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MAP 25.1 The War in Europe The Allies remained on the defensive during the first years of the war, but by 1943 the British and Americans, with an almost endless supply of resources, had turned the tide.

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MAP 25.2 War in the Pacific Across an ocean battlefield utterly unlike the European theater, Allies battled Japanese troops near their homeland.


CAUSES??? WWI Economics Political instability Right wing dictatorships Japanese expansion


Fascism New political ideology Weak economy, unemployment Charismatic leaders Germany, Spain Anti-democratic, anti-semitic Nationalist and racist sentiment Coercion, brutality


NAZIS German fascism Fanatical nationalism + racial superiority Supremacy of “Aryans” “degenerate races” Jews, homosexuals, disabled, gypsies “Third Reich”




JAPANESE “rape of Nanking” Forgotten, unknown holocaust Dec. 1937 Carnage, violence, massacre 300k dead Rape, murder Denial today


RAPE OF NANKING Why? Racism Military culture Bystander syndrome Religion Emperor worship

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FIGURE 25.1b Gallup Polls: European War and World War I, 1938–1940

War in Europe:

War in Europe Americans neutral Roosevelt, keep America out of war

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Japanese attack planes devastated the U.S. fleet stationed on the Hawai’ian island of Oahu. Before December 7, 1941, few Americans had heard of Pearl Harbor, but the “sneak” attack became a symbol of Japanese treachery and the necessity for U.S. revenge. SOURCE:National Archives and Records Administration.

Pearl Harbor:

Pearl Harbor Hawaii, Pacific Fleet 1941 Japan: surprise attack on December 7 Unified the country, war on Japan Attack unknown Some form of attack

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On the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed a joint session of Congress and asked for an immediate declaration of war against Japan. The resolution passed with one dissenting vote, and the United States entered World War II. SOURCE:AP/Wide World Photos.

Internment of Japanese Americans:

Internment of Japanese Americans After Pearl Harbor, Racial stereotypes on Japanese Relocation centers Evacuated about 110,000 Japanese Most: American citizens

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More than 110,000 Japanese Americans were interned during World War II, some for up to four years. This photograph, taken by Dorothea Lange (1895–1965), the famed photographer of Depression Era migrant families, shows the Mochida family in May 1942 waiting for a bus that will take them to a relocation camp. SOURCE:Corbis NA001774.

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Facing a shortage of workers and increased production demands, the War Manpower Commission and the Office of War Information conducted a campaign to recruit women into the labor force. Women were encouraged to “take a job for your husband/son/brother” and to “keep the world safe for your children.” Higher wages also enticed many women to take jobs in factories producing aircraft, ships, and ordnance. This photograph, taken in 1942, shows a woman working in a munitions factory. SOURCE:The Granger Collection,New York.


WOMEN Rosie the Riveter At work Black, married women Independent-minded “victory girls”

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D-Day landing, June 6, 1944, marked the greatest amphibious maneuver in military history. Troop ships ferried Allied soldiers from England to Normandy beaches. Within a month, nearly 1 million men had assembled in France, ready to retake western and central Europe from German forces. SOURCE:Photo by Robert Capa.CORBIS.

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As part of the air war on Germany, Allied bombers launched a devastating attack on Dresden, a major economic center, in February 1945. Of the civilians who died, most from burns or smoke inhalation during the firestorm, a large number were women and children, refugees from the Eastern Front. The city was left in ruins. SOURCE:“Commuters boarding a tram.” Getty Images,Inc.Photo by Fred Ramage (97K/HATY/7781/08).


HOLOCAUST Systematic and methodical Nazis “final” solution Death camps 6 million Jews Americans knew, but did little


EVERYONE’S WAR Zoot suit riots Pachucos Whites vs. Mexicans


EVERYONE’S WAR Zoot suit riots Pachucos African Americans “Double V” Tuskegee airmen Native Americans “code talkers” “magic” Prominent theme: second-class citizens


ATOMIC BOMB Two atomic weapons dropped in Japan, 1945 Causes? Controversy

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This photograph shows the Genbaku Dome, the exterior of one of the buildings in central Hiroshima to survive the bombing. After the atomic bomb fell, fires thoughout the central city combined to make a huge fire storm. A “black rain” of radioactive debris caused by the blast fell for more than a hour, covering an even wider area. More than a quarter of the city’s population died immediately following the explosion, and few buildings within a radius of three miles were left standing. Bettmann/Corbis.

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