community health nursing approaches

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Community Health Nursing Approaches :

Community Health Nursing Approaches PRESENTED BY:- Ms. ANUMOL TOMY MSc NURSING 1 st YEAR STUDENT

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To accomplish community health goals and its aims the following approaches are to be utilized by community health professionals:- 1)persuasive approach 2)enforcement 3)team approach 4)community involvement 5)Intersectorial approach

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PERSUASIVE APPROACH Persuasive approach implies convincing people through dialogue and educate them to change or modify their health behaviour.

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2)ENFORCEMENT The enforcement implies the use of more coercive measures such as use of legislation e.g. prohibition of drug abuse ,child abuse, immunization as a condition to school admission etc.

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3)TEAM APPROACH Community health is a problem solving process and a team approach is very necessary to deal with varied and complex health needs & problems at large. It is just not possible for any one profession or discipline to provide such care.

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4)COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT Health of the individuals living in a defined community is not only their "right' but also their "responsibility" to take care of their own health & als of the community at large. Without people's help ,participation or cooperation, it is neither possible to make health care services accessible & acceptable to them nor it is feasible to achieve community health goals and aims.

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5 )INTERSECTORIAL APPROACH Health of people at large cannot be attained by health sector alone because there are many factors which affect people's health but they are not under thr purview of the health sector e.g food production and distribution,water,sanitation,housing,environmental protection and education etc.Each one is dealt by seperate sector and socio economic development & health.

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EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE Evidence-based practice (EBP) "entails making decisions about how to promote health or provide care by integrating the best available evidence with practitioner expertise and other resources, and with the characteristics, state, needs, values and preferences of those who will be affected. This is done in a manner that is compatible with the environmental and organizational context. Evidence is comprised of research findings derived from the systematic collection of data through observation and experiment and the formulation of questions and testing of hypotheses

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EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH Epidemiological analysis & measurement allow researchers to measure health status & measurement of disease occurrences in a population. These data can be in turn used to estimate the magnitude of health problems in the community, detect epidemics & understand natural history of a disease or detect potienal emerging infectious disease threats.Another use of this approach is case finding to identify health status of people who are at risk.

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NURSING PROCESS The nursing process is a modified scientific method. Nursing practise was first described as a four stage  nursing process  by Ida Jean Orlando in 1958,. It should not be confused with nursing theories or Health informatics. The diagnosis phase was added later.

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Phases of the nursing process The nursing process is goal-oriented method of caring that provides a framework to nursing care. It involves five major steps: A  - Assess (what data is collected?) D  - Diagnose (what is the patient’s problem) P  - Plan (how to manage the problem) I  - Implement (putting plan into action) E  - Evaluate (did the plan work?)

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. COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING THEORIES The theories enable community nurse to use already developed ideas to guide & strength their work with programs. 1)META THEORY It provides broad description & explanation of general happening in the world.these theory help the nurse understand & transform the underlying ideas & responses that support the social construction of inquities

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a) Caring theory Listening,caring,authenicity,respect & imagination comprises caring practice.This theory is relevant in community program as in individual & family care. Community health nurses are commissioned to provide care in the ways that maintain dignity & respect ,knowing the way that will vary for different people. b) PHENOMENOLOGICAL THEORY Enables nurses to understand the people’s lived experience within context of culture,time & place . c)FEMINIST THEORY This theory is intended to create knowledge to improve women’s lives. d)CRITICAL THEORY Aims to provide a full understanding of social & philosophical contexts surrounding mental health issues.

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2)TRANSTHEORTICAL & RELAPSE PREVENTION The nurse will encounter many programs aimed towards individual change.In transtheortical change model-the individual moves from not thinking about the change in the near future to seriously thinking about the change.In relapse prevention model,relapse is common in health behaviour change programmer needs to prepare individuals for the possibility of relapse.

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3)DIFFUSION THEORY It theory explains the way that information & change spread through population unevenly.Diffusion processes are enhanced when people are aware of the advances of the change

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NEUMAN’S THEORY(1972) Stress reduction is goal of systems model of nursing practice.nursing actions are in primary,secondary & tertiary level of prevention.

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THANK YOU

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