viral vaccine prodution (2)

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Viral Vaccine Production $ Application: 

Presented by – ROLL NO.21 MSC(P) Viral Vaccine Production $ Application Prawin jha

CONTENTS: 

CONTENTS MILESTONE $ HISTRICAL BACKGROUND PREPARATION OF VACCINES :FACTORS REQUIRED $ CHALLENGES DESIGNING A NEW VACCINE TYPES OF VACCINE NEW VACCINE TECHNOLOGY Vaccines production in india VACCINES CURRENT USE $ FUTURE PROSPECTS references

MILESTONE : 

MILESTONE

Preparation Of Vaccines factors required and challenges.: 

Preparation Of Vaccines factors required and challenges . Vaccines must be safe, efficacious, $ practical. Must evoke protective levels of immunity at appropriate sites The fundamental challenge now is to capitalize on the discoveries in molecular virology to make more effective $ safe vaccine Critical point is that which branch of immunity is activated: HUMORAL OR CELL MEDIATED Readily culture in bulk or accessible source of subunit S table under extreme climatic condition and cost effective specially in developing countries .

TYPES OF VACCINE: 

TYPES OF VACCINE Live whole virus vaccines Killed whole virus vaccines Subunit vaccines;- purified or recombinant viral antigen Recombinant virus vaccines DNA vaccines

LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES : 

LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES VARICELLA VACCINE MMR VACCINE

, : 

, Live Attenuated viral vaccines :- Loses pathogenicity but retain their capacity for transient growth within in a inoculated host. Achieved by growing virus for prolonged periods under abnormal culture conditions.eg. BCG on increasing conc. of bile for 13 years, polio Salk vaccine in monkey kidney epithelial cells, MEASLES vaccine contain a strain of rubella virus that was grown in duck embryo cells These attenuated mutants are good vaccine candidates because they no longer grow in natural host, but replicate enough to stimulate immune response.

LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES: 

LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES ADVANTAGES Because of their capacity of transient growth provide prolonged immune system to the individual epitopes on the attenuated organisms resulting in a increased immunogenicity $ memory cells. Eliminating the need for repeated boosters. They can lead to elimination of wild type virus from the community DISADVANTAGES Mutation-This may lead to reversion to virulence Live viruses are a problem in immunodeficiency disease patients Spread of the vaccine virus that is not standardized and may be mutated

An attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis called BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin ) was developed as :-: 

An attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis called BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin ) was developed as :- Growing M. bovis on a medium containing Increasing conc. Of bile After 13 years Strain had adapted to grow with Increased bile conc. $ had become Sufficiently attenuated Used as vaccine For tuberculosis

TYPES OF LIVE ATTENUATED VIRAL VACCINE: 

TYPES OF LIVE ATTENUATED VIRAL VACCINE Two types :- Modified Live Viral Vaccines Recombinant Live Viral Vaccines 7 10

Modified Live Viral Vaccines: 

Modified Live Viral Vaccines These can be produced by changing the habitat or culture conditions of pathogen. i.e. culturing in other than normal host or under adverse temp., pH conditions etc. e.g. Poliovirus strain in monkey kidney cells Now select out mutants , that are better suited to growth in abnormal culture conditions therfore less capable of growth in natural host which can be used as vaccines in their natural host. Temp. sensitive, $ cold adapted mutants are often less pathogenic than parental virus.

Modified Live viral vaccines: 

Modified Live viral vaccines ADVANTAGES Evokes humoral $ cell mediated immune responses. Induces a rapid onset of immunity. Immunity lasts longer. Protects with one dose in susceptible hosts. Easy to administer. DISADVANTAGES Secondary mutation can cause a reversion to virulence. Can cause severe complications in immunocompromised patients. Can be difficult to transport due to requirement to maintain conditions (e.g. temperature)

Recombinant Live Viral Vaccines: 

Recombinant Live Viral Vaccines These vaccines are prepared by using Recombinant DNA technology. Now viral genomes can be cloned, sequenced $ synthesized. Their genetic information can be analyzed using standard lab. Organisms, cultured cells $ animals. Viral genes required for pathogenesis in model systems can be identified in systematic fashion. The first such recombinant vaccine approved for human use is Hepatitis B Vaccine. This vaccine is prepared by cloning the gene for antigen of this virus in yeast cells. HERPES VIRUS vaccine virus for pigs by removal of TK genes.

2. Inactivated or Killed virus vaccine: 

2. Inactivated or Killed virus vaccine Inactivated vaccine are prepared by isolating virions of the virulent virus $ inactivate them by physical or chemical procedures. e.g. with formalin or B -propriolacton. These treatments eliminate the infectivity of the virus, but don't compromise the antigenicity. e.g. are poliomyelitis(Salk) ,influenza vaccine ,rabies vaccine ,hepatitis A,Rabies .

Advantages of Killed viral vaccines: 

Advantages of Killed viral vaccines ADVANTAGES The risk of infection is very low if inactivation is efficient. It can be used safely on people whose immune systems are compromised by chemotherapy for cancer. Stability and ease of storage and transport. DISADVANTAGES Since the virus cannot multiply, a large no. of virions are required to stimulate immunity. Periodic boosters must be given to maintain immunity. Only humoral immunity can be induced. Administrated by injections

INFLUENZA VIRUS : 

INFLUENZA VIRUS STRUCTURE & SURFACE Ag VACCINE : FLUSHOT

INACTIVATED INFLUENZA VIRUS VACCINE: 

INACTIVATED INFLUENZA VIRUS VACCINE Each of three strains are produced separately in millions of chicken eggs(two influenza A virus $ one influenza B ) Each production batch of vaccine is incubated in eggs for several days to allow the virus to multiply. The virus loaded fluid is then harvested from the eggs. Virus loaded fluid undergoes multiple purification steps $ chemical treatment to inactivate $ split the virus.

