sources of energy


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an really interseted about all the sources of energy /......... PRERAK JAIN.............................................


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Here our topics:

Here our topics Solar energy Wind energy Geothermal energy Biomass energy Hydroelectric power plant


SOLAR ENERGY Solar Energy is the energy received from the sun that sustains life on earth. For many decades solar energy has been considered as a huge source of energy and also an economical source of energy because it is freely available.

Solar panels are used to collect energy from the sun.:

Solar panels are used to collect energy from the sun.

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A solar cooker , or solar oven , is a device which uses the energy of sunlight to heat food or drink to cook it or sterilize it. High-tech versions, for example electric ovens powered by solar cells , are possible, and have some advantages such as being able to work in diffuse light. However at present they are very unusual because they are expensive. The vast majority of the solar cookers presently in use are relatively cheap, low-tech devices. 5

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6 Panel solar cookers are very inexpensive solar cookers that use reflective panels to direct sunlight to a cooking pot that is enclosed in a clear plastic bagThe CooKit is considered a low-to-moderate temperature solar cooker, easily reaching temperatures high enough to pasteurize water or cook grains such as rice. On a sunny day, one CooKit can collect enough solar energy to cook rice, meat or vegetables to feed a family with up to three or four children. Larger families use two or more cookers.


WIND POWER Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using: wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage , or sails to propel ships.

Windmills have been used for hundreds of years to grind grain and pump water.:

Windmills have been used for hundreds of years to grind grain and pump water. Wind power, as an alternative to fossil fuels , is plentiful, renewable , widely distributed, clean , produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land. [2] Any effects on the environment are generally less problematic than those from other power sources. As of 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. [3] As of 2010 wind energy was over 2.5% of total worldwide electricity usage, growing at more than 25% per annum. The monetary cost per unit of energy produced is similar to the cost for new coal and natural gas installations. [4] Although wind power is a popular form of energy generation, the construction of wind farms is not universally welcomed due to aesthetics

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Wind is the movement of air across the surface of the Earth, from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. [27] The surface of the Earth is heated unevenly by the Sun, depending on factors such as the angle of incidence of the sun's rays at the surface (which differs with latitude and time of day) and whether the land is open or covered with vegetation. Also, large bodies of water, such as the oceans, heat up and cool down slower than the land. The heat energy absorbed at the Earth's surface is transferred to the air directly above it and, as warmer air is less dense than cooler air, it rises above the cool air to form areas of high pressure and thus pressure differentials. The rotation of the Earth drags the atmosphere around with it causing turbulence. These effects combine to cause a constantly varying pattern of winds across the surface of the Earth. 9

Off shore plant :

Off shore plant Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in large bodies of water to generate electricity. These installations can utilise the more frequent and powerful winds that are available in these locations and have less aesthetic impact on the landscape than land based projects. However, the construction and the maintenance costs are considerably higher. [32] [33] As of 2011, offshore wind farms were at least 3 times more expensive than onshore wind farms of the same nominal power [34] but these costs are expected to fall as the industry matures. 10

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A windmill is a machine which converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. [1] [2] Originally windmills were developed for milling grain for food production. In the course of history the windmill was adapted to many other industrial uses. [3] An important non-milling use is to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater with windpumps . Windmills used for generating electricity are commonly known as wind turbines . 11

Different mills. Images below---- :

Different mills. Images below---- Smock Pos… Hollow post Tower 12

Something more about Smock mill :

Something more about Smock mill The smock mill is a later development of the tower mill where the tower is replaced by a wooden framework, called the "smock." The smock is commonly of octagonal plan, though examples with more, or fewer, sides exist. The smock is thatched, boarded or covered by other materials like slate , sheet metal or tar paper . 13

Geothermal energy. :

Geothermal energy. 14

World wide uses and pottential:

World wide uses and pottential 15

Geothermal positive attributes:

Geothermal positive attributes Useful minerals, such as zinc and silica, can be extracted from underground water. Geothermal energy is “homegrown.” This will create jobs, a better global trading position and less reliance on oil producing countries. US geothermal companies have signed $6 billion worth of contracts to build plants in foreign countries in the past couple of years. In large plants the cost is 4-8 cents per kilowatt hour. This cost is almost competitive with conventional energy sources. 16

Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines thetemperature of matter. The Geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).[1][2] The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots γη (ge), meaning earth, and θερμος (thermos), meaning hot.:

Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The Geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%). [1] [2] The geothermal gradient , which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots γη (ge) , meaning earth, and θερμος (thermos) , meaning hot. 17

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Fluids drawn from the deep earth carry a mixture of gases, notably carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methane (CH 4 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ). These pollutants contribute to global warming , acid rain , and noxious smells if released. Existing geothermal electric plants emit an average of 122 kilograms (270 lb) of CO 2 per megawatt-hour (MW·h) of electricity, a small fraction of the emission intensity of conventional fossil fuel plants. [43] Plants that experience high levels of acids and volatile chemicals are usually equipped with emission-control systems to reduce the exhaust. 18

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Direct geothermal heating systems contain pumps and compressors, which may consume energy from a polluting source. This parasitic load is normally a fraction of the heat output, so it is always less polluting than electric heating. However, if the electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, then the net emissions of geothermal heating may be comparable to directly burning the fuel for heat. For example, a geothermal heat pump powered by electricity from a combined cycle natural gas plant would produce about as much pollution as a natural gas condensing furnace of the same size. [29] Therefore the environmental value of direct geothermal heating applications is highly dependent on the emissions intensity of the neighboring electric grid. 19

Biomass energy.:

Biomass energy. 20 Biomass , as a renewable energy source , is biological material from living, or recently living organisms. [1] As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuel .

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Biomass is carbon, hydrogen and oxygen based. Biomass energy is derived from five distinct energy sources: garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases , and alcohol fuels . Wood energy is derived by using lignocellulosic biomass (second generation biofuels) as fuel. This is either using harvested wood directly as a fuel, or collecting from wood waste streams. The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or “ black liquor ,” a waste product from processes of the pulp, paper and paperboard industry. 21

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Thermal conversion Thermal conversion processes use heat as the dominant mechanism to convert biomass into another chemical form. The basic alternatives of combustion , torrefaction , pyrolysis , and gasification are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed (mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature). There are a number of other less common, more experimental or proprietary thermal processes that may offer benefits such as hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) and hydroprocessing . Some have been developed for use on high moisture content biomass, including aqueous slurries, and allow them to be converted into more convenient forms. Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing . In a typical dedicated biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 7–27% (HHV basis). [11] Biomass cofiring with coal, by contrast, typically occurs at efficiencies near those of the coal combustor (30-40%, HHV basis). [12] 22

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A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel that is more conveniently used, transported or stored, or to exploit some property of the process itself. Many of these processes are based in large part on similar coal-based processes, such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, methanol production, olefins (ethylene and propylene), and similar chemcial or fuel feedstocks. In most cases, the first step involves gasification, which step generally is the most expensive and involves the greatest technical risk. [13] Biomass is more difficult to feed into a pressure vessel than coal or any liquid. Therefore, biomass gasification frequently is done at atmospheric pressure and often involves mainly pyrolysis, as opposed to gasification, which by strict definition involves conversion of char to carbon monoxide and hydrogen. 23

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As biomass is a natural material, many highly efficient biochemical processes have developed in nature to break down the molecules of which biomass is composed, and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed. Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other micro-organisms to break down biomass. In most cases micro-organisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion , fermentation and composting . Other chemical processes such as converting straight and waste vegetable oils into biodiesel is transesterification . [14] Another way of breaking down biomass is by breaking down the carbohydrates and simple sugars to make alcohol. However, this process has not been perfected yet. Scientists are still researching the effects of converting biomass. 25


hydroelectricity 26

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27 Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower ; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy , accounting for 16 percent of global electricity consumption, and 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010, which continues the rapid rate of increase experienced between 2003 and 2009

Pumped storage:

Pumped storage This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Run-of-the-river 28

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Generating.power…. 29

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A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatchable to generate power during high demand periods. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels . 30

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Disadv antages:

Disadv antages Large reservoirs required for the operation of hydroelectric power stations result in submersion of extensive areas upstream of the dams, destroying biologically rich and productive lowland and riverine valley forests, marshland and grasslands. The loss of land is often exacerbated by habitat fragmentation of surrounding areas caused by the reservoir. [19] Hydroelectric projects can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems both upstream and downstream of the plant site. For instance, studies have shown that dams along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America have reduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawning grounds upstream, even though most dams in salmon habitat have fish ladders installed. Salmon spawn are also harmed on their migration to sea when they must pass through turbines . Turbine and power-plant designs that are easier on aquatic life are an active area of research. Mitigation measures such as fish ladders may be required at new projects or as a condition of re-licensing of existing projects. 32



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