict in Sudan and internal conflict South Sudan .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Events 26–28 March South Sudanese repulsed from Heglig Early April: South Sudanese capture Heglig Mid-April: Sudanese counter offensive Late April: Sudan retakes Heglig Sudan Air Campaign

PowerPoint Presentation:

On 26 March, the Republic of Sudan claimed that South Sudan attacked the Heglig oilfield (called Panthou by South Sudan), located in the Sudanese state of South Kordofan , while South Sudan claims it was acting in self-defence after an attack on its territory . The following day, 27 March, the Sudanese Air Force launched a bombing raid on the Unity oilfield in the South Sudanese state of Unity, located to the north of the state capital, Bentiu . The Sudanese Army later attacked the disputed areas of Jau , Pan Akuach , and Teshwin , but were repelled by the South Sudanese Sudan People's Liberation Army. South Sudanese artillery positions 20 kilometres north of Bentiu , which had been involved in the shelling of Heglig, were bombarded by artillery from the northern side of the border. 26–28 March South Sudanese repulsed from Heglig

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Republic of Sudan's Information Minister, Abdallah Ali Masar , confirmed that South Sudanese had penetrated 10 km into Sudanese territory, but also claimed that Sudanese forces had repelled them and driven them back, and had taken several prisoners. South Sudanese troops were ordered by their government to disengage and withdraw from the disputed area on 28 March. Dead bodies and destroyed vehicles lay strewn in Heglig, the oilfield which was the site of bloody battles. Three bodies were identified as Southern Sudanese soldiers, while a tank as well as 4 pickup trucks were destroyed. On 31 March, Sudanese warplanes bombed the Southern forces positions on the border, although officials from the north said it was artillery, not aircraft involved in the attack. Abdallah Ali Masar

PowerPoint Presentation:

The South Sudanese town of Teshwin , according to the South Sudanese armed forces, was shelled with artillery and warplanes by Sudan on 9 April. The town of Abiemnhom in Unity state was reportedly attacked by two brigades from the Sudanese army, which the south claimed was an attempt to seize its oil fields. At least four civilians were injured in the clashes, although there were no immediate reports of military casualties on either side. The South's government said that northern forces had breached the border accompanied by militias, but had been repelled . A Sudanese military spokesman later admitted that the Sudanese army had been defeated during a battle at Heglig and forced to retreat northwards .. Colonel Khalid Sawarmi , spokesman for the Sudanese army, claimed that the Southern forces had taken control of the Heglig oil fields and the town of Heglig itself, given South Sudan victory in the Battle of Heglig. Early April: South Sudanese capture Heglig

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Sudanese government said on 11 April that heavy fighting continued along the disputed border areas and the Sudanese army was reported to be trying to retake Heglig. Sudan announced they would use all legitimate means to retake the Heglig oil fields that fell to South Sudan the previous day. South Sudan said that they were holding defensive positions in Heglig, awaiting a Sudanese counter attack. Vice President Al-Haj Adam of Sudan formally declared that a state of war existed between the two countries late on 11 April and declared that all negotiations between the two states were on hold. The next day, the Sudanese Air Force bombed Bentiu , the capital of Unity State, in an attempt to destroy a strategic bridge using an Antonov An-26 transport plane converted into an improvised bomber, killing one South Sudanese soldier. Vice President Al-Haj Adam

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mid-April: Sudanese counter offensive South Sudanese forces began reinforcing their positions in Heglig on 13 April, whilst Sudan continued to mobilise its own forces. According to the South Sudanese government, the frontlines had remained static during the day .A spokesman of the Sudanese government said that its army was on the outskirts of Heglig, while South Sudan's government said that it would defend themselves if attacked. The Sudanese government spokesman also added that South Sudan failed to control "all of South Kordofan state ." South Sudan's Vice President Reik Machar said a Sudanese attempt to retake Heglig by force was halted 30 km north of the town. South Sudan claimed to have destroyed two tanks during the clashes. The Sudanese air force, operating two Sukhoi Su-25 jets, reportedly bombed Jau and Panakuach , as well as Heglig once again, killing five civilians. On 14 April, South Sudanese forces continued to advance northwards, and repelled a Sudanese counter attack on Kersanah .It was also reported that most facilities in Heglig had been damaged during the fighting

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Sudanese Air Force attacked a bridge in Bentiu , but failed to destroy it. The attack was widely believed to be an attempt to damage South Sudanese supply lines.Sudan shelled the western part of South Sudan's Upper Nile state during 15 April, in an apparent attempt to open up a new front. Sudanese troops crossed the border into South Sudan's Upper Nile state and briefly occupied the small town of Kuek , before being expelled by South Sudan's army. On 16 April, Sudan's parliament met and voted unanimously to declare that "South Sudan is an enemy of all Sudanese state agencies " The parliamentary speaker called for Sudan to mobalise all its resources to fight South Sudan and topple their government. Rabie Abdelaty , a spokesman for the Khartoum government, ruled out peace talks with the south, saying it would hurt national pride if Sudan did not take back Heglig by force. On 18 April, a new front opened up in the conflict, 160 km west of Heglig, resulting in seven South Sudanese soldiers and 15 Sudanese soldiers being killed. The clash was reportedly sparked when a South Sudanese soldier was shot dead when collecting water near the road between Aweil and Meiram .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Late April: Sudan retakes Heglig On 20 April, South Sudan announced it had begun a phased withdrawal from Heglig, while Sudan claimed it took it by force. Afterwards, Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir held a victory rally in Khartoum . On 22 April, more fighting broke out on the border as Sudanese soldiers backed by tanks and artillery launched three waves of attacks six miles deep inside South Sudan. At least one South Sudanese soldier was killed and two wounded in the attack . Sudan bombed the town of Rubkona on 23 April, damaging several market stalls, in an attempt to destroy a bridge between Rubkona and neighbouring Bentiu . At least three people were killed in the raid . The following day, Kiir stated on a visit to China that Sudan had "declared war" on South Sudan.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sudan Air Campaign

PowerPoint Presentation:

Weapons The Sudanese Army is equipped with predominantly Chinese and Soviet-made weapons while Armed Forces of South Sudan weapons vary, having few vehicles and mostly small arms.

