Minerals and Power Resources

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Minerals and power resources.:

Minerals and power resources.

Introduction about Minerals.:

Introduction about Minerals. Minerals A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not evenly distributed over space. They are concentrated in a particular Area or rock formations. Minerals are formed in different types of geological environments, under varying Conditions. They are created by natural processes without any human interference. They can be identified on the basis of their physical properties such as color, Density, hardness and chemical property such as solubility.

Introduction about Power Resources. :

Introduction about Power Resources. POWER RESOURCES Power or energy plays a vital role in our lives. We also need power for industry, Agriculture, transport, communication and defense. Power resources may be broadly Categorized as conventional and non-conventional resources.

Let us Study about NON-CONVENTIAL and CONVENTIAL Energy Resources.:

Let us Study about NON-CONVENTIAL and CONVENTIAL Energy Resources. NON- CONVENTIAL Resources Renewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy, are sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes . For example, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy - bio-fuels grown sustain ably), hydropower etc., are some of the examples of renewable energy sources A renewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight, wind, falling-water, sea-waves, geothermal heat, or biomass into a form, we can use such as heat or electricity. Most of the renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can never be exhausted, and therefore they are called renewable. However, most of the world's energy sources are derived from conventional sources-fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gases. These fuels are often termed non-renewable energy sources. Although, the available quantity of these fuels are extremely large, they are nevertheless finite and so will in principle ‘run out’ at some time in the future Renewable energy sources are essentially flows of energy, whereas the fossil and nuclear fuels are, in essence, stocks of energy.

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CONVENTIAL RESOURCES Conventional energy resources, or the fossil fuels oil, gas and coal, provide more than 85 percent of energy consumed in the United States. Conventional resources provide two-thirds of the country's electricity and almost all transportation fuels. Though conventionally sourced energy may have a lower initial cost than non-traditional energy sources such as solar or geothermal, the U.S.'s reliance on fossil fuels presents many challenges, including environmental damage, reliance on military presence to secure resources and lack of sustainability.

Now we will study about Coal.:

Now we will study about Coal. Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams . The harder forms, such asantracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, with smaller quantities of sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen.

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Uses of Coal It is used as a domestic fuel. It is used in industries such as iron and steel as a raw material. It is used to generate electricity known as thermal power.

Now we will move to Mineral Oil.:

Now we will move to Mineral Oil. Mineral Oil Mineral oil is an imprecise term for a colorless, odorless, light mixture of alkenes in the C15 to C40 range from a non-vegetable (mineral) source, particularly a distillate of petroleum. A mineral oil or liquid petroleum is a liquid by product of the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline and other petroleum based products from crude oil. A mineral oil in this sense is transparent oil composed mainly related to petroleum jelly (also known as "white petrolatum"). It has a density of around 0.8 g/cm 3 . Mineral oil is a substance of relatively low value, and it is produced in very large quantities. Mineral oil is available in light and heavy grades, and can often be found in drug stores.

Next in our list is Natural Gas.:

Next in our list is Natural Gas.   Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0-20% higher hydrocarbon (primarily). It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as catharses, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizer. Most natural gas is created by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by organisms and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo processing to remove almost all materials other than methane. The by-products of that processing include ethane and higher molecular weight elemental.

Let us move on Nuclear Energy:

Let us move on Nuclear Energy Nuclear potential energy is the potential energy of the particles inside anatomic nucleus. The nuclear particles are bound together by the strong nuclear force. Weak nuclear forces provide the potential energy for certain kinds of radioactive decay, such as beta decay. Nuclear particles like protons and neutrons are not destroyed in fission and fusion processes, but collections of them have less mass than if they were individually free, and this mass difference is liberated as heat and radiation in nuclear reactions (the heat and radiation have the missing mass, but it often escapes from the system, where it is not measured). The energy from the Sun is an example of this form of energy conversion. In the Sun, the process of hydrogen fusion converts about 4 million tones of solar matter per second into electromagnet energy, which is radiated into space.

Next in our list is Water Energy:

Next in our list is Water Energy The material welfare of the world's population depends on maintaining access to increasingly scarce water and energy resources. Water and energy in engineered and natural systems are intricately linked. Extracting raw energy resources, cooling power plants, and powering the generators for hydroelectric energy all use water. People also use natural waterways to dilute and disperse pollutants. Extracting, purifying, pumping and transporting drinking water, heating water for domestic and other use, and treating and disposing of wastewater are all activities that use energy. In agricultural and industrial settings, both resources are essential to sustaining economic output. To minimize resource depletion and maximize human and environmental benefits, it is essential to understand the interdependence of water and energy use.

Now we will study about Minerals:

Now we will study about Minerals A mineral is naturally occurring solid chemical substances that is formed through biogeochemical processes and that has a characteristic highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical property. By comparison, a rock is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineral oils and does not have a specific chemical composition. Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salts to very complex silicates with thousands of known forms. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.

Let go to Iron ore:

Let go to Iron ore Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ore are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red. The iron itself is usually found in the form of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), goethite (FeO(OH)), limonite (FeO(OH).n(H 2 O)) or siderite (FeCO 3 ). Hematite is also known as "natural ore", a name which refers to the early years of mining, when certain hematite ores containing up to 66% iron could be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, which is one of the main raw materials to make steel. 98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except perhaps oil”.

Let us study about Bauxite:

Let us study about Bauxite Bauxite is an aluminum ore and is the main provider of aluminum. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH) 3 , boehmite γ-A Bauxite is an aluminum ore and is the main provider of aluminum. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al(OH) 3 , boehmite γ(OH), and Diaspora α(OH), in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite and small amounts of anatine TiO 2 . Bauxite was named after the village Les Beaux in southern France, where it was first recognized as containing aluminum and named by the French geologist Pierre Berthier in 1821.

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Submitted to- Mrs. Gurmeet Gill Submitted by- Punit Rajput G-8B