common errors in english - full notes

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Correction of Errors, Subject-verb Agreement topics are discussed in this Powerpoint in detail

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COMMON ERRORS IN ENGLISH (RULES WITH EXAMPLES):

COMMON ERRORS IN ENGLISH ( RULES WITH EXAMPLES)

The Omission of a/an/the::

The Omission of a/an/the: Before a common noun used in its widest sense. Eg .: Man is mortal. 2. Before names of materials. Eg . : Bronze is a metal. 3. Usually before Proper names. Eg .: Patna is the capital of Bihar.

Continues…..:

Continues….. 4.Before abstract nouns used in general sense. (Beauty fascinates people.) 5. Before languages. [ English is a very popular language all over the world.] 6. Before names of relations like ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘aunt’, ‘ uncle’,’cook’,’nurse ’ etc. [ Father is very happy today] 7. Before predicative nouns denoting a unique position that is normally held at one time by one person only. [He was elected Chairman of the Board.]

CONFUSABLE NOUNS:

CONFUSABLE NOUNS

Slide 5:

Incorrect Correct Lecturership Lectureship Free ship Free-studentship Boarding Boarding house Family members Members of the family English teacher The Teacher of English Cousin-brother/sister Cousin Our’s / your’s / her’s / their’s Ours/yours/hers/theirs

Examples::

Examples: There are twenty candidates for lectureship. Ramesh has applied for free-studentship. Mohan lives in a boarding house . Vivek and Suresh are the members of my family. Dr,. Raina is our teacher of English. Sudha is my cousin . This lab is ours .

Slide 7:

Some nouns always take a singular verb (Scenery, advice, mathematics, politics, ethics, athletics, classics, fuel, rice, gram, information, machinery, furniture, news , physics) Examples: The scenery of Kashmir is incorrect. He has given advice. (not advices) Mathematics is a difficult subject.

Some nouns have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural:

Some nouns have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural Air – atmosphere air – proud Quarter – one-fourth quarters – houses etc. Examples: 1 . Air is necessary for human life 2. It is bad to put on airs. 3. I live in the government quarters.

Some nouns are singular in form, but they are used in plural form and always take a plural verb:

Some nouns are singular in form, but they are used in plural form and always take a plural verb [people, clergy, cattle, gentry, company, police etc.] Examples: The clergy are in the church. The cattle are grazing in the ground.

Some plural form nouns always take a plural verb:

Some plural form nouns always take a plural verb [ Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, tidings, thanks, annals, measles, premises etc.] Examples: Where are my trousers? Spectacles are now a costly item.

Collective Nouns are used both as singular and plural depending on the meaning.:

Collective Nouns are used both as singular and plural depending on the meaning. [jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company] ********* Examples: 1. The jury were divided in this case. 2. The team has not come as yet.

The pronoun ‘one’ must be followed by ‘one’s’.:

The pronoun ‘one’ must be followed by ‘one’s’. One must finish his task in time. [Incorrect] One must finish one’s task in time. [correct] --------------------------------------------------------------------------- A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender . Examples: Every man must bring his luggage. All students must do their home work. Each of the girls must carry her own bag.

When Two or more singular nouns are joined together by: 1. ‘either….. Or’ 2. ‘neither nor’ and 3. ‘or’, the pronoun is singular. :

When Two or more singular nouns are joined together by: 1. ‘either….. Or’ 2. ‘neither nor’ and 3. ‘or’, the pronoun is singular.

Examples:

Examples Either Ram or Shyam will give their book. [ Incorrect] Either Ram or Shyam will give his book.[correct] Neither Ramesh nor Rajendra has done their work. (IC] Neither Ramesh nor Rajendra has done his work. [C]

Few, a few, and the few:

Few, a few, and the few Few : not many A few : some atleast . [positive] opposite of none. The few : whatever there is. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Examples Few men are free from fault. ( not A few men ) A few boys will pass in the examination. ( not Few boys ) I have already read the few books that are on the book shelf. ( not a few books)

Use “to” to compare with words like a) superior b) inferior, c) senior, d) junior, e) prior, f) anterior, g) posterior and h) prefer :

U se “to” to compare with words like a) superior b) inferior, c) senior, d) junior, e) prior, f) anterior, g) posterior and h) prefer

Examples::

Examples: 1. Shelley is junior than Wordsworth. ( Incorrect) Shelley is junior to Wordsworth, ( Correct ) ------------------------------------------------------------- 2. I prefer reading than sleeping. ( Incorrect) I prefer reading to sleeping. ( Correct )

When: as well as, along with, together with, no less than’ in addition to, not and with - join TWO SUBJECTS, the verb will be according to the FIRST SUBJECT. :

When: as well as, along with, together with, no less than’ in addition to, not and with - join TWO SUBJECTS , the verb will be according to the FIRST SUBJECT .

