environmental pollution control

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PRESENTED BY PRIYANKA ODELA M PHARM Department of pharmaceutics. :

PRESENTED BY PRIYANKA ODELA M PHARM Department of pharmaceutics . ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL AND EFFLUENT TREATMENT IN PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING UNIT

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POLLUTION : introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms or “that damages the environment which can come in the form of chemical substances or energy such as noise,heat or light.” ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION: “The contamination of physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected.” 9/12/2012 2

TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:

TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 1) Air pollution 2) Water pollution 3) Noise pollution 4) Thermal pollution 5) Soil / land pollution 6) Radioactive pollution 9/12/2012 3

AIR POLLUTION:

AIR POLLUTION Air Pollution is an atmospheric condition in which certain substances like gases , particulate matter , radioactive substances etc are present in concentrations which can cause undesirable effects on human environment. SOURCES: dust of drugs produced during milling and seiving. Classification of Air Pollutants Primary Pollutants: CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, volatile organic compounds(hydrocarbons), and suspended, particulate matter. Secondary Pollutants: sulfuric acid, nitric acid, carbonic acid. 9/12/2012 4

NATURE OF AIR POLLUTION:

NATURE OF AIR POLLUTION The pollutants present in the air should be identified and categorised so that appropriate measures can be adopted to combat pollution. Solid matter: light,fine and coarse particles,hydrocarbons,aromatics. Liquid substances: smoke, soot, fly-ash, dust, mist, fumes, organic acids, inorganic acids Gases: sulfur dioxide,nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide. 9/12/2012 5

ADVERSE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION:

ADVERSE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION Health problems: optic irritation(PAN), bronchitis, lung carcinoma, change in blood chemistry,skin cancer, etc in human beings. Livestock damage: injury n death due to arsenic metals and fluorides. Agriculture damage: leaf damage, stunting of growth, decreased size and less yield of fruit and destruction of flowers Material damage: damage of structural metals, surface coatings, fabrics,weathering of stone in buildings and monuments Effect on climate: increase in carbondioxide enhances the temperature of the earth melting polar ice caps and glaciers. 9/12/2012 6

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9/12/2012 7

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL:

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Air pollution can be controlled by two fundamental ways. Preventive technique: It includes use of devices for removal of pollutants from exhaust gases e.g. Scrubbers, dry and wet collectors, filters, electrostatic precipitators etc. Building of higher stake facility for discharging of pollution into air. 2) Effluents control: Substitution of raw-materials causing more pollution with that of less pollution causing materials. Use of non-conventional fuels like; Gobar gas, Biogas, CNG and LPG must be prepared and encouraged 9/12/2012 8

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL:

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TYPE OF POLLUTANT NATURE OF DEVICE /MECHANISM EXAMPLES OF DEVICES Particulate matter(coarse or fine) Low-energy units(gravitational effect, centrifugal action) Settling chambers, cyclone separators and spray chambers Intermediate sized particles Low energy units Impingement separators and wet scrubbers Sub-micron particles High energy units Bag filters,electrostatic precipitators and venturi scrubbers Gaseous pollutants Absorption,adsorption , condensation,incineration Filters,adsorbers and absorbers 9/12/2012 9

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES:

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES Dust collectors: it consists of a blower, dust filter, filter cleaning system & dust removal system. Different types of dust collectors : Mechanical collectors -Gravity settling chamber, cyclone separator Electrostatic precipitators Filters- HEPA Filters, unwoven fabric air filters. scrubbers – wet scrubbers, dry scrubbers, venturi scrubbers Absorbers- special type of wet scrubbers. Adsorbers- activated carbon, activated alumina, silica gel 9/12/2012 10

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Gravity settling chamber cyclone separator MECHANICAL SEPARATORS 9/12/2012 11

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Electrostatic precipitators Wet scrubbers 9/12/2012 12

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HEPA FILTERS Non-woven fabric air filter 9/12/2012 13

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Adsorbers Absorbers 9/12/2012 14

LAND POLLUTION/SOLID WASTE :

