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Classification of Components and Approaches of Ad hoc Routing Protocols:

Classification of Component s and Approaches of Ad hoc Routing Protocols Myung Lee & Tarek Saadawi CCNY October 22 nd , 2004

Component-Based Routing:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 2 Component-Based Routing Core components Components possessed by most routing protocols . Auxiliary components Additional components that are not essential to all routing protocols

Core Components :

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 3 Core Components Route discovery Route selection Route formation /representation Data forwarding Route maintenance Routing metrics

Auxiliary Components :

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 4 Auxiliary Components Neighbor discovery and maintenance Hierarchical structure Multicast Security

Slide 5:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 5 Core Components

(1) Route Discovery:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 6 (1) Route Discovery Finding potential route(s) to a destination Reactive Proactive Hybrid

Route Discovery (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 7 Route Discovery (cont.) Reactive Full-flood ing RREQ (AODV) Limit ed -Flood ing RREQ (LAR) Position based Direction based Region based Expanding ring A priori knowledge Efficient broadcast Probabilistic RREQ (ANT, GPS Any-like) Hybrid

Route Discovery (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 8 Route Discovery (cont.) Proactive Broadcast ing cost -to-all to neighbors (DSDV) Update message (cost -to-all ) stops at neighbors, each node periodically updates its neighbors Broadcast ing cost -to-neighbor to all (LSR) Update message (cost -to-neighbor ) floods to the network

Route Discovery (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 9 Route Discovery (cont.) Proactive (cont.) Broadcast ing cost -to-neighbor to neighbors Update message (cost -to-neighbor ) stops at neighbors, each node periodically (constant period) updates its neighbors (GSR, TRR) Update message (cost -to-neighbor ) stops at neighbors, each node periodically (different period based on distance to update originator) updates its neighbors (FSR, DREAM) Unicast cost-to-all to a neighbor Update message (cost-to-all) stops at a neighbor, each neighbor periodically updates one of its neighbors ( Angle SINR Table Routing )

Route Discovery (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 10 Route Discovery (cont.) Hybrid: Examples Proactive for intra-cluster , reactive for inter-cluster (ZRP) Proactive for virtual backbone , reactive for end-devices (TTDD) Distance vector for neighborhood, self-routing for distant nodes (Terminode routing)

(2) Route Selection:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 11 (2) Route Selection Selecting the best route(s) to a destination from the potential routes . R eactive Proactive Hybrid

Route Selection (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 12 Route Selection (cont.) R eactive Source behavior Select one or more routes from multiple RREPs (AODV, AOMDV) Select the first arrived RREP and discard later RREPs (AODVjr) Accept all RREPs (AOMDV) Destination behavior Select from multiple RREQs and reply with one/more RREP(s) (AODV) Select from multiple RREQs and reply with one RREP (delayed RREP) (LBR) Reply to all RREQs (AODVM: all; AOMDV: up to k RREPs)

Route Selection (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 13 Route Selection (cont.) Reactive (cont.) Intermediate node behavior Creating one or multiple routing entries based on RREQ filtering metric RREQ filtering Filtering duplicated RREQs (AODV) Relaying RREQs without filtering Filtering RREQs based on the interface the RREQ came from (SMR for link disjoint multipath) Filtering RREQs based on cost (ABR) Filtering RREQ s based on whether they are in the forwarding zone (LAR, Region-based routing) . Filtering RREQs based on traffic flow conditions (LBR)

Route Selection (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 14 Route Selection (cont.) Proactive Optimization based on distance vector ( DSDV ) Optimization based on link state (OLSR, FSR, ZHLS) Calculation based on tree topology (nerRFon) Calculation based on position information (GPSR, GREEDY) Hybrid (ZRP: Proactive for intra-cluster , reactive for inter-cluster)

(3) Route Formation/ Representation:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 15 (3) Route Formation/ Representation Means to store routing information. Exact r out e Route guidance

Route Formation/Representation (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 16 Route Formation/Representation (cont.) Exact r out e Routing table (AODV) Interest entry (DD) R oute in the packet (DSR) Binary tree (tree routing)

