Seminar Presentation on Nuclear Batteries

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Seminar Presentation on + NUCLEAR BATTERY - A Portable Energy Source:

Seminar Presentation on + NUCLEAR BATTERY - A Portable Energy Source By : Pratik Patil Guide : Prof. B. N. Patil Electrical & Electronics Department, Angadi Institute of Technology and Management, Belgaum

Contents:

Contents Why Nuclear Battery? Historical Developments Understanding the terms used. Energy Production Mechanism Fuel Considerations Applications Advantages Disadvantages Conclusion References

Q. Why Nuclear Battery ???:

Q. Why Nuclear Battery ? ??

Answer::

Answer: Chemical batteries require frequent replacements and are bulky. Fuel and Solar cells are expensive and requires sunlight respectively. Need for compact, reliable, light weight and long life power supplies. Nuclear Battery uses emissions from radioisotope to generate electricity so there is no fear of hazardous radiations. Nuclear batteries have lifespan up to decades. Can be used in easily inaccessible and extreme conditions and reduce the rate of replacements.

Historical Developments:

H istorical Developments The idea of nuclear battery was introduced in the beginning of 1950, and was patented on March 3 rd , 1959 to Tracer lab. A radio isotope electric power system was developed by inventor Paul Brown which was a scientific break through in nuclear power. Brown’s first prototype power cell produced 100,000 times as much energy per gram of strontium -90(the energy source) than the most powerful thermal battery yet in existence .

Understanding the terms used:

Understanding the terms used Radiations Alpha - These are fast moving helium atoms . They have high energy, typically in the MeV range. They also are magnetic in nature Beta - These are fast moving electrons. They typically have energies in the range of a few hundred keV to several MeV . Gamma - These are photons, just like light, except of much higher energy. Radioisotopes Radioisotopes are artificially produced, unstable atoms of a chemical element, which have a different number of neutrons in the nucleus, but the same number of protons and the same chemical properties.

ENERGY PRODUCTION MECHANISM :

ENERGY PRODUCTION MECHANISM 1. Betavoltaics Betavoltaics is an alternative energy technology that promises vastly extended battery life and power density over current technologies. Uses energy from beta particles. Beta particles emitted by radioactive gas is captured in Silicon wafer coated with diode material. It is similar to the mechanics of converting sunlight into electricity in a solar panel. Absorbed radiation creates electron-hole pair which in turn results in the generation of electric current.

Representation of basic beta voltaic conversion :

Representation of basic beta voltaic conversion Electrode A (P-region) has a positive potential while electrode B (N-region) is negative.

2. direct charging generators:

2. direct charging generators Summary This method makes use of kinetic energy as well as the magnetic property of Alpha particles to generate current. It consists of a core composed of radioactive elements. Primary generator consists of a LC tank circuit. LC circuit produces the oscillations required for transformer operation.

PowerPoint Presentation:

1 – Capacitor 2 – Inductor 3 – Core with radioactive elements 4 – Transformer T primary winding 5 – Resistance 6 _ Secondary winding 7 _ Load Schematic Diagram of an LC Resonant Circuit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Equivalent Circuit diagram of Direct Charging Generator:

Equivalent Circuit diagram of Direct Charging Generator 1 – Capacitor 2 – Inductor 3 – Core with radioactive elements 4 – Transformer T primary winding 6 _ Secondary winding 7 _ Load Load

FUEL CONSIDERATIONS:

F UEL C ONSIDERATIONS The major criterions considered in the selection of fuels are: Avoidance of gamma in the decay chain Half life( Should be more) Cost should be less. Any radioisotope in the form of a solid that gives off alpha or beta particles can be utilized in the nuclear battery. The most powerful source of energy known is radium-226. However Strontium-90 may also be used in this Battery

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A PPLICATIONS 1. Space applications : Unaffected by long period of darkness and radiation belts like Van-Allen belt. Compact and lighter in weight. Can avoid refrigeration/heating equipments required for storage batteries. High power for long time independent of atmospheric conditions. NASA is trying to harness this technology in space applications.

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2. Medical applications : In Cardiac pacemakers. Batteries should have reliability and longevity to avoid frequent replacements. 3. Mobile devices : Nuclear powered laptop battery Xcell -N has 7000-8000 times more life than normal laptop batteries. 4. Automobiles No need for frequent recharging as in case of present electric vehicles. 5. Under-water sea probes and sea sensors A PPLICATIONS

ADVANTAGES:

A DVANTAGES Life span- minimum of 10 years. Reliable electricity. Amount of energy obtained is very high. Lighter with high energy density. Less waste generation. Reduces green house and associated effects Fuel used is the nuclear waste from nuclear fission.

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D RAWBACKS High initial cost of production as its in the experimental stage Regional and country-specific laws regarding use and disposal of radioactive fuels. To gain social acceptance.

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C ONCLUSION Small compact devices of future require small batteries. Nuclear batteries increase functionality, reliability and longevity. Until final disposal all Radiation Protection Standards must be met. Batteries of the near future.

References:

References http://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/renewables/the-daintiest-dynamos http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_battery http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2050039,00.html http://www.seminarsonly.com/electrical%20&%20electronics/Nuclear%20Batteries.php

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