LAND POLLUTION/SOLID WASTE Solid waste refers to all solid discardant materials that are improperly discarded like used chemical containers, packages etc. Industrialization are major causes of land pollution. Adverse effects of land pollution: 1)have impact on human health. 2)affect agriculture. 9/12/2012 15

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SOLID WASTE AT SITE STORAGE COLLECTION POINT TRANSFER/ TRANSPORT PROCESSING/ RECOVERY DISPOSAL RECYCLING/REUSE 9/12/2012 16

SOLID WASTE HANDLING METHODS:

SOLID WASTE HANDLING METHODS The physical nature of the solid waste mainly determines it’s handling methods. Using these methods solid wastes are transported to the desired destination. NATURE OF MATERIAL HANDLING METHODS Solids Front end loaders, buckets, fibre -pack drums, packages, cartons Semisolids, wet, sticky materials Front-end loaders, buckets Viscous liquids Special pumps liquids General purpose pumps 9/12/2012 17

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buckets INCINERATOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS: 1)Land reclamation/land filling 2)Deep well injection 3)Incinerators 9/12/2012 18

SOLID WASTE SALVAGE AND RECOVERY:

SOLID WASTE SALVAGE AND RECOVERY NATURAL RESOURCES RECYCLED MATERIAL INCINERATION HEAT RECOVERY INDUSTRIAL USAGE WASTE RECYCLING AND PROCESSING PLANT PROCESSED WASTE RESIDUE INDUSTRIAL WASTE Land reclamation 9/12/2012 19

NOISE POLLUTION:

NOISE POLLUTION NOISE: It may be defined as unwanted sound in the wrong place at the wrong time. SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION : Various equipment used in pharmaceutical manufacturing unit.(ex: ball mill, seiving machines, roller compactors, tablet punching machines etc) Effects of Noise: 1) Interfere with man’s health :Rise in BP, CVS problem, elevated stress levels, stimulate violent behaviour. 2) Hearing damage : Depends on intensity and duration of sound level. 3) Physiological and psychological changes : Affects the functioning of various systems of the body. 9/12/2012 20

standards recommended by Central Pollution Control Board committee:

standards recommended by Central Pollution Control Board committee AREA CODE CATEGORY OF AREA NOISE LEVEL DAY IN DECIBLE NIGHT A Industrial 75 70 B Commercial 65 55 C Residential 55 45 D Silence zone 50 40 9/12/2012 21

SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION AND CONTROL MEASURES:

SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION AND CONTROL MEASURES EQUIPMENT SOUND LEVEL IN dBA at 3 feet POSSIBLE NOISE CONTROL MEASURES Air coolers 87-94 Aerodynamic fan blades,decrease in rpm,decrease pressure drop Coolers 90-120 Install mufflers on intake and exhaust,enclose machine with casing,vibration isolation Electric motors 90-110 Acoustically lined fan covers,enclosures and motor mutes Heaters and furnaces 95-110 Acoustic plenums, intake mufflers, lined and damped ducts Valves <80-108 Avoid sonic velocities,limit pressure drop and mass flow, replace with low noise valves Pipes 9-105 Inline silencers, vibration isolation and lagging 9/12/2012 22

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Melamine foam or fibre glass core Sound barrier for hammer mill 9/12/2012 23

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Equiptment enclosures SONEX ACOUSTICS lining a pump room 9/12/2012 24

THERMAL POLLUTION:

THERMAL POLLUTION Defined as presence of waste heat in the water which can cause undesirable changes in the natural environment. Sources of thermal pollution : Certain process like evaporation, convection, radiation , and use of equipment such as dryers, evaporators etc may sometimes lead to thermal pollution. Effects of thermal pollution : Thermal pollution inturn decreases the oxygen content in the atmosphere and whereby leads to ill effects of human beings 9/12/2012 25

CONTROL OF THERMAL POLLUTION:

CONTROL OF THERMAL POLLUTION Cooling ponds : Water from condensers is stored in ponds where natural evaporation cools the water which can then be discharged in nearby water vapour. Spray ponds : Here the water is sprayed through nozzles where fine droplets are formed. Cooling towers : A) Wet cooling tower : Cool air entering from sides takes away the heat and cools the water. Large amount of water is lost through evaporation. B) Dry cooling tower : There is no water loss in this method but installation and operation cost of dry cooling tower is many times higher than wet cooling tower 9/12/2012 26

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COOLING TOWERS 9/12/2012 27

RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION:

RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION Sources of radioactivity: Natural : Cosmic rays from outer space, radioactive radon-222. Anthropogenic : Nuclear power plants, nuclear accidents, X-rays, diagnostic kits, test laboratories etc., Effects of Radiations Genetic damage is caused by radiations, which affects genes and chromosomes. Somatic damage includes burns, miscarriages, eye cataract and cancer of bone, thyroid, breast, lungs and skin Control of Nuclear Pollution Siting of nuclear power plants should be carefully done. Proper disposal of wastes from laboratory should be done Uranium and Thorium mining and refineries must be carefully maintained. In-door pollution should be minimized. 9/12/2012 28

WATER POLLUTION:

WATER POLLUTION Water pollution is defined as something that adversely impairs the beneficial use of water. Classification of water pollutants: Chemical pollutants: a)Organic pollutants : detergents, fats & grease, insecticides & herbicides which contents huge range of organohalides & other chemicals, petroleum hydrocarbons, lubricants (motor oil), volatile organic compounds B)Inorganic pollutants : soluble salts change the P H of the water, acidity(SO2), fertilizers containing nutrients (nitrates & phosphates), heavy metals & toxic chemicals. 9/12/2012 29

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Physical pollutants : Colour: undesirable in drinking water Turbidity: due to colloidal or finely divided suspended water which is caused by the formation of hydrous oxides of ferrous & Mn Temperature: Foam: Biological pollutants : Micro organisms Radioactive pollutants : presence of radioactive materials Measurement of water pollution & tests In order to measure the quality of water the following general tests are done Physical testing : Colour, Turbidity, odor (volatile materials, dissolved gases, phenolic compounds), temperature. Chemical testing : water samples may be examined in the principles of analytical chemistry it includes ph, BOD ,COD, nutrients (nitrates & phosphorus), metals, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb & Hg. Biological testing : it involves the use of plant, animal or microbial indicators to monitor the health of an aquatic eco system. 9/12/2012 30

Water Pollution Abatement And Effluent Treatment:

Water Pollution Abatement And Effluent Treatment The handling of a liquid water effluent is more complex than handling a waste gas effluent The water effluent may contain dissolved gases /solids or it may slurry in either concentrated or diluted form. because of this complexity ,priority is given for recovering a part or all of the waste products, which may be reused The treatment of the wastewater is may be physical, chemical or biological in nature Physical treatment : sedimentation, gravity settling, adsorption process is employed using activated carbon for the removal of refractive organic substances, toxic substances & colour Chemical treatment : coagulation, flocculation, emulsion breaking, precipitation & neutralization. Biological treatment : bacteria are found in water, many organic materials will be oxidized to form CO2, H2O, sulphate. This treatment consumes oxygen that dissolved in water, cause depletion of oxygen 9/12/2012 31

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WASTE WATER TREATMENT : 9/12/2012 32

PRETREATMENT:

PRETREATMENT NEUTRALISATION EQUALISATION DETOXIFICATION 9/12/2012 33

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Pre treatment: Equalization Neutralization Grease and oil removal Removal of toxic substances Purpose : to remove all large objects that are deposited in the sewage system. This type of waste is removed because it can damage the sensitive equipment in the sewage treatment plant. Primary treatment: Screens Grid chamber Gravity sedimentation tank Chemical reaction Purpose : reduces the load facilitating subsequent biological treatment. Rapid mix flocculation sedimentation influent effluent sludge 9/12/2012 34

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PRIMARY TREATMENT 9/12/2012 35

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Secondary treatment: Purpose: Secondary treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage. Methods: activated sludge process, trickling filtration,oxidation ditch, oxidation ponds, biodiscs and spray irrigation. The effluent is subsequently subjected to anaerobic digestion. ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS: 9/12/2012 36

