Feeding of wild Animals in Captivity and in zoo

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Feeding of wild Animals in Captivity and zoo

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FEEDING OF ZOO AND WILD ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITY Dr Ravi kanth Reddy. Punuru Gvm /12-001

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Provision of food and water is the important aspect in animal welfare management. Both food and water are basic needs. The method of food presentation, the frequency of feeds and the nutritional balance is also important. Food should be presented in a manner and frequency commensurate with the natural behaviour of the species, as well as its nutritional requirements, which may vary according to season. Zoo nutrition must facilitate the captive animal management goals of reproduction, longevity, good health and behavioural normality.

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Habitat of wild animals What is “HABITAT” A living place where a community or an organism lives

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LISTING OUT OF MAJOR HABITATS : MARINE HABITAT TERRESTRIAL HABITAT ESTUARINE HABITAT FRESH WATER HABITAT SIZE WISE CLASSIFICATION: - MACRO AND MICRO HABITATS

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BIOGEOGRAPHIC ZONES Islands Coasts Western Ghats North-east Trans-Himalaya Himalaya Desert Gangetic plain Semi-Arid Deccan peninsula

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COVER OF WILD ANIMALS Cover can be defined as the place that can protect the concerned wild animal species from bad weather, climate, rain, enemy, predator etc. and ultimately cover provides protection to the concerned wild animal FOOD SPECTRUM OF WILD FAUNA Has wide spectrum. Due to well defined biodiversity in India, multiple wild herbivores are available for the carnivores of the forest regions. However, wild animal like tiger may prefer to hunt mainly the gaur rather than the mouse deer due to the size-preference.

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However, it is to be noted that during the time of scarcity of food resources, animal may go for varied types of feeds. WATER IN THE HABITAT : Wild animals always move near places wherein water availability is not a problem for them. A place with less availability of water resources automatically become the habitat that is poor in the wildlife values. Water-contamination is to be avoided to the possible extent. Avoid co-grazing of cattle which may contaminate the water resources in forest regions.

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The factors those should be considered before feeding the wild and zoo animals are Description of the animal : Common and scientific name Normal body weight adult males and females Age at maturity Longevity in the wild and in captivity Description of the gastrointestinal tract Physiological needs like effect of seasonal changes, growth spurts in juveniles, weaning, old age etc. Digestive strategies (browser, graser , carnivore etc.) Feeding ecology : Composition of the natural diet and its nutrient content Feeding behaviour

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Body Weights and Water and Food Consumption Rates per day and per kilogram of Body Weight Wild animals

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Birds

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Description of the used diets : Detailed summary of diets used in the past Zoo diet description : Evaluation of diets for captive animals Suggested nutritional requirements Feeding schedule Feeding enrichment schedule Feeding place Water supply Hand rearing protocol : Criteria for hand rearing. Nutrient composition of hand rearing diets. Normal grow curve as well in the wild as in captivity. Literature Survey of the published literature on nutrition in the wild and in captivity

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Timings Exhibit 9.15am Elephant Bathing Area* 10.00am Frozen Tundra 10.30am Treetops Trail & Otter 10.45am Giraffe* 11.00am Primate Kingdom 11.30am Naked Mole Rat 11.30am Goat* : Morning Feeding Trail : Timings Exhibit 1.15pm White Rhinoceros* 1.20pm Cheetah 1.25pm Warthog 1.30pm Meerkat 1.35pm African Lion 1.40pm Gibbon 1.50pm Giraffe* 2.00pm Treetops Trail 2.10pm Otter 2.20pm White Tiger 2.30pm Pygmy Hippo : Afternoon Feeding Trail 1 :

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Timings Exhibit 3.45pm Giraffe* 4.15pm Proboscis Monkey (SPH Foundation Conservation Centre) 4.30pm Mandrill 4.35pm Chimpanzee :Afternoon Feeding Trail 2 : Timings Exhibit 11.00am Kangaroo* 11.00am Free-Ranging Orang Utan Island 11.30am Arowana (Free-Ranging Orang Utan Island) Proboscis Monkey (Rainforest Walk) 11.55am Elephant* 1.00pm Frozen Tundra 1.15pm Giant Tortoise* (Only on Sundays) 2.00pm Primate Kingdom 2.00pm Komodo Dragon (Only on Sundays) 2.15pm King Cobra (Only on Sundays) 2.20pm Arapaima (Primate Kingdom Moat) 2.30pm Hamadryas Baboon 3.30pm Free- Ranging Orang Utan Island 3.30pm Goat (Rainforest Kidzworld)* 3.55pm Elephant* 4.00pm Frozen Tundra Kangaroo 4.30pm Free-Ranging Orang Utan Boardwalk 4.45pm Crocodile (Only on Sundays at Sungei Buaya) 5.00pm Hamadryas Baboon* : Other Token Feeding Sessions :

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Growth rates for the Honolulu captive bred G. yniphora in comparison with wild tortoises

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A live chicken is lowered into a lion enclosure.

