Total Quality Management Session 2

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Presentation Transcript

Total Quality Management : 

Total Quality Management Session 2

Kaizen – Continuous Improvement : 

Standardise an operation Measure the standardise operation Gauge measurements against requirements Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity Standardise the new, improved operations Continue ad infinitium Kaizen – Continuous Improvement

Kaizen : 


7 Basic Quality Tools : 

Control Charts Histogram Pareto Chart Check Sheet Cause & Effect Diagram Flowchart Scatter Diagram 7 Basic Quality Tools

Statistical Process Control : 

An effective method of monitoring processes through control charts Monitors processes and variations Helps reduce waste Identification of bottleneck, wait times Reduction in time required to produce Statistical Process Control

Control Chart or Shewhart Chart : 

Tool used to determine whether a manufacturing or business process is in the state of statistical control or not Represents measurements of quality characteristics in samples taken periodically A mean is calculated from the data and displayed Tolerance limits Control Chart or Shewhart Chart

Control Charts : 

Control Charts

Types of Control Charts : 

Variable Control Charts Attribute Control Charts Types of Control Charts

Types of Control Charts : 

R Chart S Chart p-chart np-chart c-chart u-chart CUSUM Chart (Cumulative Sum Chart) Time Series Model Regression Control Types of Control Charts

Which Control Chart to use? : 

Which Control Chart to use?

Rational Subgroup : 

It is the method for determining the size and frequency so that each sample represents a point in time or space It is a way to collect data that best represents a process state that is unknown Rational Subgroup

R Chart : 

chart tracks the subgroup average from the process R chart tracks the range within each subgroup Both the charts give the process level and process variation at same time as well as presence of special causes R Chart

Formulae : 


Example : 


X-Bar Sigma Chart : 

Similar to X-bar and R chart but used when subgroup size is 11 or more It uses standard deviation instead of range Used to monitor the effects of process improvement theories X-Bar Sigma Chart

P-Chart : 

Is a control chart for attribute of data Measures the proportion detective items in a subgroup P-Chart

P-Chart : 


NP-Chart : 

Similar to P-chart, with two differences All subgroup size must be same Is used to track attribute data in terms of numbers rather than proportion NP-Chart

C-Chart : 

Is used to track attribute data in terms of counts per subgroup All subgroups must be the same size C-Chart

Histogram : 

Graphically summarises and displays the distribution of a process or data set Histogram

Pareto Chart : 

It is used to graphically summarise and display the relative importance of the differences between groups of data It has two vertical axis Left-side vertical axis is labelled frequency Right-side of the vertical axis is the cumulative frequency It is used to represent the most common occurring defect, most common source of defects, most frequent reasons for customer complaints, etc. Pareto Chart

Pareto Chart : 

Pareto Chart

Check Sheet : 

It is used to collect data in real-time and at the location where data is generated Types of check sheets Classification – A trait such as a defect or a failure mode must be classified into a category Location – The physical location of a trait is indicated on a picture of a part or item being evaluated Frequency – The presence or absence of trait is indicated along with number of occurrences Measurement scale – Measurements are indicated by checking on an appropriate interval on a pre-divided measurement scale Check-list – Items are listed so that as each is accomplished, it is indicated by a check/tick-mark Check Sheet

Check Sheet : 

Check Sheet

Flowchart : 

Graphical representation of a process, depicting inputs, outputs and units of activity Represents the entire process at a high or detailed level of observation, allowing analysis and optimization of workflow Flowchart

Scatter Diagram or Scatter Plot : 

Reveals the relationship of association between two variables Answers the following questions Are two variables related? If yes, linearly or non-linearly Scatter Diagram or Scatter Plot

Software Quality : 

Capability Maturity Model Capability Maturity Model Integration IDEAL Software Quality

Software Quality : 

Types of defects in software Logical error Incorrectly assigned variable Typing errors Software Quality

Capability Maturity Model : 

It is industry specific quality model for software development Focuses on “Zero-Defect” software development Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) provides a structured way to develop an application and helps in early decision making SDLC helps reduce the total cost of software development Capability Maturity Model

SDLC - Stages : 

Create and evaluate concept Analysis to define requirements Define architecture Design tests Specify computer program Write and revise computer program, its documentation and instruction Put the program together, with inspection and testing For published software, release a beta test version Final release and customer support SDLC - Stages

