Plant BIOTECHNOLOGY

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Plant transformation methods

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Agricultural Production Different goods Plants & Animals Why Plant Transformation

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Conventional & modern practice Improve the agricultural productivity

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Plant Agriculture

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Manipulation of Plants

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Plants Conventional breeding Tissue culture Genetic engineering

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Conventional breeding ♣ Selection Tissue culture ♣ Without in vitro selection ♣ With in vitro selection

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Plant Transformation Plants are the easiest of higher organisms to transform Both physical and biological methods exist for transformation Until recently, only transgenic organisms in wide public release were plants

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Plant Transformation Methods Physical Chemical Biological Microinjection Pressure Biolistics - gene gun/ particle bombardment Electroporation Microinjection Silica/carbon fibers Lazer mediated SAT PEG DEAE-dextran Calcium phosphate Artificial lipids Proteins Dendrimers A. Tumefaciens Rhizogenes Virus-mediated In planta

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Transformation Plants - physical methods Microinjection Electroporation Biolistics - gene gun Silica/carbon fibers Lazer mediated SAT

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Microinjection of GOI

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This electroporator is for low-current applications such as those using small electrodes

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Biolistic / Gene Gun

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Sonication & SAAT

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Biological Transformation dsDNA vectors - i.e cassava mosaic virus Agrobacterium tumefaciens & A. rhizogenes Soil bacterium Causes diseases in plants called crown gall & hairy root SAAT

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Biological Transformation ♣ Agrobacterium tumefaciens & ♣ Agrobacterium rhizogenes

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Possible plant compounds, that initiate Agrobacterium to infect plant cells. Acetosyringone, ferulic acid, gallic acid, Hydroxybenzoic acid, pyrogallic acid, vanillin etc. In monocot – not efficient Transformation frequencey – very less

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Agrobacterium Agrobacterium (disease symptomology and host range) radiobacter - “ avirulent ” species A. tumefaciens - crown gall disease rhizogenes - hairy root disease rubi - cane gall disease vitis - galls on grape and a few other plant species Otten et al., 1984

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Tzvi Tzfira and Vitaly Citovsky, 2002, Trends in Cell Biol. 12(3), 121-129 Cellular process of Agrobacterium –host interaction

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Plant Transformation Methods Virus-mediated gene transfer (Plant viruses as vectors) Caulimoviruses – ds DNA – CaMV Geminiviruses - 2ss DNA – maize streak virus RNA plant viruses - TMV

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In Planta Transformation ♣ Meristem transformation ♣ Floral dip method ♣ Pollen transformation

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Chloroplast transformation - Horizontal gene transfer

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Selectable Markers A gene encoding an enzyme Antibiotic resistance Herbicide resistance Positive selection genes genes that allow use of some necessary media component.

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Selectable Markers NPTII - kanamycin (antibiotic) Hpt - hygromycin PMI - changes mannose to useable carbohydrate

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Novel Selection Genes Luciferase - gene from fireflies – substrate Green Fluorescent Protein - from jellyfish - under lights and filter the transgenic plants - GFP GUS - glucuronidase gene will convert added substrate to blue color.

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Production of transgenic plants Isolate and clone gene of interest Add DNA segments to initiate or enhance gene expression Add selectable markers Introduce gene construct into plant cells (transformation) Select transformed cells or tissues Regenerate whole plants

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5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-D- glucuronide (sodium salt) Synonym - BC-Indicator X-GlcA/ X-Glu X-glucuronide Molecular Formula C 14 H 12 BrClNNaO 7 Molecular Weight 444.59 Activity - quantitative way or through visualization Beta-glucuronidase – E. Coli Richard Anthony Jefferson (1987)

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X-glcA (X-gluc or X-glc or X-glcU) - substrate for GUS GUS oxidative dimerization X-glu → colourless soluble → Blue precipitate of intermediate diX-indigo

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Selection & Regeneration Cells which contain the selectable marker gene can grow All plants that develop are transgenic Plant transformation using physical or biological methods requires a tissue culture stage

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In Planta Transformation Meristem transformation floral dip Pollen transformation electroporation

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Analysis of T 0 plants Morphology Physiology Yield characters GUS expression Gene expression Confirmation with selectable marker, Screenable marker, Negative & Positive control

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Resistance & Stress tolerance in plants: Resistance: - able to break-down or - metabolize foreign molecules or - introduction a new enzyme to metabolize Tolerance: - able to grow -foreign molecules - either the target enzyme or - altered form of enzyme

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Golden rice contains increased levels of pro-vitamin A . Traditional rice is white (a). The prototype of golden rice was developed in 2000 and is a light yellow color (b). It contains 1.6 mg/g of carotenoid. In 2005, new transgenic lines were developed that dramatically increased the amount of carotenoid synthesized, making the rice a deep golden color (c). This latest form contains 37 mg/g of carotenoid, of which 84% is b-carotene – trial

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Miraculin - taste-modifying protein – miracle fruit, the red berries of Richadella dulcifica - shrub native to West Africa Active principle - protein miraculin - not sweet Unusual property - turn a sour taste into a sweet taste Sour foods - lemons, limes & grapefruit, taste sweet when tasted together with this protein

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Recombinant miraculin - tomatos leaves (102.5) & Fruits(90.7) μg/g fresh weight