Route Formation/Representation (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 17 Route Formation/Representation (cont.) Route guidance Cost table (GRAd) Geographical information Exact positions (GPSR) Pointer (TERMINODE) Approximate region (ZHLS, LABAR) Hierarchical structure information Cluster headers (CBRP) Cores (CEDAR) Landmarks (LANMAR)

(4) Route Maintenance:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 18 (4) Route Maintenance Proper u pdate/ repair of routes to addres s network dynamics Route refreshing Failure handling Route invalidation

Route Maintenance (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 19 Route Maintenance (cont.) Route refreshing Reactive Control packet ( GPS Ant-like ) D ata packet (AODV) Automatic update when predefined or estimated route lifetime expires (LBR, LUNAR) Hybrid (AODVjr)

Route Maintenance (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 20 Route Maintenance (cont.) Route refreshing (cont.) Proactive Distance vector update (DSDV) Link state update (LSR) Location information update (DREAM) Hierarchical structure update (ZHLS) Hybrid ( ZRP: Proactive for intra-cluster , reactive for inter-cluster )

Route Maintenance (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 21 Route Maintenance (cont.) F ailure handling Reactive Rediscovery (AODV, DSR, DREAM) Local repair (AODV, LAR) Alternative path (multipath like TORA ) Route cache (DSR) Da ta cach e (CHAMP) Proactive ( handled by the route refreshing process ) Hybrid (GRA)

(5) Data Forwarding:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 22 (5) Data Forwarding Means to forward data packets based on route information Unicast Data broadcast + neighbor filtering (GRAd) Flooding

Data Forwarding (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 23 Data Forwarding (cont.) Unicast Routing table Determin istic One route Multiple routes * Simultaneously * Alternatively Probabilistic

Data Forwarding (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 24 Data Forwarding (cont.) Unicast (cont.) Self-routing (without routing table) Tree routing Location -based routing Send to the neighbor in the transmission range that is closest to destination node (Greedy) Send to the neighbor cluster that is closest to destination node (LABAR) Hybrid of above approaches (Terminode, GRA)

(6) Routing Metrics:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 25 (6) Routing Metrics Parameters used by routing algorithms to determine route optimality Hop Connectivity Link QoS Route QoS

Routing Metrics (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 26 Routing Metrics (cont.) Route QoS E2E delay/Jitter Reliability Throughput Security Energy Node lifetime Network lifetime Processing power (CPU, memory) Etc.

Slide 27:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 27 Auxiliary Components

Auxiliary Components :

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 28 Auxiliary Components Neighbor discovery and maintenance Hierarchical structure Multicast Security

(1) Neighbor Discovery and Maintenance:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 29 ( 1 ) Neighbor Discovery and Maintenance Dynamic maintenance of neighborhood information such as location, direction, ID, resources etc. Synchronous approach Asynchronous approach

Neighbor Discovery and Maintenance (cont.):

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 30 Neighbor Discovery and Maintenance (cont.) Synchronous approach Beacon /Hello 1-hop neighbor information 2-hop n eighbor information (OLSR, GLS, TERMINODE) Asynchronous approach Control packet (LBR, AODV) Data packet (AODV)

(2) Hierarchical Structure:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 31 ( 2 ) Hierarchical Structure Organizing a group of network nodes into one or multiple level architecture. F lat Hierarchical Homogeneous (proactive or reactive) Heterogeneous (proactive and reactive) (ZRP)

(3) Multicast:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 32 ( 3 ) Multicast The transmission of a packet from a sender to a group of receivers Tree based Source tree Shared tree Mesh based Broadcast Multiple unicasts

(4) Security:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 33 ( 4 ) Security Means to achieve secure communication (confidentiality, integrity, freshness, and authentication)

Next Step:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 34 Next Step Analyses of Approaches Derivation of Dependency Graph of Approaches Component Researches Multipath Route discovery Efficient broadcasting

CBR Reference List:

CBR Reference List P apers reviewed: 90 By X. Hu, H. Juan, C. Zhu, Y. Liu, J. Zheng, J. Yoon