Examples::

Examples: 1. Ram, as well as his ten friends, are going. (Incorrect ) Ram, as well as his ten friends, is going. (Correct) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. The teacher, along with the students, were going . (Incorrect) The teacher, along with the students , was going. (Correct)

Slide 20:

If the Subject is: 1. ‘a number of’ – the plural verb is used Eg .: A number of books are missing ( Correct) A number of books is missing. (Incorrect) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. The number of – the singular verb is used. Eg .: The number of students are very small. (Incorrect) The number of students is very small. (Correct)

INCORRECT CORRECT (EXPRESSIONS):

INCORRECT CORRECT (EXPRESSIONS) What to speak of 1. Not to speak of Cent per cent 2. Hundred percent Word by word 3. Word for word The two first 4. The first two Examples: Not to speak of running, he cannot even walk. You are never hundred per cent sure of your success in a competitive examination.

COMMON ERRORS to be avoided:

COMMON ERRORS to be avoided Care should b e taken in the use of VERBS. An infinitive verb should not be split. ‘Only’ should be placed immediately before the word it qualifies. Eg .: Only he lost his ticket in the train. INCORRECT –He only lost his ticket in the train.)

Than, how/when …. (usage):

Than, how/when …. ( usage) THAN should be used after ‘ no other’. Example: I met no other man than Mr. Raju . (not BUT) HOW (or) WHEN should be used after ‘ know’ Examples: Correct :I know how to write French. Incorrect : I know to write French.

Slide 24:

S.No . Word(s) FOLLOWED BY What 1. Many a Singular verb 2. A great many A plural NOUN and a plural VERB 3. Thought Yet 4. Not But 5. No sooner Than 6. Lest Should 7. Such As 8. So That 9. Scarcely when 10. Hardly Not by than

EXAMPLES:

EXAMPLES Many a man was drowned in the sea. (Not WERE) A great many students have been declared successful. (not HAS) Though he is poor, yet he is honest. (not BUT) No sooner had I entered the class than the students stood up. (not WHEN) Read regularly lest you should fail. (not WILL/SHALL)

Continues…:

Continues… He is such a writer as everybody should read his books. (not THAT) Sarita was so popular with her classmates that she always had some people coming to her for advice. (not AS) I had scarcely entered the room when the phone rang. (not THAN)

Know these also….:

Know these also…. 1. Who The Subject 2. Whom Denotes The Object 3. Whose Living persons 4. Which Lifeless Objects 5. Each other If there are 2 Subjects/Objects 6. One another More than 2 Subjects/Objects 7. Less (Five litres of water) Quantity 8. Fewer (No fewer than fifty persons) Number 9. Older (followed by than) Refers Persons (as well as things) 10. Elder Members of the family 11. When Indicates A general sense 12. While A Time during the process of doing a work.

Some & any:

Some & any Some is used to express QUANTITY/DEGREE (affirmative) Eg : I shall buy some apples . --------------------------------------- Any is used in NEGATIVE/INTERROGTATIVE Sense. Examples: I shall not buy any apples. Have you bought any apples?

Slide 29:

S.No . UNLESS/UNTIL/Not Expresses/ never used with what? 1. Unless Expresses (Negative sense) A condition 2. Until Time 3. Not Is never used with Unless/ Until

Use of not only … but also:

Use of not only … but also He not only comes for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (INCORRECT) He comes not only for swimming but also for coaching the learners. (CORRECT) This expression is meant for swimming and not for coming.

One of….. :

One of….. One of always takes a plural noun after it Eg . : It is one of the important day in my life. [IC] It is one of the important days in my life. [C] -------------------------------------------------------------------- When TWO Singular Nouns joined by ‘ and ’ point out the same thing or person, the verb will be SINGULAR. IC : Bread and butter make a good breakfast. C : Bread and butter makes a good breakfast.

EITHER…OR, NEITHER…NOR:

EITHER…OR, NEITHER…NOR If two subjects are joined by ‘either….or’, ‘neither…nor’,, the VERB agrees with the SUBJECT that is near. Examples: Either Ramesh or I am to do this work. (not ARE) Neither he nor his friends are reading. (not IS )

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