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ULTRASONIC MOTOR An ULTRASONIC MOTOR is a type of electric motor powered by the ultrasonic vibration of a component ‘stator’ placed against another component ‘rotor’ depending upon the scheme of operation.



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Ultrasonic motors made with piezoelectric crystal whose efficiency is insensitive to size are superior in the mini-motor area. Figure 1 shows the basic construction of ultrasonic motors, which consist of a high-frequency power supply, a vibrator and a slider. Further, the vibrator is composed of a piezoelectric driving component and an elastic vibratory part, and the slider is composed of an elastic moving part and a friction coat. Fig 2

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The practical ultrasonic motor was proposed firstly by “H V Barth” of IBM in 1973 . As shown in figure 2, the rotor was pressed against two horns placed at different locations. By exciting one of the horns, the rotor was driven in one direction, and by exciting the other horn, the rotation direction was reversed.


MECHANISM Dry friction is often used in contact, and the ultrasonic vibration induced in the stator is used both to impart motion to the rotor and to modulate the frictional forces present at the interface. The friction modulation allows bulk motion of the rotor (i.e., for farther than one vibration cycle); without this modulation, ultrasonic motors would fail to operate.


CLASSIFICATION There are various categories to classify ultrasonic motor such as: Operation: rotary type and linear type. Device geometry: rod type-shaped, ring (square) and cylinder types. Generating wave: standing wave type and propagating wave type.


MERITS Low speed and high torque—direct drive. Quick response, wide velocity range, hard brake and no backlash: excellent controllability; fine position resolution. High power/weight ratio and high efficiency. Quiet drive. Compact size and light weight. Simple structure and easy production process. Negligible effect from external magnetic or radioactive fields, and also no generation of these fields.


APPLICATIONS Microscopy/Imaging Fast sample positioning Long range scanning Biotechnology, Life Science Micro dosing Nano/microliter pumps Fast positioning Bio-handling Medical Design, Medical Technology Screening Fast positioning Cell penetration, micro dosing Non-magnetic actuators Nanotechnology, Nanofabrication. Precision positioning of components (linear and rotation)

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