Slide 36:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 36 [ABR] C.-K. Toh, “Associativity-Based Routing For Ad-Hoc Mobile Networks”, Wireless Personal Communications Journal: Special Issue in Mobile Networking and Computing Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Vol. 4, No.2, March 1997, pp103-139. [AODV] C. E. Perkins, E. M. Belding-Royer, and S. Das. “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing IETF Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-aodv-11.txt, June 2002. [AODVjr] I. Chakeres and L. Klein-Berndt, AODVjr, AODV Simplified, ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, July 2002. [ARA] Mesut Günes et. al., ARA - the ant-colony based routing algorithm for manets, In Stephan Olariu, editor, Proceedings of the 2002 ICPP Workshop on Ad Hoc Networks (IWAHN 2002), pages 79-85, IEEE Computer Society Press, August 2002, [BSR] SONG GUO, OLIVER W. YANG Performance of Backup Source Routing (BSR) in mobile ad hoc networks p 440-444, Proc. 2002 IEEE Wireless Networking Conference

Slide 37:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 37 [CGSR] C. -C. Chiang and M. Gerla, “Routing and Multicast in Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE ICUPC ’97, San Diego, CA, Oct. 1997. [DBF] SHREE MURTHY, J.J. GARCIA-LUNA-AVECES Distributed Bellman-Ford routing protocol (DBF), A Routing Protocol for Packet Radio Networks, Proc. ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 86-95, November, 1995. [DD] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan and D. Estrin, Directed Diffusion: A Scalable and Robust Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks”, ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM'00), 2000. [DSDV] C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM’94, London, U.K., Sept. 1994, pp. 234-244. [DSR] D. Johnson, D. A. Maltz, and J. Broch, “The dynamic source routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks,” IETF Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-09.txt, April 2003.

Slide 38:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 38 [DSRFLOW] YIH-CHUN HU, DAVID B. JOHNSON, DAVID A. MALTZ Flow State in the Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Internet Draft, draft-ietf- manet-dsrflow-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001 [FORP] J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves,Flow Oriented Protocols for Scalable Wireless Networks, ACM MSWiM 2002 , Atlanta, Georgia [FSLS] C. Santivanez, R. Ramanathan, and I. Stavrakakis, “Making Link-State Routing Scale for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. 2001 ACM Int’l. Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Net. Comp., Long Beach, CA, Oct. 2001. [FSR] G. Pei, M. Gerla, and T.-W. Chen, “Fisheye State Routing: A Routing Scheme for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. ICC 2000, New Orleans, LA, June 2000. [GRAd] R. Poor. “Gradient Routing in Ad Hoc Networks,

Slide 39:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 39 [GSR] T.-W. Chen and M. Gerla, “Global State Routing: A New Routing Scheme for Ad-hocWireless Networks,” In Proceedings of IEEE ICC’98, Atlanta, GA, Jun. 1998, pp. 171-175. [HSR] G. Pei et al., “A Wireless Hierarchical Routing Protocol with Group Mobility,” Proc. IEEE WCNC ’99, New Orleans, LA, Sept. 1999. [LBR] B. S. Manoj, R. Ananthapadmanabha, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, "Link life Based Routing Protocol for Ad hoc Wireless Networks", Proc. of The 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications 2001 (IC3N 2001), October 2001. [LCA] M. GERLA, J. T. TSAI Multicluster, Mobile, Multimedia Radio Network ACM Wireless Networks, VOl 1, No.3, 1995, pp. 255-265 [LMR] M.S. CORSON AND A. EPHREMIDES Lightweight Mobile Routing protocol (LMR), A distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless networks, Wireless Networks 1 (1995).

Slide 40:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 40 [LSR, OSPF] John T. Moy: OSPF: Anatomy of an Internet Routing Protocol, 3rd printing, September 1998, ISBN 0-201-63472-4. [LUNAR] C. Tschudin and R. Gold, “LUNAR: Lightweight underlay network adhoc routing,” University of Basel, Switzerland, Tech. Rep., January 2002. [nerRFon] L. Hester, Y. Huang, A. Allen, O. Andric, P. Chen, “neuRFon TM Netform: A Self-Organizing Wireless Sensor Network,” Proceedings of the 11th IEEE ICCCN Conference, Miami, Florida, Oct. 2002. [OLSR] P. Jacquet et al., “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol,” draft-ietf-manetolsr- 05.txt, Internet Draft, IETF MANET Working Group, Nov. 2000 [PLBR] R. S. Sisodia, B. S. Manoj, and C. Siva Ram Murthy, "A Preferred Link Based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks", Journal of Communications and Networks, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 14-21, March 2002.