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Tomatoes comes in many varieties, colors and shapes Transgenic tomatoes - expressing different malarial antigens Medical hypothesis, 2006

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Normal and mutant tomato fruit high-pigment 1 (hp1/hp1), high-pigment 2 (hp2/hp2), Never-ripe (Nr/Nr), Green-ripe (Gr/Gr), Colorless non-ripening (Cnr/Cnr) & ripening-inhibitor (rin/rin) mutations Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2007, 10:283–28

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Delivery of a corn-based edible vaccine Transgenic corn kernels (a) Corn snack (b) or Embryo or germ cells (c)

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Tearless Onion Dr Eady Crop & Food Research in New Zealand and his collaborators in Japan As onions are sliced, cells are broken, alliinases - break down aa sulphoxides - generate sulphenic acids - unstable - rearrange into a volatile gas - syn-propanethial-S-oxide – diffuses by air - reaches the eye - reacts with the water to form a diluted solution of sulphuric acid - Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant

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http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-514799/The-orange-purple-green-cauliflowers-scientists-claim-healthier-you.html

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Purple tomatoes high in anthocyanins High anthocyanin purple tomato and red wild-type tomato http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7688310.stm

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Prof Cathie Martin from the John Innes Centre Anthocyanins offer protection against certain cancers, cardiovascular disease and age-related degenerative diseases. Anthocyanins also have anti-inflammatory activity, promote visual acuity and hinder obesity and diabetes. Tomatoes already contain high levels of the antioxidant lycopene. Highly processed tomatoes are the best source, or tomatoes cooked in a little oil, which helps to release the lycopene from cells. Flavonoids meanwhile are soluble in water, and foods containing both water soluble and fat-dissolved antioxidants are considered to offer the best protection against disease. In this study the scientists expressed two genes from snapdragon that induce the production of anthocyanins in snapdragon flowers. The genes were turned on in tomato fruit. Anthocyanins accumulated in tomatoes at higher levels than anything previously reported for metabolic engineering in both the peel and flesh of the fruit. The fruit are an intense purple colour. http://www.seedquest.com/News/releases/2008/october/24091.htm

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Biodegradation of explosives (TNT, RDX) Aresa – Danish biotech company - planting tg tabacco plant to detect - Permission from Serbian authorities - Enzymatic detection & destruction 19 strains of Rhodoccus – use RDX as N 2 source Cytochrome p450 system - breakdown

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Biosensor

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World's First Blue Roses On Display In Japan - Danielle Demetriou,  Daily Telegraph, October 31, 2008, See the rose at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/3327043/Worlds-first-blue-roses-on-display-in-Japan.html Tokyo, Japan - World's first blue roses have been unveiled to the public for the first time at an international flower fair in Japan, following nearly two decades of scientific research. The blue-hued blooms are genetically modified and have been implanted with a gene that simulates the synthesis of blue pigment in pansies. Its scientists successfully pioneered implanting into the flowers the gene that produces Delphinidin, the primary plant pigment that produces a blue hue but is not found naturally in roses. The world's first genetically modified blue roses were unveiled in the laboratory four years ago, although further research was required to make them safe to grow in nature. The Blue Rose was developed by Suntory Flowers

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Bozeman, Mont. -- U.S. scientists say a FUNGUS in the Patagonian rainforest might be a new source of biofuels since it produces a number of diesel compounds from cellulose. "This is the only organism that has ever been shown to produce such an important combination of fuel substances," said Montana State University Professor Gary Strobel, making it a better source of biofuels than anything used now. The fungus, Gliocladium roseum , produces various molecules made of hydrogen and carbon that are found in diesel, the researchers said. Because of that, the fuel it produces is called "myco-diesel." "Gliocladium roseum lives inside the Ulmo tree in the Patagonian rainforest," Strobel said. "We were trying to discover totally novel fungi in this tree by exposing its tissues to the volatile ANTIBIOTICS of the fungus Muscodor albus. Quite unexpectedly, G. roseum grew in the presence of these gases when almost all other fungi were killed. "It was also making volatile ANTIBIOTICS . Then when we examined the gas composition of G. roseum, we were totally surprised to learn it was making a plethora of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives," Strobel said." Strobel said the discovery brings into question scientists' knowledge of the way fossil fuels are made. The discovery is reported in the journal Microbiology. The fungus grows inside the Ulmo tree in the temperate Patagonian rainforest of Chile and Argentina. Myco-diesel

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Researcher grows roots on upper part of plant (http://www.uu.nl/EN/Current/Pages/Researchergrowsrootsonupperpartofplant.aspx) Utrecht University (The Netherlands) and Ghent University (Belgium) with help from scientists in Japan, USA and Switzerland. The results of this research appeared as an advance online publication of the weekly science journal Nature on 26 October 2008. Pankaj Dhonukshe discovered a molecular switch to alter the auxin transport. By turning on the switch, Dhonukshe was able to reduce the extent of auxin transport towards the roots. The hormone then began to accumulate at the places in the young leaves where it is produced and roots began to emerge here where normally leaves would grow. The photo on the left shows a normal plant with normal leaves and a root and the photo on the right shows a plant on which root has started to grow at the place of young leaf. The shoot part is shown in orange and the roots in green.

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