Corruption

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History FA-II Corruption – Road To hell Presented by :- A©PhG Pvt.Ltd Production Prashul

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Index Introduction Corruption - Road To hell Work of corruption Types Of Corruption Effect’s Of Corruption Anti-Corruption Efforts

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The word corrupt (Middle English, from Latin corruptus) when used as an adjective literally means "utterly broken“. In modern English usage the words corruption and corrupt have many meanings. Political corruption: the abuse of public power, office, or resources by government officials or employees for personal gain, e.g. by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes. Introduction

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Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties. Corruption – A road to Hell

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Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, patronage, graft, and embezzlement. While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering, and human trafficking, it is not restricted to these activities. The activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the country or jurisdiction. For instance, certain political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. In some cases, government officials have broad or poorly defined powers, which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions. Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually.A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy, literally meaning "rule by thieves". Work Of Corruption

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Bribery Governmental corruction of judiciary Trading in influence Patronage Nepotism and cronyism Electoral fraud Embezzlement Kickbacks Unholy alliance Involvement in organized crime Types Of Corruption

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A bribe is a payment given personally to a government official in exchange of his use of official powers.  Bribery requires two participants: one to give the bribe, and one to take it. Either may initiate the corrupt offering; for example, a customs official may demand bribes to let through allowed (or disallowed) goods, or a smuggler might offer bribes to gain passage. In some countries the culture of corruption extends to every aspect of public life, making it extremely difficult for individuals to stay in business without resorting to bribes. Bribes may be demanded in order for an official to do something he is already paid to do. Bribery

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Governmental corruction of judiciary includes governmental spending on the courts, which is completely financially controlled by the executive in many transitional and developing countries. This undermines the principle of checks and balances and creates a critical financial dependence on the judiciary. It covers latent governmental spending on the judiciary in the form of privileges – cars, country houses, expenses. Such a system is completely outside the realm of transparency and creates a precedent for the corruption of the judiciary by executive authorities. Governmental Corruction Of Judiciary

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Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. Acts of fraud affect vote counts to bring about an election result, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both. Also called voter fraud, the mechanisms involved include illegal voter registration, intimidation at polls, and improper vote counting. Electoral Frauds

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Embezzlement is outright theft of entrusted funds. It is a misappropriation of property. Another common type of embezzlement is that of entrusted government resources; for example, when a director of a public enterprise employs company workers to build or renovate his own house. Embezzlement

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A kickback is an official's share of misappropriated funds allocated from his or her organization to an organization involved in corrupt bidding. Kickbacks

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An unholy alliance is a coalition among seemingly antagonistic groups, especially if one is religious,[] for ad hoc or hidden gain. Like patronage, unholy alliances are not necessarily illegal, but unlike patronage, by its deceptive nature and often great financial resources, an unholy alliance can be much more dangerous to the public interest. An early, well-known use of the term was by Theodore Roosevelt Unholy Alliance

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Effects on politics, administration, and institutions Economic effects Environmental and social effects Effects on Humanitarian Aid Other areas: health, public safety, education, trade unions, etc. Effect Of Corruption

Effects on politics, administration, and institutions : 

Effects on politics, administration, and institutions Corruption poses a serious development challenge. In the political realm, it undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or even subverting formal processes. Corruption inelections and in legislative bodies reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking; corruption in the judiciary compromises the rule of law; and corruption in public administration results in the inefficient provision of services.

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Corruption undermines economic development by generating considerable distortions and inefficiency. In the private sector, corruption increases the cost of business through the price of illicit payments themselves, the management cost of negotiating with officials, and the risk of breached agreements or detection. Although some claim corruption reduces costs by cutting red tape, the availability of bribes can also induce officials to contrive new rules and delays. Economic effects

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Corruption facilitates environmental destruction. Corrupt countries may formally have legislation to protect the environment, it cannot be enforced if officials can easily be bribed. The same applies to social rights worker protection, unionization prevention, and child labor. Violation of these laws rights enables corrupt countries to gain illegitimate economic advantage in the international market. Environmental and social effects

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The scale of humanitarian aid to the poor and unstable regions of the world grows, but it is highly vulnerable to corruption, with food aid, construction and other highly valued assistance as the most at risk. Food aid can be directly and physically diverted from its intended destination, or indirectly through the manipulation of assessments, targeting, registration and distributions to favor certain groups or individuals. Elsewhere, in construction and shelter, there are numerous opportunities for diversion and profit through substandard workmanship, kickbacks for contracts and favoritism in the provision of valuable shelter material.[ Effects on Humanitarian Aid

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Right to information act Ombudsmen Computerization Whistleblowers Creation of Anti-Corruption Police and Courts Private sector initiatives Anti-corruption effort

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The Right to Information Act (2005) and equivalent acts in the states, that require government officials to furnish information requested by citizens or face punitive action, computerisation of services and various central and state government acts that established vigilance commissions have considerably reduced corruption or at least have opened up avenues to redress grievances. Right to information act

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The LokAyukta is an anti-government corruption organization in the Indian states. These institutions are based on the Ombudsman in Scandinavian countries. An amendment to the Constitution has been proposed to implement the Lokayukta uniformly across Indian States as a three-member body, headed by a retired Supreme Court judge or high court chief justice, and comprise of the state vigilance commissioner and a jurist or an eminent administrator as other members Ombudsmen

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Bhoomi is a project jointly funded by the Government of India and the Government of Karnataka to digitize the paper land records and create a software mechanism to control changes to the land registry in Karnataka. The project was designed to eliminate the long-standing problem of inefficiency and corruption. Introduction of smart cards for vehicle registration and drivers licenses by Karnataka Regional Transport Organization. Enforcement automation of traffic violations by Bangalore Traffic Police Computerization

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Whistleblowers play a major role in the fight against corruption. India currently does not have a law to protect whistleblowers, which was highlighted by the assassination of Satyendra Dubey. Whistleblowers

Creation of Anti-Corruption Police and Courts : 

Creation of Anti-Corruption Police and Courts Some have called for the Central Government to create an anti-theft law enforcement agency that investigates and prosecutes corruption at all levels of government, including state and local level. Special courts that are more efficient than the traditional Indian courts with traveling judges and law enforcement agents are being proposed. The proposal has not yet been acted upon by the Indian government. Certain states such as Andhra Pradesh (Andhra Pradesh Anti-corruption Bureau) and Karnataka (Lokayukta) have similar agencies and courts . The creation of a central agency with specialized courts with broad powers, however, is likely to have greater impact in curbing corruption at all levels[

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Several new initiatives have come up in the private sector to raise awareness about Corruption related issues and to build anti-corruption platforms. http://5thpillar.org is one such organization that is promoting the use of Zero Rupee Notes to fight corruption by shaming the officials who ask for bribe. Another popular initiative Jaago Re One Billion Votes from Tata Tea has now changed its focus from voter registration to fighting corruption. Private sector and initiatives