CONTINUED…: 

CONTINUED… The influenza vaccine , also known as a flu shot , is an annual vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus . Each injected seasonal influenza vaccine contains three influenza viruses: one influenza type A subtype H3N2 virus strain , one influenza type A subtype H1N1 (seasonal) virus strain, and one influenza type B virus strain. A quadrivalent flu vaccine administered by nasal mist(flu mist) was approved by the FDA in March 2012. A TRIVALENT FLUSHOT H3N2 HINI B

Comparison of attenuated (live), inactivated (killed), and DNA vaccines: 

Comparison of attenuated (live), inactivated (killed), and DNA vaccines Characteristic Attenuated vaccine Inactivated vaccine DNA vaccine Production Selection for virulent organisms: Viral human pathogen is grown under adverse culture conditions or prolonged passage of a virulent human pathogen through different hosts inactivated by Easily manufactured virulent pathogen is grown under chemicals or irradiation with –gamma rays Easily manufactured and purified. Booster requirement Generally requires only a single booster Requires multiple boosters Single injection may suffice Relative stability Less stable More stable Highly stable Type of immunity induced Humeral and cell-mediated Mainly humeral Humoral and cell-mediated Reversion tendency Cannot revert to virulent form Cannot revert to virulent form Cannot revert

SUBUNIT VACCINES: 

SUBUNIT VACCINES TOXOIDS,POLYSACCHRIDE CAPSULES,VIRAL GLYCOPROTEINS,SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES,CONJUGATE VACCINES,MULTIVALENT SUBUNIT VACCINES Although most obvious would be those present on virion surfaces, in fact any viral protein could be a target. e.g. hepatitis B vaccine $ influenza vaccines have been prepared successfully.

HEPATITIS B VACCINE: 

HEPATITIS B VACCINE Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine developed for the prevention of hepatitis B virus infection . The vaccine contains one of the viral envelope proteins , hepatitis B surface antigen ( HBsAg ). It is produced by yeast cells, into which the genetic code for HBsAg has been inserted. A course of three (3) vaccine injections are given with the second injection at least one month after the first dose and the third injection given six months after the first dose .

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Afterward an immune system antibody to HBsAg is established in the bloodstream. The antibody is known as anti-HBsAg . This antibody and immune system memory then provide immunity to hepatitis B infection.

New Vaccine Technology : 

New Vaccine Technology Recombinant–vector vaccine:- Genomes of nonpathogenic viruses can be constructed to make selected viral proteins that can immunize a host against the pathogenic virus. Genes that encode major antigens are introduced into attenuated viruses. Later serves as a vector , replicating within the host $ expressing the gene product of pathogen. A no. of organisms have been used for vector vaccine including vaccinia virus, attenuated poliovirus , adenoviruses etc.

DNA VACCINES: 

DNA VACCINES DNA vaccines are the newest vaccines and are still experimental, although they seem to be very effective and their safety record is good. Like recombinant vaccines genes for the desired antigens are located and cloned. DNA is injected in to muscles of animal being vaccinated, usually with the gene gun. Some muscle cells express the pathogen DNA to stimulate the immune system. Both cellular and humoral immunity is induced by DNA vaccines.

ADVANTAGES OF DNA VACCINES: 

ADVANTAGES OF DNA VACCINES Encoded protein expressed in its natural form Prolonged expression –generates immunological memory Easy to administrate and delivery ,refrigeration is not required

HIV VIRUS VACCINE: 

HIV VIRUS VACCINE

ANTI- HIV DRUGS AND ITS TARGET SITES : 

ANTI- HIV DRUGS AND ITS TARGET SITES REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS e.g. ZIDOVUDINE ,ABACIR ,TINOFIR PROTEASE INHIBITOR e.g. NEVIRAPINE ,RITONAVIR FUSION INHIBITOR e.g. Enfuviritide(Fuzeon,T-20) VaxGENS AIDS VAX-recombinant form of gp120 MERCK’S ADJ HIV-gag/pol/nef TRIVALENT VACCINE

VACCINE PRODUCTION IN INDIA: 

VACCINE PRODUCTION IN INDIA PASTEUR INSTITUTE OF INDIA (COONOOR) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF VIROLOGY (PUNE) NATIONAL AIDS RESEARCH INSTITUTE (PUNE) DPT VACCINE,VERO-CELL DERIVED VACCINE & TISSUE CULTURE ANTI RABIES VACCINE H5NI / SWINE HINI ,JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS,HEPATITIS E ,AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINE tgAA009 .THIS IS A VACCINE FOR IMMUNOSUPPRESSED PATIENT TO PROTECT AGINST HIV

Viral vaccines and antivirals: current use and future prospects. : 

Viral vaccines and antivirals: current use and future prospects. The evolution of viral vaccines from the time of Jennerian prophylaxis to today's recombinant technology has been a continuing story of success. From the relatively crude or "first generation" vaccines for smallpox, rabies, and yellow fever followed a second and third generation of improved or new viral vaccines. The new biotechnology serves as the cornerstone for a fourth generation of vaccines and has already provided a licensed recombinant yeast human hepatitis B vaccine. To design an effective HIV vaccine.

References: 

References Kuby J. (1997), Immunology,6 th Edition,( page no.454-460) , W.H.Freeman & Co.,New York Roitt . I.M.(1996), Essential Immunology, 4 th Edition,(page no.19.1-19.6) Oxford Black Well Science, London . Googles images and wikipedia www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub med