NUTRACEUTICALS in animal feeds

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NUTRACEUTICALS in animal feeds

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NUTRACEUTICALS IN ANIMAL FEEDS Dr Ravi kanth Reddy. Punuru Gvm /12-001

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The term “ Nutraceutical ” was coined from “ Nutrition ” & “ Pharmaceutical ” in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice , MD, Founder and Chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine (FIM).

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Reasons for the use of nutraceuticals : Nutrition and Health :- A large body of scientific literature substantiates a relation between nutrition and health.

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Disease risk reduction :- The health benefits are mostly achieved by a reduction in the risk for specific diseases Nutraceuticals are the substances in the food providing such health benefits Public Health & Nutraceuticals :- Disease risk reduction at low cost is an attractive way to slow the continuous rise in the health care cost of the aging population. Safety of Nutraceuticals :- There is a history of safe human use of these substances at the exposure level obtained by the respective food. Efficacy of Nutraceuticals :- Needs scientific substantiation by mechanistic rationale and/or clinical studies.

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Nutraceuticals are present in most of the food ingredients with varying concentration. Concentration, time and duration of supply of nutraceuticals influences the human and animal health. By Manipulating the foods, the concentration of active ingredients can be increased. Diet rich in nutraceuticals along with regular exercise, stress reduction and maintenance of healthy body weight will maximise health and reduces the disease risk. Nutraceuticals are also known as: Phytoceuticals Phytochemicals Phytonutrients Phytofoods Functional foods.

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CLASSIFICATION Classification based on functional components :- Class / components Source Potential benefit 1. Fatty acids CLA Milk & Meat Improve body composition, reduce cancers n-3 FA(DHA, EPA) Fish oils, berseem & maize fodder,mustard,linseed,rapeseed Reduce CVD & improve mental, visual function

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Class / components Source Potential benefit 2. Polyphenols Anthocyanidine Fruits Nutralises free radicals, reduce risk of cancer Catechins Tea,babul pods,mustard cake,rape seed,salseed Flavonone Citrus Flavones Fruits, vegetables,soya bean proanthocyanidine Cocoa, chocolate,tea,rape seed Reduce CVD

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3. Saponins Soybeans,GNC,lucerne,chick pea Lower cholesterol, anti cancer 4.Probiotics / Prebiotics / Synbiotics Lactobacillus Dahi,yogurt Improve GI health Fructo - oligosaccharides Whole grains, onions, combination of Pro & Prebiotics 5.Phytoestrogen Daidzein , Zenistein Soybean, flax, lentilseed,maize, berseem,lucerne,subabul fodder Reduce menopause symptoms,  bone health Lignans Flax,rye , vegetables Reduce cancer and heart diseases

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6.Caroteinoids  - caroteine Berseem,lucerne ,oat & maize fodder, Carrots, vegetabels,fruits Nutralises free radicals Luteine vegetabels Healthy vision Zeoxanthine Eggs,citrus,corn Lycopene Tomatoes Reduce prostate cancer 7.dietary fiber Insoluble fiber Wheat bran Reduce breast, colon cancer -glucan Oats Reduce CVD Whole grain Cereal grains

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Brand name Components Function Betatene Carotenoids Immune function Xangold Lutein esters Eye health Lipoec -lipoic acid Potent antioxidant Generol Phytosterol CHD reduction Premium probiotics probiotics Intestinal disorder Soylife Soyabean phytoestrogen Bone health NUTRACEUTICALS AVAILABLE IN MARKET

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Brand name Components Function Z-trim Wheat Zero calorie fat replacer Linumlife Lignan extract flax Prostate health Fenulife Fenugreek galactomannon Control blood sugar Teamax Green tea extract Potent antioxidant Marinol  3 FA, DHA, EPA Heart health protection Clarinol CLA Weight loss ingredient Cholestaid Saponin Reduce cholesterol

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Broadly can be defined as: Nutrients : Substances which have established Nutritional functions e.g. Vitamins, Minerals, Amino Acids, Fatty acids, etc. Herbals/ Phytochemicals : Herbs or Botanical products Dietary Supplements: Probiotics, Prebiotics, Antioxidents, Enzymes, etc.

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NUTRIENTS Most common Nutrients used/ supplemented as Nutraceutical are: Minerals and Vitamins (or) in combination ( or) in combination with other antioxidants Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A : Acts as antioxidant, essential for growth and development, maintains healthy vision, skin and mucous membranes, may aid in the prevention and treatment of certain cancers and in the treatment of certain skin disorders.

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Vitamin D : Essential for formation of bones and teeth, helps the body to absorb and use calcium Vitamin E : Antioxidant, helps to form blood cells, boosts immune system Vitamin K : Essential for blood clotting. Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin C : Antioxidant, necessary for healthy bones, gums, teeth and skin. Helps in wound healing, prevent from common cold

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Vitamin B 1 : Helps in carbohydrate metabolism, essential for neurological function. Vitamin B 2 : Energy metabolism, maintain healthy eye, skin and nerve function. Vitamin B 3 : Energy metabolism, brain function. Vitamin B 6 : Helps to produce essential proteins, convert proteins to energy. Vitamin B 12 : Help in producing genetic material, formation of RBC, maintenance of CNS, synthesis of amino acids, involved in metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Folic acid : Helps in RBC formation, formation of genetic material of cell, very much essential during pregnancy. Pantothenic acid : Aids in synthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and fatty acids, crucial for intraneuronal synthesis of acetylcholine.

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Vitamins like Compounds L- Carnitine : Helps in oxidation of fatty acids, role in oxidative phosphorylation , Choline : Lipotropic agent, used to treat fatty liver and disturbed fat metabolism, Inositol : For amino acid transport and movement of Potassium and sodium, Taurine : Helps in retinal photoreceptor activity, bile acid conjugation, WBC antioxidant activity, CNS neuromodulation , platelet aggregation, cardiac contractibility, sperm motility, insuline activity,

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: Minerals : Calcium : essential for bone and teeth, maintaining bone strength, nerve, muscle and glandular function, blood clotting, Iron : energy production, Hb , oxygen transport, Magnesium : for healthy nerve and muscle function, bone formation, Phosphorous : energy production, phosphorylation process, bone and teeth, for genetic material,

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Cobalt : component of Vit . B 12 and B 12 coenzymes, Copper : Hb and collagen production, function of heart, energy production, absorption of Iron, Iodine : proper function of Thyroid gland, Chromium : with insulin it helps in conversion of carbohydrate and fat into energy, treatment of diabetes. Selenium : Antioxidant, functioning of heart muscle, part of GPX enzyme. Zinc : Essential for cell reproduction, for development in Neonates, wound healing, production of sperm and testosterone hormone.

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: Herbals : Aloe vera : Anti-inflammatory, emollient, wound healing, Evening Primrose oil : Dietary supplement of linoleic acid, treatment of atopic eczema, Garlic : Antibacterial, antifungal, antithrombotic, antiinflammatory , Ginger : carminative, antiemetic, treatment of dizziness

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Ginseng : Adaptogen . Green tea : Antioxidant, reduces risk of CVD, enhances humoral and cell mediated Immunity. Vegetables, fruits, whole grain, herbs, nuts and various seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids , sulphur compounds, pigments etc. that has been associated with protection / treatment of certain disease conditions.

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: Phytochemicals : Phytochemicals could provide health benefits as: Substrate for biochemical reactions Cofactors of enzymatic reactions Inhibitors of enzymatic reactions Absorbents that bind to & eliminate undesirable constituent in the intestine Scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals. Enhance the absorption and / or stability of essential nutrients. Selective growth factor for beneficial bacteria . Fermentation substrate for beneficial bacteria . Selective inhibitors of deleterious intestinal bacteria

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Various Phytochemicals Phytochemicals Source Role Tocotrienols & tocopherols Grains Suppressed the growth of diverse tumors cell lines via initiation of apoptosis and concomitant arrest of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle Carotenoids Fruits & vegetables Antioxidants, protects against uterine, prostate, colorectal, lung and digestive tract cancers, and protection to other antioxidants.

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Limonoids Citrus fruits Inhibiting phase I enzymes & inducing phase II detoxification enzymes in liver, provide protection to lung tissue. Phytosterols Various plants Exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-pyretic & immune- modulating activity, decrease cholesterol Phenolic constituents Various plants, wholegrain Antioxidants, lowers the risk of CHD, diabetes, hypertension etc.

