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Types of Research Design : Types of Research Design Three traditional categories of research design: Exploratory Descriptive Causal The choice of the most appropriate design depends largely on the objectives of the research and how much is known about the problem and these objectives. Research Design: Some Observations : Research Design: Some Observations The overall research design for a project may include one or more of these three designs as part(s) of it. Further, if more than one design is to be used, typically we progress from Exploratory toward Causal. Basic Research Objectives and Research Design : Research Objective Appropriate Design To gain background information, to define terms, to clarify Exploratory problems and develop hypotheses, to establish research priorities, to develop questions to be answered To describe and measure any phenomena at a point Descriptive in time To determine causality, test hypotheses, to make “if-then” Causal statements, to answer questions Basic Research Objectives and Research Design Research Design: Exploratory Research : Research Design: Exploratory Research Exploratory research is most commonly unstructured, “informal” research that is undertaken to gain background information about the general nature of the research problem. Exploratory research is usually conducted when the researcher does not know much about the problem and needs additional information or desires new or more recent information. Research Design: Exploratory Research : Research Design: Exploratory Research Exploratory research is used in a number of situations: To gain background information To define terms To clarify problems and hypotheses To establish research priorities Research Design: Exploratory Research : Research Design: Exploratory Research A variety of methods are available to conduct exploratory research: Secondary Data Analysis Experience Surveys Case Analysis Focus Groups Projective Techniques Research Design: Descriptive Research : Research Design: Descriptive Research Descriptive research is undertaken to provide answers to questions of who, what, where, when, and how – but not why. Two basic classifications: Cross-sectional studies Longitudinal studies Research Design: Descriptive ResearchCross-sectional Studies : Research Design: Descriptive ResearchCross-sectional Studies Cross-sectional studies measure units from a sample of the population at only one point in time. Sample surveys are cross-sectional studies whose samples are drawn in such a way as to be representative of a specific population. Research Design: Descriptive ResearchLongitudinal Studies : Research Design: Descriptive ResearchLongitudinal Studies Longitudinal studies repeatedly draw sample units of a population over time. One method is to draw different units from the same sampling frame. A second method is to use a “panel” where the same people are asked to respond periodically. On-line survey research firms recruit panel members to respond to online queries. Research Design: Causal Research : Research Design: Causal Research Causality may be thought of as understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements of the form “If x, then y.” Causal relationships are typically determined by the use of experiments, but other methods are also used. Slide 13: THAT WAS ALL ABOUT THE RESEARCH DESIGNS USED BY RESEARCHERS FOR PROBLEM SOLVING………… Slide 14: THANKS & REGARDS You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.