Software Inspection : 

Software Inspection

CMM : 


5 Levels of CMM : 

Initial Each person learns and does the job any way he/she can. The organisation relies on heroes Repeatable Departments have their acts together, establish, procedures, and are following them & keeping them up to date. But methods are different in different places for no good reason Defined The whole organisation has standard methods for standard activities, and departments have unique procedures where they are needed. This is centrally coordinated Managed The organisation eliminates defects by quality management and constantly works in order to make things better Optimising Organisation uses, sustains and continuously improves best practices 5 Levels of CMM

Key Process Areas of CMM : 

Key Process Areas of CMM

CMMI – Adding Flexibility : 

It is the integration of various CMMs CMMI is a framework for business process improvement It is a suite of products used for process improvements It has Models Appraisal methods Training Courses CMMI – Adding Flexibility

Dependence of Software Process Evaluation and Standards : 

Dependence of Software Process Evaluation and Standards



CMMI Representation : 

Continuous User focuses on the specific processes that are considered important for organisation’s immediate business objectives Staged Provides a standard sequence of improvements and can serve as a basis for comparing the maturity level of different projects and organisation It provides easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMI CMMI Representation

CMMI Models : 

CMMI best practices – documented are called CMMI models CMMI models cover the following areas Development Acquisition CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV) CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ) CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC) CMMI Models

Ideal Model : 

Is a usable, understandable approach to continuous improvement by outlining the steps necessary to establish a successful improvement program Consists of 5 stages I – Initiating Laying the ground work for a successful improvement effort D – Diagnostic Determining where you are relative to where you want to be E – Establishing Planning the specifics of how will you reach your destination A – Acting Doing the work according to the plan L - Learning Learning from the experience and improving the ability to adopt new technologies in future Ideal Model

The IDEAL Model : 

The IDEAL Model

ISO 9000 : 

ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems ISO 9000:2000 QMS –Fundamentals and Vocabulary ISO 9001:2000 QMS – Requirements ISO 9004:2000 QMS-Guidelines for performance improvements ISO 9000

ISO 9001 : 

Requirements Scope Normative Reference Terms and definition Quality management system Management responsibility Resource management Product realisation Measurement, analysis and improvement ISO 9001

ISO 9001 : 

ISO 9001

Documentation Levels : 

Documentation Levels

Summary of ISO 9000 : 

Quality policy is a formal statement from management, closely linked to business and to customers needs Quality policy is understood at all levels and by all employees Documentation and audits are conducted periodically Records should show how and where raw materials and products are processed to allow products and problems to be traced to the source Summary of ISO 9000

Summary of ISO 9000 : 

Map all processes, monitor & control them Monitoring, measurement and analysis tools must be properly maintained and calibrated Determine customer requirements and create systems for communicating with customer Perform periodic internal audits and meetings Summary of ISO 9000

Driving or Being Driven??? : 

Driving or Being Driven???

Six Sigma : 

Its a business management strategy developed by Motorola It seeks to identify and remove the causes of defects in manufacturing or business process Six Sigma

Six Sigma : 

One Sigma = 690,000 DPMO = 31% efficiency Two Sigma = 308,000 DPMO = 69.2% efficiency Three Sigma = 66,800 DPMO = 93.32% efficiency Four Sigma = 6,210 DPMO = 99.379% efficiency Five Sigma = 230 DPMO = 99.977% efficiency Six Sigma = 3.4 DPMO = 99.9997% efficiency Six Sigma

Six Sigma - Implementation : 

Six Sigma - Implementation

DMAIC – Improve Existing Business : 

D -Define high level project goals and the current process M-Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data A-Analyse the data to verify cause and effect relationships. Determine what the relationships are and attempt to ensure that all the factors have been considered I-Improve or optimise the process based on data analysis using techniques like design of experiments C-Control to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects DMAIC – Improve Existing Business

DMADV – for New Products/Process Design : 

D-Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy M-Measure and identify characteristics that are critical to quality (CTQ), product capabilities, production process capability and risks A-Analyse to develop and design alternatives, create high level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design D-Design details, optimise the design and plan for design verification V-Verify the design, setup pilot runs, implement the production process and hand it over to process owners DMADV – for New Products/Process Design

Thank You : 

Thank You 9350832020 9953324595

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