Handling & Disposal of Transformer Oil

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Handling and Disposal of Transformer Oil containing PCBs

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TRANSFORMER OILEnvironmental Effects, Safe Handling, & Safe Disposal : 

TRANSFORMER OILEnvironmental Effects, Safe Handling, & Safe Disposal Pravin M. Jadhav. Email: praveenmjadhav@gmail.com

TRANSFORMERS : 

TRANSFORMERS Tranformers consist of: ► an outer iron casing; ► a magnetic steel core (flat platelets assembled together); ► copper coils, which are covered by an insulating layer of either a resin or paper; ► variously shaped wood struts (these are porous and can absorb the dielectric oil); and ► the dielectric oil. ► There are variations in the type of structures of transformers and some other metals cansometimes also be found, for example aluminium.

CAPACITORS : 

CAPACITORS Capacitors consists of: ► Thin metal surfaces (foils) in two coils ► Di-electric fluid ► Outer contacts ► Closed casing

Transformer Oil : 

Transformer Oil The oil helps cool the transformer. Because it also provides part of the electrical insulation between internal live parts, transformer oil must remain stable at high temperatures over an extended period. To improve cooling of large power transformers, the oil-filled tank may have external radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Very large or high-power transformers (with capacities of millions of watts) may also have cooling fans, oil pumps, and even oil-to-water heat exchangers.

PCBs based oil : 

PCBs based oil PCBs are among the most stable organic chemicals known. Their low dielectric constant and high boiling point make them ideal for use as dielectric fluids in electrical capacitors and transformers. In summary, PCBs have: low dielectric constant; low volatility; good fire resistance; low water solubility; high solubility in organic solvents; and good ageing properties, with no deterioration in service.

PCBs : 

PCBs PCBs are a family of organic chemicals consisting of two benzene rings linked by a carbon carbon bond. Chlorine atoms are substituted on any or all of the ten remaining available sites. The number and position of these chlorine atoms determines the classification and properties of the different molecules.

PCBs : 

PCBs C6H3Cl2C6H2Cl3

PCBs : 

PCBs 1,1'-Biphenyl, chloro derivs Arochlor 1254 Aroclor Aroclor 1242 Aroclor 1254 Aroclor(R) 1242 Aroclor(R) 1254 Biphenyl, polychloro- Chlophen Chlorextol Chlorierte biphenyle, chlorgehalt 54% Chlorierte biphenyle, chlorgehalt 54% (German) Chlorinated biphenyl Chlorinated diphenyl Chlorinated diphenylene Chloro 1,1-biphenyl Chloro 1,1-biphenyl- Chloro biphenyl Chlorodiphenyl (42 percent chlorine) Chlorodiphenyl (54 percent chlorine) Chlorodiphenyl (54% chlorine) Chlorodiphenyl (54% Cl) Clophen Clophen A 60 Clorodifenili, cloro 54% Clorodifenili, cloro 54% (Italian) Diphenyle chlore, 54% de chlore Diphenyle chlore, 54% de chlore (French) Dykanol EPA Pesticide Chemical Code: 017801 Fenclor Fenclor 42 Inerteen Kanechlor Kanechlor 300 Kanechlor 400 Montar Monter Noflamol PCB PCB 1254 PCB's PCBs Phenochlor Phenoclor Polychlorinated biphenyl Polychlorinated biphenyl (aroclor 1254) Polychlorinated biphenyl 1254 Polychlorinated biphenyls Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs) Polychlorobiphenyl Polychlorobiphenyls Pyralene Pyranol Santotherm Santotherm fr Sovol Therminol Therminol fr-1

PCBs : 

PCBs The volatility of the different molecules varies with the degree of chlorination. In general, congeners with a low chlorine content are free flowing liquids, becoming more viscous and less volatile as the chlorine content increases.

Disadvantages of PCBs : 

Disadvantages of PCBs However, the disadvantages of PCB fluids are now seen as considerable, since they are: • non-biodegradable; • persistent in the environment; • able to accumulate in fatty tissues in the body; and • suspected of being carcinogenic

Trade Names of Transformer Oil : 

Trade Names of Transformer Oil APIROLIO (Italy) AROCLOR (U.K., U.S.A.) ASBESTOL (U.S.A) ASKAREL (U.K., U.S.A.) BAKOLA 131 (U.S.A.) CHLOREXTOL (U.S.A.) CLOPHEN (Germany) DELOR (Czechoslovakia) DK (Italy) DIACLOR (U.S.A.) DYKANOL (U.S.A.) ELEMEX (U.S.A.) FENCLOR (Italy) HYDOL (U.S.A.) INTERTEEN (U.S.A.) KANECLOR (Japan) NOFLAMOL (U.S.A.) PHENOCLOR (France) PYRALENE (France) PYRANOL (U.S.A.) PYROCLOR (U.K.) SAFT-KUHL (U.S.A.) SOVOL (U.S.S.R.) SOVTOL (U.S.S.R.)

