FOREST IN PAKISTAN

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FOREST IN PAKISTAN : 

FOREST IN PAKISTAN NASSER HUSSYN BOKHARI HEAD DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY PAKISTAN EMBASSY COLLEGE BEIJING

WHAT IS FOREST?: 

WHAT IS FOREST? The forest is a complex ecosystem consisting mainly of trees that buffer the earth and support a myriad of life forms. The forestry sector of Pakistan is a main source of lumber, paper, fuel wood, latex, medicine as well as food. It provides ecotourism and wildlife conservation purposes. Less than 4% of land in Pakistan is covered with forests.

TYPES OF FOREST - MANAGEMENT: 

TYPES OF FOREST - MANAGEMENT Productive Forests In these forests the tree density is high and the forest canopy is closed. Such forests have great commercial value and they are mainly used for extraction of timber and other products . Protective Forests These include amenity planting along roads, in parks and along railway lines. The protection forests have little commercial value because they do not supply valuable species of wood. Their main function is to protect the soil and prevent it from eroding or blowing away. They keep the environment pleasant by lowering the temperature and providing shade.

Total forest area coverage : 

Total forest area coverage Parameter Pakistan Asia World Total forest area in 2000 (000 ha) 2,361 504,180 3,869,455 Natural forest area in 2000 (000 ha) 1,381 375,824 3,682,722 Plantations area in 2000 (000 ha) 980 110,953 186,733 Total dryland area in 1981 (000 ha) 72,524 1,078,121 5,059,984 Percentage of forests ~3% ~20% ~29% Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forestry_in_Pakistan

Factors responsible for the Growth of Forests in Pakistan: 

Factors responsible for the Growth of Forests in Pakistan Land Soil Climate Altitude

PROVINCE WISE DISTRIBUTION FOREST: 

PROVINCE WISE DISTRIBUTION FOREST Province-wise distribution of natural forests is as under: Province.2003-04 ( m ha) ——————————— Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 1.49 Punjab 0.43 Sindh 0.27 Balochistan 0.60 Gilgit-Baltistan 0.32 AJK 0.33 ——————————————— Total 3.44 ——————————————— PROVINCE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL FORESTS IS AS UNDER: PROVINCE 2003-04 ( m ha) Natural Forest Cover 3.440 Trees on Farmlands 0.781 Others (Linear +Misc) 0.171 Overall 4.392 Percent of Total Area of Pakistan 5.01% SOURCE: http://www.senate.gov.pk/qa/69/01-04-2011.pdf

FORESTS; A NATURAL RESOURCE: 

FORESTS; A NATURAL RESOURCE Types of Forests in Pakistan Alpine Mangrove Coniferous Riverain /Bella Irrigated

IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS: 

IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS Forest provides multiple benefits to environment, people, and animals. The list of benefits is as follows: • Forest cool air temperature by release of water vapor into the air . • At day time trees generate oxygen and store carbon dioxide, which helps to clean air. • Forest attracts wild life and offer food and protection to them. • Forests offer privacy, reduce light reflection , offer a sound barrier and help guide wind direction and speed. • Trees offer artistic functions such as creating a background, framing a view, complementing architecture, and so on. • Well managed forests supply higher quality water with less impurity than water from other resources.

IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS: 

IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS • Some forests raise total water stream, but this is not true for all forests • Forests help in controlling the level floods. • Forest provides different kind of wood which are used for different purposes like making of furniture , paper, and pencils and so on. • Forest help in giving the direction of wind and its speed. • Forest helps in keeping environment healthy and beautiful. • Forests also minimize noise pollution. • Forest helps the scientist to invent new medicine as forest has different kind or plants and herb.

IMPORTANCE OF FOREST: 

IMPORTANCE OF FOREST Nature maintains a balance between carbon dioxide & oxygen. Forests trees helps in bringing sufficient rainfall on earth. Forests are also helps in conservation of soil. Forests provide habitat to wildlife and help in their preservation. It provide food, medicinal herbs as well as other satisfactory requirement to fulfill our need.