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The cow, still alive, is dragged away by a tractor.

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Additional information : Establish body condition index Physiological normal ranges of blood values. Faecal scoring system Evaluation schedule of the diet Update schedule literature Special diets (geriatric, diseases, lactating, non-lactating, growing animals etc……) : Recommended Feeding guidelines : Recommended Feeding Strategy : Aim to provide a nutritionally balanced diet. Provide a diet that reasonably stimulates natural feeding behaviours . Provide a diet that the animal consumes consistently. Provide a diet that is practical and economical to feed.

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Recommended Diet Formulation : Should include :- Diet summary should know the information on nutritional, behavioural , and functional needs of the species in the wild and in captivity. feeding habits, gastro-intestinal morphology, normal adult weight of males and females, age at maturity, longevity of the species (in captivity and in the wild), and any special physiological needs the anima (egg laying, breeding, growth, gestation, etc.). In addition, it is important to include those nutritional requirements for the species that may be available in the NRC report series on nutrient requirements of domestic or non domestic animals.

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Diet Evaluation : Diets fed in zoos can be evaluated for nutritional adequacy either by hand calculations or by the advised nutrition computer program Recommended Diet. Record Use : The nutrition records should be an integral part of the feeding program. The records will help document thought processes regarding diet formulation and presentation that may prevent repeating past mistakes. Recommended Food Use : it includes :- Food Used for Behavioural Enrichment. Nutritionally complete feeds. Avoiding public feeding.

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Feeding Captive wild animals: Feeding is a controlled activity. Free ranging wild animals: Feeding is a less controlled activity. Generally the animals present in the zoo are classified into 3 types, according to the feed they consume : HERBIVORES (CONSUMING VEGETATIONS) CARNIVORES (CONSUMING MEAT) OMNIVORES (CONSUMING BOTH VEGETATIONS AND MEAT)

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1)HERBIVORES : SIMPLE STOMACHED WILD ANIMALS - Kangaroo, Wild pig, Hippopotamus etc ……….. COMPLEX STOMACHED ANIMALS Deer, giraffe, antelope, bovids etc……………… Pregastric – fermenters : Kangaroo, Wild pig, Hippopotamus etc …………. Hind - gut fermenters : Rabbits, Guinea pigs, Capybara ( caecal fermentation), Zebra & Wild asses etc……….(colon fermentation). The common feed stuff fed to the ruminants is of 2 types : 1)Concentrates :- These are low in fibre but are rich in protein or energy content. 2)Roughages :- The roughages are bulky in nature but are poor in energy content and are rich in fiber .

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bulk eaters have most of the times the poor digestive efficiency Examples: Rhinos, Elephants 2)CARNIVORES : Carnivores need the followings always, during feeding : -Preformed vitamin A - Taurine ( an amino acid) - Arachidonic acid ( an essential fatty acid) 3)OMNIVORES : Majority of feeds is from plant varieties Examples : -Rodents -Flying foxes -Bears and -Non-human primates

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BALACNCED NUTRITION IS AIMED AT THE FOLLOWINGS : -Longer life span of the animal -Maximal reproduction -Maximal infant survival rate -Appreciable health status -Acquiring of good immune mechanisms Importance of CARBOHYDRATES : -This is the chief source of energy for ruminants like antelopes, giraffe, bovids , cervids etc. -Cereals, grains, roots, tubers and fruits have high carbohydrates.

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Energy Requirements of some Marine Mammals.