The effects of PCBs on humans : 

The effects of PCBs on humans leading to failure of kidneys and other human organs; producing headaches, sickness, etc., if inhaled; and causing chlor-acne if absorbed through the skin.

Effects : 

Effects Studies of PCBs in humans have found increased rates of melanomas, liver cancer, gall bladder cancer, biliary tract cancer, gastrointestinal tract cancer, and brain cancer, and may be linked to breast cancer. PCBs are known to cause a variety of types of cancer in rats, mice, and other study animals.

Acute toxic effects. : 

Acute toxic effects. People exposed directly to high levels of PCBs, either via the skin, by consumption, or in the air, have experienced irritation of the nose and lungs, skin irritations such as severe acne (chloracne) and rashes, and eye problems.

Chronic Effects : 

Chronic Effects Women exposed to PCBs before or during pregnancy can give birth to children with significant neurological problems, including lowered IQ and poor short-term memory.

Effects on Harmone : 

Effects on Harmone PCBs with only a few chlorine atoms can mimic the body´s natural hormones, especially estrogen. Women who consumed PCB-contaminated fish from Lake Ontario were found to have shortened menstrual cycles. PCBs are also thought to play a role in reduced sperm counts, altered sex organs, premature puberty, and changed sex ratios of children. More highly-chlorinated PCBs (with more chlorine atoms) act like dioxins in altering the metabolism of sex steroids in the body, changing the normal levels of estrogens and testosterone. PCBs tend to change in the body and in the environment from more highly-chlorinated to lower-chlorinated forms, increasing their estrogenic effects.

Examples : 

Examples

IDENTIFICATION OF PCB OILS : 

IDENTIFICATION OF PCB OILS It is important to identify accurately PCB fluids in capacitors and transformers. The analysis of these substances is generally done in a laboratory using various types of chromatography: packed column gas chromatography; thin layer liquid chromatography; and high performance liquid chromatography.

Rapid Identification Test Method : 

Rapid Identification Test Method Density test. Chlorine test

Health And Safety : 

Health And Safety Wear full protective clothing, i. e. • one-piece chemical resistant suit; • chemical resistant gloves; • boots, or disposable covers for shoes; • fully approved face breathing mask, with a positive air flow from remote air compressor or bottles; and • a full face mask with Type • a full face mask with Type "CC' replacement canister can be used for low lever exposure.

Type of cooling. : 

Type of cooling. Any of the following or their abbreviations indicates a fluid other than transformer oil: • Liquid Natural Cooling (LN) • Liquid Natural Air Natural Cooling (LNAN) • Synthetic Natural Cooling (SN) In principle these transformers do not contain PCB oils.

Symptoms of PCB : 

Symptoms of PCB The symptoms of PCB exposure are chloracne, eye irritation, drowsiness, headaches and a sore throat.

What to Do? : 

What to Do? • if PCBs come into contact with eyes, immediately irrigate eyes with water for at least 15 minutes and obtain medical attention. • if PCBs come into contact with skin, immediately remove any contaminated clothing and wash affected skin with soap and water. • if swallowed, wash out mouth several times with clean water, drink water, and obtain medical attention. • if inhaled, move to a fresh air zone and obtain medical attention.

Methods of disposal : 

Methods of disposal World-wide a number of methodologies are used for Transformers PCB based oil disposal. ► INCINERATION ► DECHLORINATION PROCESSES ► GAS PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION (GPCR), ► GPC PROCESS BASE CATALYSED DECOMPOSITION (BCD) ► SODIUM REDUCTION ► SUPER-CRITICAL WATER OXIDATION (SCWO) ► PLASMA ARC ► PYROLYSIS ► MOLTEN SALT OXIDATION ► SOLVATED ELECTRON TECHNOLOGY

Method Of Disposal : 

Method Of Disposal High-temperature incineration with Air Pollution Control System Link to TSDF Incinerator Photo & Secured Landfill Basics Concept Presentation

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