USES OF FORESTS : 

USES OF FORESTS The forets of Pakistan are a main source of lumber, paper, fuelwood, latex, medicine as well as human and animal food. Other minor products include resin (a fluid in tissue of Chir pine plant that become solid on exposure to the air) and 'mazri' (used for making baskets). The forests also provide of ecotourism and wildlife conservation purposes. Forests have also been planted in some areas like Thal Desert to avoid soil erosion and further desertification. Riparian zone along the river Indus have been managed to avoid excess flooding .

TYPES OF FOREST – SPECIES AND LOCATION: 

TYPES OF FOREST – SPECIES AND LOCATION ALPINE FOREST HIMALAYAN DRY TEMPERATE FORESTS These are open evergreen forest with open scrub undergrowth. Both coniferous and broad-leaved species are present. This type occurs on the inner ranges throughout their length and are mainly represented in the north-west. Dry zone deodar, Pinus gerardiana ( Chalghoza ) and/or Quercus ilex are the main species. Higher up, blue pine communities occur and in the driest inner tracts, forests of blue pine, Juniperus macropoda ( Abhal , Shupa , Shur ) and some Picea smithiana (e.g. in Gilgit) are found locally. SUB-ALPINE FORESTS Evergreen conifers and mainly evergreen broad-leaved trees occur in relatively low open canopy, usually with a deciduous shrubby undergrowth of Viburnum ( Guch ), Salix (Willow, Bed), etc. The type occurs throughout the Himalayas from about 3,350 m to the timber limit. Abies spectabilis and Betula utilis (Birch, Bhuj ) are the typical tree species. High level blue pine may occur on landslips and as a secondary sere on burnt areas or abandoned clearings. Rhododendrons (Bras, Chahan ) occur in the understorey but do not form extensive communities as they do in the central and eastern Himalaya. Dwarf junipers are often abundant. ALPINE SCRUB Under this type are included shrub formations 1 m to 2 m high extending 150 m or more above the sub-alpine forests. The characteristic genera are Salix , Lonicera ( Phut ), Berberis ( Sumbul , Sumblue ), Cotoneaster with Juniperus and occasionally Rhododendron or Ephedra ( Asmania ).

ALPINE FOREST: 

ALPINE FOREST

DEODAR – CONIFEROUS : 

DEODAR – CONIFEROUS

TYPES OF FOREST – SPECIES AND LOCATION: 

TYPES OF FOREST – SPECIES AND LOCATION THE CONIFEROUS FORESTS They occur from 1,000 to 4,000 m altitudes. Chitral, Swat, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Malakand, Mansehraand Abbottabad districts of Khybe Pakhtunkhwa, Azad Kashmir andIslamabad district of the Punjab are the main areas covered with coniferous forests. Silver fir (Abies alba), spruce (Picea smithiana), deodar (Cedrus deodara), blue pine (Pinus wallichiana), chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) are the most common varieties. The Coniferous forests also occur in Balochistan hills. Chilghoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) and juniper (Juniperous macropoda) are the two most common species of Balochistan.

CONIFEROUS FOREST: 

CONIFEROUS FOREST

Types of Forest – Species and Location: 

Types of Forest – Species and Location THE SUB-TROPICAL DRY FORESTS are found in the Attock, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Jhelum and Gujrat districts of the Punjab, and in the Mansehra, Abbottabad, Mardan, Peshawar and Kohatdistricts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa up to a height of 1,000 m. In Balochistan, they are confined to the Sulaiman Mountains and other hilly areas. Dominant tree species are phulai (Acacia modesta), kau (Olea cuspidata) and hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa). THE TROPICAL THORN FORESTS are dominated by xerophytic scrubs. They are most widespread in the Punjab plains but also occupy small areas in southern Sindh and western Balochistan. They are mainly used for grazing purposes, watershed protection and fuelwood. Common species are vann (Salvadora oleoides), khejri (Prosopis cineraria), kair (Capparis aphylla), etc.

SUB-TROPICAL DRY FOREST – RUKH (TAHLI): 

SUB-TROPICAL DRY FOREST – RUKH (TAHLI)

TYPES OF FORESTS – SPECIES AND LOCATION: 

TYPES OF FORESTS – SPECIES AND LOCATION THE IRRIGATED PLANTATIONS were first developed in 1866 at Changa Manga in Lahore. Today they occupy about 226,000 ha. Sheesham (Dalbergia sissoo), mulberry (Morus alba), babul (Acacia nilotica) and species of Eucalyptus and Populus are the common tree species grown in the irrigated plantations.