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Importance of PROTEINS : Protein is most essential esp. in case of carnivores like tigers, panthers, wild dogs, jackals, foxes, lions, caracals, ocelots etc. Protein deficiency may result in retardation of the growth rate, cessation of lactation in case of nursing animals, impairment of reproduction, decreased body resistance level etc. Importance of FATS : Fat provides the most concentrated forms of stored energy

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When insufficient data exists to document mammalian and avian feeding, drinking and inhalation rates, the following allometric equations may be used to estimate daily rates, in liters (water), kilograms (food) : Mammal Feeding Rate = 0.0687 x (W)0.822 Mammal Drinking Rate = 0.099 x (W)0.9 Bird Feeding Rate = 0.0582 x (W)0.651 Bird Drinking Rate = 0.059 x (W)0.67 Eg :- Bufflehead Ducks ( Bucephala albeola ) – 300 gm bird should consume 80 g/kg feed and 75 mL /kg water. Pigeons ( Columba liva domesticaa ) - 475 gms bird should consume 76/g feed and 76 mL per kg water. Black Bear ( Euarctos americanus ) - 150 kg should consume 30 g/kg feed and 30 mL /kg water

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The feed given to the animal depends up on the species of the animal, nature of feeding, condition of the animal, physiolgical status of the animal………………. BONNET MACAQUE Rice 50 gms Banana 3 nos Orange/Mango ¼ no.(100-150gm size) Guava ¾ no Groundnut (WOS) 15 gms Bengal gram 15 gms

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JUNGLE CAT Chopped beef 250 gms Bread slice 2 no Milk 100 ml JACKAL Beef without bone 500 gms Liver 100 gms Chicken 250 gms weekly once.

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HYAENA Beef 3 kg/day Liver 100 gms Chicken 500 gms weekly once OTTER Fish 1.5 kg Crab (weekly twice) 300 gms Sardine 1.5 kg

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Sloth bear Ragi (cooked) 250 gms Rice gruel + black gram 150 + 50gms Orange / Mango 2 nos Guava 4 nos Tapioca 100 gms Jaggery 200 gms Groundnut (WOS) 100 gms Honey bi-weekly Milk ½ litre Radish 100 gms Bread slices 2 nos Carrot 200 gms

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INDIAN ELEPHANT Ragi 7 kg Horse gram 2 kg Salt 200 gms Jaggery 250 gms Grass 200 kgs Sugarcane 4 nos Green tree leaves – Bamboo / stylo 250 kg Coconut 500 gms (1 no)

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PORCUPINE Rice 100 gms Carrot 100 gms Cabbage 100 gms Tapioca or sweet potato 100 gms Soya bean 20 gms Groundnut (WOS) 150 gms

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LION AND TIGER Beef (with bone) 10 kg Liver 500 gms Chicken 1 kg (weekly once) PANTHER Beef (with bone) 3 kg Liver 250 gms Chicken 1 kg (weekly once)

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ZEBRA Wheat bran 2 kgs White Bengal gram 100 gms Grass and leaves 30 kgs Mineral mixture 10 days in a month at regular intervals. GAUR Wheat bran 3 kg Bengal gram 0.5 kg Green leaves/ grass L.S

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CAMEL Wheat bran 2 kg White Bengal gram 500gm Grass 30 kg Leaves ( neem , bamboo, Subabul , bauhina ) 20 kg Salt 50 gm Cabbage 2 kg Banana 6 no Leaves of acacia 5 kg

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DEER Wheat bran 1 kg White Bengal gram 25 gm Grass 7 kg Green leaves 3 kg Salt 10 gm Stylo /Lucerne 2 kg MARSH CROCODILE Fish (twice a week) 250 gm Bone (vertebral column) 100 gm Beef 250 gm

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GHARIAL Fish (twice a week) 1 kg Bone (vertebral) 100 gm PYTHON Chicken 1 kg (twice a month) Rat 8 no (twice a month) each 150 gm size.

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VIPER Chicken 3 no Rat 4 no (weekly once) 100-150 gm size. COBRA Chicken 3 no Rat 4 no (weekly once) 100-150 gm size

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Carrot 50 gm (daily) Cabbage 50 gm (daily) Tomato 50 gm (daily) Greens 100 gm (daily) IGUANA STAR TORTOISE Carrot 30 gm (daily) Cabbage 30 gm (daily) Tomato 30 gm (daily) Greens (L.S) 500 gm (daily)

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LOVE BIRD Apple (to all) 1 no Banana (to all) 1 no Thinai 10 gm Paddy 5 gm Mixed grain 10 gm White Bengal gram 5 gm Onion 10 gm Greens 10 gm Shell grit Q.S

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PARAKEET Bread slice 1 no Apple (L.S) 3 no Sathukudi /Mango/Orange ¼ no Guava 1 no Groundnut (WOS) 20 gm Chilly fruit 10 gm Garlic 2 gm Paddy 10 gm Mixed grains 20 gm Bengal gram 10 gm Sunflower seed 10 gm Green gram 10 gm