PowerPoint Presentation:

BMP-2 T-55

PowerPoint Presentation:

BM-21 Mi-24

PowerPoint Presentation:

MiG-29 AK-103

PowerPoint Presentation:

ZU-23-2 TECHNICAL

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sudanese national radio announced that the President of Sudan, Omar al-Bashir, would suspend his planned visit to the South Sudanese capital, Juba, as a result of the conflict. Vice President Al-Haj Adam of Sudan formally declared that a state of war existed between the two countries late on 11 April and declared that all negotiations between the two states were on hold. On 16 April, Sudan's parliament met and voted unanimously to declare that "South Sudan is an enemy of all Sudanese state agencies "The parliamentary speaker called for Sudan to mobilise all its resources to fight South Sudan and topple their government. Rabie Abdelaty , a spokesman for the Khartoum government , ruled out peace talks with the south, saying it would hurt national pride if Sudan did not take back Heglig by force. Domestic response in Sudan

PowerPoint Presentation:

Following the Southern withdrawal from Heglig, President Omar al-Bashir declared that there would be no negotiations with the "poisonous insects" (i.e. the South Sudanese). Later on, Bashir argued that the South Sudanese only understand the "language of guns and ammunition." Sudan's UN ambassador, Daffa-Alla Elhag Ali Osman, argued that Sudan had the right to act in self- defense because "We have been targeted by... the South", adding that "Let me make it clear: We will not cross the international border and attack the South... inside their territories". Omar al-Bashir

PowerPoint Presentation:

Domestic response in South Sudan The President of South Sudan, Salva Kiir , suggested that the Republic of Sudan was responsible for initiating the conflict, and that further clashes could lead to war: "This morning [the Sudanese] air force came and bombed areas in Unity state. After this intensive bombardment our forces were attacked by [the Sudanese military] and militia." It is a war that has been imposed on us again, but it is [the Sudanese] who are looking for it." The spokesman for the South Sudanese military suggested that the conflict was "the biggest confrontation since independence". South Sudan's Parliament met, with the speaker calling on the people to prepare for war : "Khartoum might be meaning a real war ... if you don't defend yourself, you will be finished, so you should go and mobilise the people on [the] ground to be ready"

PowerPoint Presentation:

Fuel supplies began to run out in some filling stations in Juba around 15 April as huge queues of motorists tried to fill up as panic buying set in. In Juba, South Sudan’s parliament decided to raise military spending and bolster the army by cutting salaries of all deputies by 10 percent for three months. Salva Kiir Mayardit

PowerPoint Presentation:

International Response United Nations On 27 March, a spokesman for Ban Ki-moon, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, called for the two countries to end the conflict and " utilise to the fullest extent existing political and security mechanisms to peacefully address their differences". The President of Kenya, Mwai Kibaki , suggested that Kenya could mediate between the two countries, stating "Kenya is keen on good and stable relations between the two countries". On 23 April 2011, Ban Ki-moon condemned Sudan's bombing of border areas in South Sudan, demanding Khartoum cease all hostilities "as a matter of urgency". Arab League On 15 April the Arab Parliament called on South Sudan for restraint and to withdraw from the town of Heglig. A statement signed by Arab Parliament head Salem Deqbasi said that the Arab

PowerPoint Presentation:

Parliament's bureau called on South Sudan to "heed the voice of reason" and immediately pull its forces out of the areas it had occupied inside Sudanese territory, including Heglig. On April 26, the Arab League escalated its rhetoric, condemning South Sudan's "aggression" and saying Heglig belongs to Sudan. The Arab League went further to say it supported Sudan's "right to defend itself", and condemned South Sudan's alleged support of rebels in Sudan. African Union On 25 April 2012, the African Union condemned Sudan's bombing of parts of South Sudan, and called on both sides to cease all hostilities. The Peace and Security Council also put forth a 7-point roadmap in which the two sides would be given two weeks to restart negotiations. The AU urged both sides to refrain from "inflammatory statements and propaganda that could fuel the conflict".

PowerPoint Presentation:

United States On 11 April, the US State Department condemned South Sudan's seizure of Heglig and in statement said "We condemn South Sudan's military involvement in the attack on and seizure of Heglig, an act which goes beyond self- defense and has increased tensions between Sudan and South Sudan to dangerous levels ." Later on, however, the US took a different tone, condeming Khartoum's bombardment of South Sudanese territory and "military incursion into South Sudan". To South Sudan, the US release recognized the "right of South Sudan to self- defense ", but urged "restraint in its reaction to Sudan’s attack in Unity State". The US welcomed the South Sudanese withdrawal from Heglig and called for all South Sudanese troops to be withdrawn from areas across the 1 January 1956 border. In his message to the Sudanese and South Sudanese people, President Obama reiterated that "All those who are fighting must recognize that there is no military solution."

PowerPoint Presentation:

United Kingdom Africa Minister Henry Bellingham supported the African Union-led initiative, calling for both sides to restart negotiations and comply with the ceasefire. Yemen Yemen condemned South Sudan's occupation of Heglig, called for both parties to give diplomatic efforts a chance, and argued both sides should "establish ties enhancing the mutual confidence and building on the bonds of common history and human relations between the two countries."

PowerPoint Presentation:

RISHABH PURI X-C ROLL NO. 9 THANK YOU

authorStream Live Help