The British made Locomotive (Serial O-4OWT17208) still operates for wood carriage : 

The British made Locomotive (Serial O-4OWT17208) still operates for wood carriage

TYPES OF FORESTS – SPECIES AND LOCATION: 

TYPES OF FORESTS – SPECIES AND LOCATION THE Riverian Forests grow in narrow belts along the banks of River Indus and its tributaries. They are more commonly found in Sindh and to some extent in the Punjab. Babul (Acacia nilotica), Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) and Tamarax dioica are the most common species. Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) and Populus euphratica are some other species. They are mainly used for lumber.

CHANGA MANGA: 

CHANGA MANGA Many go to Changa Manga Jungle for picnics and merrymaking - but hardly few know that they are visiting one of the largest irrigated and planned forests of the world. Located some 70 kilometres south of Lahore in the Chunian district, the forest covers an area of 5,000 hectares (12,510 acres) and is one of the largest of its kind. The planting and irrigation of it took place in the 19th century in the era of the British due to the need for timber for the Indian railway network.  Today, it is the source of significant revenue for the state coffers. The thickly wooded forest is also a popular recreational area. Most of the trees belong to the family of species such as acacia nilotica (kikar) or morus alba (mulberry). Parts of the forests have now been developed into a park with a rail road which gives the visitor a 5 kilometres ride on a miniature train through the forest. There is also a lake called Lunar Lake where boating is possible. There is a lake called Lunar Lake where boating is a common feature.

RIVERINE BELA FOREST: 

RIVERINE BELA FOREST

TYPES OF FORESTS – SPECIES AND LOCATION: 

TYPES OF FORESTS – SPECIES AND LOCATION How did the term "mangrove" arise? We don't really know. It might be derived from some of the ancient names given to some mangrove trees: the Portuguese called them mangue , the Spanish mangle , the Malays manggi-manggi or mangin The Mangrove Wetlands are located in the Indus River Delta . Other saltwater wetlands are located on the coast of Balochistan such as at Sonmiani and Jiwani . These support mangrove forestry, mainly of species Avicennia marina as well as bamboo species and marsh grasses of Apluda and Cenchrus .

MANGROVES IN PAKISTAN: 

MANGROVES IN PAKISTAN

HOW DO MAGROVE SURVIVE IN SALT WATER?: 

HOW DO MAGROVE SURVIVE IN SALT WATER? Mangroves have special features which protect them from salt. Some mangroves are able to filter most of the salt out as they take water in through their roots, some concentrate extra salt in old leaves (which turn yellow and die), and some are able to get rid of the salt through the pores on leaves or special glands. Mangroves can also grow in fresh water, but they have almost no competition in salt water because so few plants can grow there. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_mangroves_live_in_salt_water#ixzz1vJDWFMUO

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Mangroves Found in Indus delta, and costal areas Useful for fishing forming and wild life.

ADVANTAGES OF MANGROVES: 

ADVANTAGES OF MANGROVES Refuge: Tree climbing crabs and sea snails climb up their aerial roots at high tide to avoid aquatic predators. The roots provide a surface for all kinds of creatures from algae to shellfish. And the tangle of roots provide hiding places for young fishes and shrimps from larger predators. Their branches provide shelter for creatures from Proboscis Monkeys and nesting sites for large herons, to crevices for insects and other tiny

ADVANTAGES OF MANGROVES: 

ADVANTAGES OF MANGROVES Food: While on the tree, leaves are eaten by all kinds of creatures. Monkey snack on the shoots and leaves, small insects nibble on them. Fallen leaves are an important source of nutrients both within the mangrove habitat and when it is flushed out to the coral reefs. The leaves are rapidly broken up by crabs and other small creatures, and further broken down by micro-organisms into useful minerals. There are even tiny moth larvae that feed on pneumatophores.

ADVANTAGES OF MANGROVES: 

ADVANTAGES OF MANGROVES Natural water filter: Underwater, a huge number of filter-feeders are fastened on the tangle of roots: barnacles, sponges, shellfish. These filter feeders clean the water of nutrients and silt. As a result, clear water washes out into the sea, allowing the coral reef ecosystem to flourish. Stabilise the coast and river banks: Their roots prevents mud and sand from being washed away with the tide and river currents. Mangrove trees also slowly regenerate the soil by penetrating and aerating it (other creatures such as crabs and mud lobsters also help in . As the mud builds up and soil conditions improve, other plants can take root. Mangrove trees also reduce the damage from violent storms.