Slide 41:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 41 [QL] R. Castenada, S. R. Das, and M. K. Marina, “Query localization techniques for on-demand routing protocols in ad hoc networks”, ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks (WINET) Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2, March 2002, pages 137-151. [RDMAR] Aggelou G, Tafazolli R.    RDMAR: A Bandwidth-efficient Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.   In Proceedings of ACM MobiCom99/WoWMoM99 , Washington, USA, August 1999 [REGR] X. Hu, Y. Liu, M. J. Lee, T. N. Saadawi, “A Region-based Routing Protocol for Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Network, July/August, 2004, Page12-17. [SSR] R. Dube et al., "Signal Stability based adaptive routing for Ad Hoc Mobile networks", IEEE Pers. Comm., Feb. 1997, pp. 36-45. [STAR] J.J. GARCIA-LUNA, M. SPOHN Source Tree Adaptive Routing Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-star-00.txt, work in progress, October 1999.

Slide 42:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 42 [TBRPF ] R. G. Ogier et al., “Topology Broadcast based on Reverse-Path Forwarding (TBRPF),” draft-ietf-manet-tbrpf-05.txt, INTERNET-DRAFT, MANET WorkingGroup, Mar. 2002. [TORA] VD Park and MS Corson "A highly adaptive distributed routing algorithm for mobile wireless networks", Proc. INFOCOM'97, Apr. 1997, 9 pages. [TTDD] F. Ye, H. Luo, J. Cheng, S. Lu and L. Zhang, “A Two-tier Data Dissemination Model for Large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks”, ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM'02), 2002. [WRP] S. Murthy and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "An Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks", ACM Mobile Networks and App. J., Special Issue on Routing in Mobile Communication Networks, Oct. 1996, pp. 183-97.

Slide 43:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 43 [AODVM: multipath] Zhenqiang Ye, Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy, Satish K. Tripathi, A Framework for Reliable Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, INFOCOM2003, San Francisco, CA, 2003 [EDSR : multipath] J. Wu, An Extended Dynamic Source Routing Scheme in Ad HocWireless Networks Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences – 2002, Hawaii, 2002. [GMR : multipath] G. Koh, D. Oh1 and H. Woo, A Graph-based Approach to Compute Multiple Paths in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. [MMRP : multipath] S. De, C. Qiao H. Wu , Meshed multipath routing with selective forwarding: an efficient strategy in wireless sensor networks, Computer Networks 43 (2003) p481–p497

Slide 44:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 44 [B roadcast 1] M. Sun, W. Feng and T.H. Lai, "Location aided broadcast in wireless ad hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM 2001, pp. 2842-2846, San Antonio, TX, November 2001. [ B roadcast 2] Y.-C. Tseng, S.-Y. Ni, Y.-S. Chen, and J.-P. Sheu, "The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hoc network,” ACM Wireless Networks, Vol. 8, No. 2, March 2002, pp. 153-167. [ B roadcast 3] A. Qayyum, L. Viennot, and A. Laouiti. “Multipoint Relaying: An Efficient Technique for Flooding in Mobile Wireless Networks,” INRIA res. rep. RR- 3898, 2000

Slide 45:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 45 [GPS Ant-like] Daniel Camara and Antonio Alfredo F. Loureiro, “A Novel Routing Algorithm for Ad Hoc Networks”, Baltzer Journal of Telecommunications Systems, 18:1-3,85-100 Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001 [LAR] Y. Ko and N.H. Vaidya, “Location-aided Routing (LAR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom’98), pp.66-75 [DREAM] S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, V.R. Syrotjuk and B.A. Woodward, “A Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM)”, Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom’98), pp.76-84 [DREAM vs. LAR] Tracy Camp and Jeff Boleng, “Performance Comparison of Two Location Based Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Infocom 2002, Dept. of Math and Computer Science Colorado School of Mines