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Flavonoids Grapes, wines Action against free radicals, free radicals mediated cellular signaling, inflammation, allergies, platelet aggregation, & hepatotoxins Catechin & gallic acids Grapes, berries, cocoa, green tea, acacia spp. Antioxidants, free radical scavenging ability, inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis, reduces CHD Isoflavonoids Soybeans Treating cancers & osteoporosis

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Anthocyanidins Fruits & flowers Antioxidants & anti-mutagenic properties Glucosinolates Cruciferous Activators of liver detoxification enzymes, inhibit the neoplastic effect of various carcinogens Indoles Reduces estrogen-dependent cancer risk, Fiber Various vegetables, fruits, Protects against colorectal diseases,

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ANTIOXIDANTS Antioxidants are substances, which retard or prevent deterioration, damage or destruction caused by oxidation. T he common disease and ailments of 21st century (CVS, diabetes, cataracts, high blood pressure, infertilities, respiratory infection, and rheumatoid arthritis) are associated with tissue deficiency and/or low dietary levels of compounds called antioxidants. During oxidation free radicals are generated. These free radicals at a molecular level burn the cells . Antioxidants are power full electron donors and react with free radical damage the biomolecules . The formed antioxidant radical is stable and unreactive

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Antioxidants are quite large in number and diverse in nature which oppose the process of oxidation largely by neutralizing free radicals at relatively small concentrations have the potential to inhibit to inhibit the oxidants chain reactions . Dietary antioxidants and some accessory molecules, such as zinc and certain vitamins are important in maintaining free radical scavenging systems, biosynthetic capacity, membranes, enzymes . Antioxidants are found in the vegetable oils. E g- Soybean oil, canola oil, corn oil, oat oil, wheat germ oil, palm oil, evening prime rose oil.

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Classification of antioxidants Vitamins   - Vitamin C, vitamin E                          Carotenoids    - β- Carotine , lycopine    Thiols    - lipoic Acid, gutathione                    Enzymes        -  Co-Enzyme Q-10, super oxide dismastase Selenium     Minerals, - copper, manganese, zinc

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Probiotics   Probiotics are live microbial food ingredients, which are beneficial to health.Colon is the most densely populated region of the gastrointestinal tract and harbors an estimated 500 different bacterial species. Probiotic bacterial species The various types of bacteria that are having the probiotics characteristics are- Lactobacilli Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lactobacillus reuteri Lactobacillus case Bifidobacterium breve Streptococcus

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PREBIOTICS Prebiotics are the substances, which reach to colon in intact form i.e. without getting depleted by the gastric pH and digestive acids. These prebiotics also selectively promote the growth of colonel probiotic bacteria; hence they act as fertilizers for these bacteria. These are collective term for non-digestive but a fermentable dietary carbohydrate that may selectively stimulates growth of certain bacterial groups’ resident in the colon, such as Bifidobacteria , Lactobacilli considered to be beneficial for the human host. inulin , which is soluble dietary fibres and resistant to digestive enzyme and thus reaches to large intestine or colon essentially intact, where it is fermented by resistant bacteria, Lactobacilli .

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Polyunsaturated fatty acids Essential fatty acids are needed for normal growth and development but cannot be synthesized by our body. Omega-3 fatty acids belong to this class. Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaoic acid and docosagexanoic acids are built up in algae and plankton and the fish living on them. The natural vegetable oils and marine animal oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acid belong to Linoleic group (omega 6-type and omega 3-fatty acid) help to reduce cholesterol formation/deposition and prevent thromboxane formation. Eg :- safflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, mustard oil and marine fishes, Evening primrose oil, flax oil, hemp seed, borage seede .

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The following are diseases for which polyunsaturated fatty acids are preferred Heart disease and stroke Rheumatoid arthritis Inflammatory arthritis Inflammatory bowel disease Asthma Cancer Chronic lung failure Kidney transplant

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DIETARY FIBRES Dietary fibres are used in health food products for normalization of intestinal transit time. They have dual effect on intestinal transit. First effect is on the bulk faeces , which are often increased, in substantial proportion (127% after ingestion of 20 g of wheat bran, this action with insoluble fibres .) The other effect if dietary fibres are upon the duration of transit, which gets normalized around in 48 hrs. Long transit time gets shortened and short transit get longer. Dietary fibres are categorized into two groups Water soluble fibres Soluble fibres dissolve in water and form a gel that binds the stool and inhibit the non-propulsive colon contractions, helps in bulking of stool and their quick passage through digestive tract. Oats, dried beans, legumes, chicory.

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Water insoluble fibres Insoluble fibres are present in brown rice, banana, vegetables and whole grains. Source of dietary fibres are – Fresh fruit : Apple, orange, apricot, plum, pineapple with fibres 18-30% Vegetables : Cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion, tomato with fibres 9 to 12 %

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Bibliography :- A Textbook for Pharmacy Students and Pharmaceutical Chemists - David G. Watson. Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics - Eric T. Herfindal , Linda Lloyd Hart. Growth Promoters in Poultry Novel Concepts - A. K. Panda, S. V. Rama Rao , M. R. Reddy. Dr Ravi kanth Reddy. Punuru Gvm /12-001

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