Deforestation: 

Deforestation Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use.

Causes / Reasons of Deforestation: 

Causes / Reasons of Deforestation Large forest tracks have to be removed to grow crops. In order to construct dams and barrages, millions of hectares of land were cleared to provide irrigational facilities for the agricultural land to meet the food requirement of the growing population. As urbanization increases, deforestation is caused to urbanize the area. It is done to provide living facilities to the migrating population from rural to urban areas. Growth of cities converts forest areas into residential colonies. The forest areas have to be cut down to make roads for providing smooth and better transport facilities for moving industrial and agricultural products to the market. Wood is consumed in large quantities in the industries and is also used for constructional purposes. Therefore, forests are heavenly cut down to meet the requirements of industries. The rural population entirely depends on fuel, wood for heating and cooling requirement. The trees have to be cut down excessively to meet the demand of heating and cooling, especially so in the areas of higher altitude and in winters. Over gazing of land by cattle goats and sheep has also converted forest area into deserts.

Deforestation : 

Deforestation

A CAUSE OF DEFORESTATION: 

A CAUSE OF DEFORESTATION

EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION : 

EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION Deforestation exposes the soil to the forces of wind and water especially on the foothills of the mountains. The upper layer of the soil is eroded away and leaves behind infertile coarse sand. With heavy rainfall the water gushes down the mountains carrying with it large quantities of silt and limestone. With no trees to hold the soil together and slow down the water flow. The surface run off may cause heavy floods. Cutting of trees disturbs the natural environment. The natural habitat is destroyed which results in the extinction of a number of valuable species and the wild life also gets disturbed. With less vegetation there is less evapo-transpiration. The climate changes, in particular there is less rainfall, which may result in lower crop yields.

HOW CAN WE STOP DEFORESTATION ?: 

HOW CAN WE STOP DEFORESTATION ? Online activists: chat rooms to help cause against deforestation Media awareness Slow down logging industry change law of first to clear gets land Chat rooms talk about what they can do together to slow down the logging industry by protesting the main areas More than 1000 protesters agree to it.

SOLUTION OF DEFORESTATION: 

SOLUTION OF DEFORESTATION Reduce wasteful land use practices Improve already developed lands Businesses and corporations have to be more aware of the effects that deforestation causes and they have to take little initiatives to prevent it from increasing Governments have to make citizens aware of the issue Each person can plant trees once in a while to maintain the ecosystem Groups can be formed to decrease deforestation Plantation weeks in Pakistan

Deforestation Q. using the image explain the causes of deforestation in Pakistan.: 

Deforestation Q. using the image explain the causes of deforestation in Pakistan.

Alpines : 

Alpines Q. Describe the characteristics of Alpine forest in Pakistan. (05)

Coniferous : 

Coniferous Q. Describe the features of Coniferous forests.

RIVERINE FOREST: 

RIVERINE FOREST Q. What are the main characteristics of Riverine Bela forests? (04) Q. In which parts of Pakistan are the found? (04)

IRRIGATED FOREST q. WHERE ARE IRRIGATED FOREST LOCATED IN PAKISTAN? EXPLAIN THEIR IMPORTANCE.(05): 

IRRIGATED FOREST q. WHERE ARE IRRIGATED FOREST LOCATED IN PAKISTAN? EXPLAIN THEIR IMPORTANCE.(05)

Q. Uisng the photograph explain how mangroves survive in salt water?: 

Q. Uisng the photograph explain how mangroves survive in salt water?

Work Cited: 

Work Cited Dmc. Engr. Wisc/edu/courses/hazards/ BBO 2-0.9 html EN.wikipedia.org/wiki/deforestation Time Life/ Time Life. (1999) World Geography 128 pages. Time Life education inc. New York, New York Time life/ Time Life.(1997) Planet Earth 128 pages. Time Life education inc. New York, New York. Pakistan-Geography, Economy and People. By Fazle Karim State of the World's Forest. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. The Environment of Pakistan. By Huma Niaz Sethi