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INDIAN PEAFOWL Cabbage 25 gm Mixed grains 25 gm Paddy 25 gm White Bengal gram 50 gm Greens 100gm Garlic 10 gm Groundnut (WOS) 50 gm Shell grit 25 gm Green gram 25 gm

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Chopped beef or rat 150 gm/2no/day (each 100-150 gm size) Chicks 10 gm (once in a week) OWL BUDGERIGAR Thinai 10 gm Greens 10 gm Shell grit 20 gm Bengal gram 5 gm Green gram 5 gm

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EMU Green gram 250 gm Wheat 250 gm (soaked) Broiler finisher grumble diet 250 gm Rice 250 gm (cooked) Milk 100 ml (boiled) Tomato 100 gm Green banana 2 no

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SICK DIETS It is difficult to feed sick wild animals, in general. Attempts may be done to provide the most palatable food for the targeted wild animal species. Soft diet like chicken preferably in cooked form may be attempted as one of the significant diets in wild carnivore like tiger etc. Intra-venous fluids like dextrose saline, Ringers lactate etc, may be chosen in wild animals that have totally ceased eating activities and water should be fed adlibitum . In wild animals especially carnivores with severe gastritis whatever food is offered or ingested, it may be vomited often. In such cases, bland diet may be offered. Egg white by oral route / 5% dextrose saline solution by I/V route are to be offered in the gastritis affected carnivores.

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FEEDING HABITS The feeding habit varies from species to species ! Chewing bones is a preferred activity among lions, tigers and jaguars and the activity is less in panthers. These carnivores prefer larger pieces of meat to alleviate hunger more readily than the smaller meat pieces. Lions and tigers carry the beef pieces to one side of the cage before it sits for feeding. In lion, tiger and jaguar the posture of consumption was of extending the fore legs and holding the meat while the hind legs are tucked up within the body, where as in panthers all the four legs tucked up within the body. Wild dogs eat while they were in standing position in a hurried gulping manner.

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Among the large felines like tiger, lion, panther and jaguar the time taken to consume the meat was from 16.5 minutes to 39 minutes in a very slow manner. Tigers soon after feeding they lick the cage wall few times and then drink water, where as in lions they drink water soon after feeding. After the weekly starvation in lions and tigers a characteristic restlessness was evinced by the sound and arrival of the food delivery vehicle.

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Hand raising of orphaned young ones in the zoo : All neonates to be given colosrum for the first 24-36 hours where possible. Bovids , cervids , camelids etc… of order Artiodactyla should receive equine colostrum . Equids , tapir, rhinos etc….. Of order perissodactyla should receive equine colostrum . All milk formulas to be gradually increased to 100 % strength conc. As recommended. Young to be fed 12-20 % of their body wt. in milk formula each day, divided equally between feeds. No. of feeds per day is determined by species. Wt. intially and wt. gain or loss to be monitored at least weekly.

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Hand rearing white lilon cubs Hand rearing baby rhino

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Factors regulating the intake of food in zoo animals :- Physiological regulation : This is brought about by a multitude of neurotransmitters and hormones, which affects on the components of brain which ultimately affects the food intake.

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CNS Regulation :- The hypothalamus is considered by most authorities as the part of the brain responsible for the automatic execution of regulatory function controlling energy exchange. This hypothalamus inturn is regulated by the hormones to control the hunger and satiety centres . Oropharyngeal Metering of Feed would limit feed intake in ruminants (Balch (1958). Chemostatic Regulation oJ Feed Intake :- Sensations elicited by stomach contractions were the basis for regulation of feed intake. (Carlson (1916). Variation in Space in the Body Compartments for Feed: Perhaps it is the most significant anatomical barrier to feed intake.

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Satiety in the animals. Rate of passage through the GIT tract. The food selected The form of food (mash form, pelleted form………..) Foraging costs and efficiencies.

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Wild life feeding and nutrition -Charles T.Robbins Text book of wild and zoo animals care and management - jacob V.Cheeran Introduction to wild life management –the basics - paul R.Krausman Wild life management and conservation - M.M.Ranga Text book of wild life management - S.K.Singh Wild life feeding and Nutrition - Charles T. Robbins Animal nutrition advances & Developments - Usha rani mehra , putan singh , A.K. Verma BIBLIOGRAPHY

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THAN “Q” Dr Ravi kanth Reddy. Punuru Gvm /12-001

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