Slide 46:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 46 [ZHLS] Mario Joa-Ng and I-Tai Lu, “A Peer-to-peer Zone-Based Two-level Link State Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications Vol.17, NO.8, August 1999 [LABAR] Gergely V. Zaruba and Vamsi K. Chaluvadi “LABAR: Location Area Based Ad Hoc Routing for GPS-scarce Wide-area AD Hoc Networks” Proceedings of the first IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom’03), Dept/ of Computer Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington [GPSR] Brad Karp and H.T. Kung “GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks” Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom 2000), Harvard University [GRA] Rahul Jain and Anuj Puri “GRA: Geographical Routing Using Partial Information for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks” IEEE Personal Communications, February 2001, pp.48-57 University of California, Berkeley

Slide 47:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 47 [Terminode 1] L. Blazevic, J. -Y. Le Boudec and S.Giordano “A Location-Based Routing Method for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol.3, NO.4, October-December 2004 [Terminode 2] L. Blazevic, J. -Y. Le Boudec and S.Giordano “Self Organized Terminode Routing” Cluster Computing Journal, April 2002 [Terminode 3] L. Blazevic, J.-Y. Le Boudec and S.Giordano “Anchored Path Discovery in Terminode Routing” [GLS] Jinyang Li, John Jannotti, David R. Karger and Robert Morris “A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad Hoc Routing”, M.I.T Laboratory for Computer Science

Slide 48:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 48 [Quorum] Zygmunt J. Hass and Ben Liang “Ad Hoc Mobility Management with Uniform Quorum Systems”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, April 1999, pp.1-13 The School of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University [VHR] S. Giordano and M.Hamdi “Mobility Management: The Virtual Home Region”, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (FPFL), Switzerland documents/IC_TECH_REPORT_199937.pdf [Survery 1] Ivan Stojmenovic “Position-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks” IEEE Communications Magazine, July 2002, pp.128-134 [Survey 2] Martin Mauve and Jorg Widmer “A Survey on Position-Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks” IEEE Networks, November/ December 2001, pp.30-39

Slide 49:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 49 [Survey 3] Dragos Niculescu “Positioning in Ad Hoc Sensor Networks” IEEE Network, July/August 2004 [Survey 4] Elizabeth M. Royer and Chai-Keong Toh “A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks” IEEE Personal Communications, April 1999

Slide 50:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 50 [Infra-structure AODV] Anders Lindgren, Olov Schelen, Infra-Structure Aodv for Infrastructured Ad Hoc networks, In Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Parallel Processing Workshops (International Workshop on Ad Hoc Networking (IWAHN 2002)). pages 64-70. August 2002 . [PARO] J. Gomez, A. T. Campbell, M. Naghshineh, C. Bisdikian, T.J. Watson Power-Aware Routing Optimization Protocol (PARO) Internet Draft, draft-gomez-paro-manet-00.txt, work in progress, June 2001 [PAMAS] S. Singh, C. S. Raghavendra, "PAMAS-Power Aware Multi-Access Protocol with Signalling for Ad Hoc Networks", Computer Communication Review, July 1998. [Geography-Informed Energy Conservation] Ya Xu, John Heidemann, and Deborah Estrin. Geography-informed energy conservation for ad hoc routing. In Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom), pages 70--84, Rome, Italy, July 2001. ACM.

Slide 51:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 51 [Minimum Energy] V. Rodoplu and T. H. Meng. Minimum Energy Mobile Wireless Networks. IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communications, 17(8), August 1999. [SSA] R. Dube, C. Rais, K. Wang, and S. Tripathi, "Signal stability based adaptive routing (SSA) for ad hoc mobile networks," IEEE Personal Communication, Feb. 1997 [On-Demand Multipath] A. Nasipuri and S. Das, "On-demand multipath routing for mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. IEEE ICCCN '99, Oct. 1999 [Split Multipath] Sung-Ju Lee and Mario Gerla, "Split Multipath Routing with Maximally Disjoint Paths in Ad hoc Networks", Proceedings of IEEE ICC 2001, Helsinki, Finland, June 2001, pp. 3201-3205. [Energy Efficient Multipath] D. Ganesan, R. Govindhan, S. Shenker, and D. Estrin, "Highly resilient, energy efficient multipath routing in wireless sensor networks," Mobile Computing and Communications Review (MC2R), vol. 1, no. 2, 2002. [AODV-BR] Sung-Ju Lee and Mario Gerla, "AODV-BR: Backup Routing in Ad hoc Networks", Proceedings of IEEE WCNC 2000, Chicago, IL, September 2000.