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TRICKLING FILTRATION OXIDATION POND OPERATION 9/12/2012 37

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Tertiary treatment: Coagulation, flocculation, co precipitation Membrane separation process Adsorption Ion exchange Breaking Neutralization Purpose: Final step of polishing the effluents when the effluent obtained from secondary treatment is not satisfactory. Secondary effluent coagulation coprecipitation Filtration 9/12/2012 38

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EFFLUENT TESTING AND TREATMENT:

EFFLUENT TESTING AND TREATMENT EFFLUENT: Effluent is an out flowing of water or gas from a natural body of water or from a human made structure. Effluent is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA, 2006) as “wastewater ± treated or untreated water that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or industrial outfall” EFFLUENT TESTING DONE ACCORDING TO : American People Health and Association (APHA, 1989), ASTM (Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20thEdition) and Laboratory Manual for Environmental Science 9/12/2012 40

Effluent testing methods:

Effluent testing methods 1) Temperature 2) Turbidity 3) Conductivity 4) pH 5) Dissolve Oxygen (DO) 6) Suspended Solids (SS) 1) Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 2) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 3) Ammonical Nitrogen (NH3-N) Total bacterial count. 2) coliform test. 3) e.coli test Note:EPA acceptable limits is 0 colonies per plate. 9/12/2012 41

Effluent treatment for formulation industry:

Effluent treatment for formulation industry Segreation of waste streams neutralisation Emulsions and colloidal wastes can be removed using coagulants(FeCl 3 ,FeSO 4 ,lime) Dissolved salts precipitated Volatile materials removed by aeration Organic chemicals removed by biological oxidation 9/12/2012 42

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Parameter Tolerance limit ph 5.5-9 Oil and grease 10 Total suspended solid 100 BOD 30 Mercury 0.01 Arsenic 0.2 Chromium 0.1 Lead 0.1 Cyanide 0.1 Sulphides 2 Phosphates 5 Bioassay test 90%survival of fish after 96 hrs in 100% effluent 9/12/2012 43

:

Treatment of waste from large synthetic drug plant Acidic waste Lime for neutralization Solids to fill land Sand drying bed Liquid to bacterial tank neutralization Water free from sediment primary clarification Secondary clarification Primary air film Filtration tank to sewage Oxidation pond film digestion Waste water EFFLUENT TREATMENT FOR SYNTHETIC PLANT 9/12/2012 44

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Parameter Inland surface water Public sewage Land for irrigation Marine coastal areas Ph 5.5-9 5.5-9 5.5-9 5.5-9 Suspended solids 100 600 200 100 Dissolved solids 2100 - 2100 - BOD 30 350 100 100 COD 250 - - 250 Oils and grease 10 20 10 20 Ammonical nitrogen 50 50 - 50 cyanide 0.2 2 0.2 0.2 Arsenic 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 45

Effluent treatment in fermentation plant: :

Effluent treatment in fermentation plant: Antibiotics, vitamins, acids and alcohols are produced by fermentation process . The effluent has objectionable odor and effects the biological system. A few types of effluents from fermentation are : liquor of fermentation, mostly nutrient broth. Washed water of the floor and equipment Acids, bases and solvents used for extraction and purification Filaments or mycelium or organisms. 46

Effluent treatment in antibiotic plant::

Effluent treatment in antibiotic plant: Combined factory effluent NEUTRALISATION FILTRATION r CLARIFICATION DIGESTION PUMP ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS SAND DRY BED TREATED EFFLUENT Effluent treatment in antibiotic plant 9/12/2012 47

Bibliography :

Bibliography Pharmaceutical production and management by C. V. S. Subrahmanyam, 1 st Edition 2005. Introduction to environmental science by Y. Anjaneyulu. http://en .Wikipedia. Org/ wiki/pollution # forms –of-pollution. http://www.doyouknow.in/Articles/Engineering/Effluent-Treatment-Plant.aspx http://web.deu.edu.tr/atiksu/toprak/ani4061.html 9/12/2012 48

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THANK YOU 9/12/2012 49

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