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Organization Development:

Organization Development

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OD is a top management supported long range effort to improve an organization’s problem solving and renewal process particularly through a more effective and collaborative diagnosis and management of organizational culture with special emphasis on formal work teams,temporary work teams and inter group culture-with assistance of consultant facilitator and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavioral science,including action research.

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Organization Development Definition Organization Development (OD) is an applied discipline that supports the creation of effective and healthy organizations consisting of competent, satisfied, and productive employees. Other definitions from other OD practitioners are: "Organization development (OD) is defined as a long-range effort to improve an organization’s ability to cope with change and its problem-solving and renewal processes through effective management of organization culture." Don Harvey and Donald R. Brown in An Experiential Approach to Organization Development

Important points to remember:

Important points to remember Planned Managed from top Increased organizational effectiveness and health Use of OD interventions Use of behavior science principles

Characteristics of OD :

Characteristics of OD Behavior science base Normative approach Deliberate interventions in organization Normative Re educative strategy Legitimacy of organization and management System approach to change Use of action research model Use of external consultants Long term focus

Process of OD:

Process of OD Stage I Diagnostic phase Stage II Intervention or action phase Stage III Stabilization or process maintenance phase

Types of interventions:

Types of interventions Feedback Awareness of changing norms Increased interaction Confrontation Education

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"Organization development is an effort: (1) planned, (2) organization wide, (3) managed from the top, (4) to increase organizational effectiveness and health, through (5) planned interventions in the organization’s processes using behavioral science knowledge."

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OD encompasses these concepts Definitive and supportive of the organization’s long range vision and mission. Seeks to improve an organization’s ability to both create and cope with change. A teaching/learning process whose goal is to improve an organization’s decision-making and problem-solving capabilities. Continuously identifies, allocates, and develops resources in ways that make these resources more available to the mission of the organization

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Introduces planned change, usually long-range, into an organization, or a coherent part of it, based on a diagnosis which is shared by the members of the organization or affected part. An attempt to increase organizational effectiveness and efficiency through planned interventions based on research findings and theoretical hypotheses of the behavioral sciences. A set of interventions into the ongoing activities of an organization to facilitate learning and to make informed choices about alternative ways to proceed.

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Organizational Development Activities and Tools Following is a list defining organization development activities that could be undertaken depending upon assessed need. Strategic Planning: Strategic planning is a process for preparing for the future in a demanding environment where hard choices must be made about what should be done and where good results define success. It results in a plan of action that encompasses the most critical imperatives of the organization. It is usually long-term, but may be short-term. Strategic planning may be organization-wide or localized.

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Data Gathering and Analysis (Internal and External): Data gathering and analysis is an essential ingredient of OD. Generating data is itself an OD intervention and actions are planned based on data. There are numerous ways to gather data on the organizational system or parts of the system. Some of which are: Documentation Review: An examination of existing organizational documents such as audit reports, performance appraisals, and strategic plans.

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Organizational Sensing: Going in and “walking around” in the organization to get a feel for the culture of the organization. Focus Groups: A structured group session, moderated by a group leader, held with the purpose of collecting information on a selected topic. Interviewing: Meeting one-on-one with individuals who are involved in the system or sub-system to gather impressions, feelings, opinions about the situation of focus. Surveys: A formal data-gathering approach that can be either organization-centered or customer-centered. Usually relies on a written questionnaire.

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Total Quality Management (Continuous Improvement): TQM is both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization. It challenges all members of an organization to employ methods to improve the products and services supplied to its customers, all the processes within an organization, and the degree to which the needs of the customer are met now and in the future. Some examples of TQM tools are flowcharts, cause and effect diagrams, and control charts.

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Training and Development: Training is a learning experience that is skill-or knowledge-based to maintain or enhance current job skills or credentials. Development is a learning activity for future related work that may or may not be related to the employee’s current job. Three types of development can be identified: individual/career development, team/group development, and organizational development.

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Team Interventions: Teambuilding (for management and work groups): The goals of teambuilding are the improvement and increased effectiveness of teams that are tasked with a function, project or program within the organization. Teambuilding focuses on the improvement of both the task (what gets done) and the process (how the task gets done) and takes place in the ongoing worklife of the team.

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Workplace Assessment Teams: A Team may be formed to conduct an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of an organization or a part of an organization. Its findings would be reported to management for action to be taken. Change Teams: Teams may be selected and developed to have planning and oversight responsibility for a change effort in an organization or part(s) of it. Change teams can be formed as a result of an organizational assessment.

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Structural Interventions: Some examples of structural interventions are reorganization(s), job design or redesign, job enrichment, work restructuring (e.g., self-directed teams), pay systems, team performance management systems, physical settings. Individual Interventions: Consultation about Organization Development Coaching managers one-on-one regarding running meetings, managing groups, performance management, work processes, using data, decision-making, strategic planning

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