Slide 52:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 52 [CBRP] Cluster Based Routing Protocol IETF: draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-01.txt [CEDAR] Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing IETF: draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt [DDR] Distributed Dynamic Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Scalable Routing Strategies for Ad hoc Wireless Networks [FSR] Fisheye State Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks IETF: draft-ietf-manet-fsr-02.txt [HARP] Hybrid Ad hoc Routing Protocol

Slide 53:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 53 [LANMAR] Landmark Routing Protocol for Large Scale Ad Hoc Networks IETF: draft-ietf-manet-lanmar-03.txt [ZRP] The Zone Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks IETF: draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-02.txt [BRP] The Bordercast Resolution Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks IETF: draft-ietf-manet-zone-brp-02.txt [IERP] The Interzone Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks IETF: draft-ietf-manet-zone-ierp-02.txt [IARP] The Intrazone Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks IETF: draft-ietf-manet-zone-iarp-02.txt

Slide 54:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 54 [Conn] Bandyopadhyay, S.; Hasuike, K; A Connection management protocol to support multimedia traffic in ad hoc wireless networks with directional antenna ; Multimedia and Expo, 2001. ICME 2001. IEEE International Conference on , 22-25 Aug. 2001 Pages:1037 – 1040 [ODD] Nasipuri, A.; Mandava, J.; Manchala, H.; Hiromoto, R.E.; On-Demand Routing Using Directional Antennas ; Computer Communications and Networks, 2000. Proceedings. Ninth International Conference on , 16-18 Oct. 2000 Pages:535 – 541 [DAR] Wei-Her Chung; Sy-Yen Kuo; Shih-I Chen; Direction-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks ; Communications, Circuits and Systems and West Sino Expositions, IEEE 2002 International Conference on , Volume: 1 , 29 June-1 July 2002 Pages:165 - 169 vol.1 [IOD] Romit Roy Choudhury and Nitin Vaidya ; Impact of Directional Antennas on Ad Hoc Routing ; The Eighth International Conference on Personal Wireless Communication (PWC), Venice, September 2003.

Slide 55:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 55 [NAMR] Siuli Roy, Dola Saha, Somprakash Bandyopadhyay, Tetsuro Ueda, Shinsuke Tanaka ; A Network-Aware MAC and Routing Protocol for Effective Load Balancing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks with Directional Antenna International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing Proceedings of the 4th ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking & computing Annapolis, Maryland, USA SESSION: Directional antenna Pages: 88 – 97; Year of Publication: 2003 ISBN:1-58113-684-6 [MRD] Yang Li; Hong Man; Jin Yu; Yu-Dong Yao ; Multipath R outing in A d hoc N etworks U sing D irectional A ntennas ; Advances in Wired and Wireless Communication, 2004 IEEE/Sarnoff Symposium on , April 26-27, 2004 Pages:119 – 122 [ARCD] Mineo Takai ; Junlan Zhou ; Rajive Bagrodia ; Adaptive Range Control Using Directional Antennas in Mobile Ad hoc Networks; Proceedings of the 6th international workshop on Modeling analysis and simulation of wireless and mobile systems 2003, Pages:92 – 99

Slide 56:

Oct. 22, 2004 CCNY 56 [RIDA] Amit Saha, and David B. Johnson ; Routing Improvement using Directional Antennas in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks ; Rice University, Department of Computer Science Technical Report - TR03-420. To appear in Globecom 2004, Dallas, Texas, Nov 2004. [EFCD Antennas Spyropoulos, A.; Raghavendra ; Energy Efficient Communications in Ad Hoc Networks Using Directional , C.S.;INFOCOM 2002. Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE , Volume: 1 , 23-27 June 2002 Pages:220 - 228 vol.1