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Seminar on DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:

Seminar on DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Presented By: Prashanta Sarkar Dept. of Electrical Engineering (M.TECH PowerSystem) (prashulisha@gmail.com) 1

Contents of presentation:

Contents of presentation HV Distribution System Radial System Closed Loop System Open Loop System Double Supply System Grid Form Of HV System LV Distribution System 2

Definition of Distribution system :-:

Definition of Distribution system :- Distribution system is that part of the power system which distributes power from distribution substation to local use . Generally the higher voltage for distribution is 11000 v and the lower voltages are 400 v and 220v. 3

PowerPoint Presentation:

General layout of distribution system 4 33KV Sub station 11KV Distribution Transformer 11KV Distribution Substation 0.4KV

Radial system:

Radial system In this system all the sections/branches of a feeder are fed from a single source in a fixed direction 5 L Load oad Load oad Load lLLoad Generator

Contd…:

Contd… In this it is shown that there are two primary feeders from which further sub feeders supply to there respective loads. If any one of the feeder becomes faulty then supply through that feeder has to cut so no reliability 6

Merits :

Merits Very Simple in design :- Suitable size of conductor. Very simple protection schemes. Maintenance easy. Easy fault location. 2. Cheapest system :- Less capital cost as different sizes of conductors can be used 7

Demerits:

Demerits 1. Very poor service reliability:- In case of fault on a feeder the supply to consumers from those feeders is cutoff and restored on fault removal. 2. Excessive voltage drop and line losses :- Due to passage of total current through the common main section of the feeder, voltage drop(IR) and line losses will be more as compared to other system. 8

Closed loop system :

Closed loop system If a HT line emanating from a Grid station and covering the load area in shape of a loop, finishes at the same Grid station returning it is called closed loop and the system is called closed loop system. 9

Typical closed loop system:

Typical closed loop system Bus bar circuit breaker Sectionalizing switch transformer Load 10

Merits of closed loop system:

Merits of closed loop system This system is more reliable than radial system. If any fault in the system occurs then the breaker at grid station open and the consumers don’t have to wait very long till the rectification of the fault as in the case of Radial system. Less voltage drop, less line losses As compared to radial system the voltage drop and line losses is less. 11

Demerits of closed loop system:

Demerits of closed loop system This is an expensive system because of the following reasons. It requires extra length of loop to complete the loop back to sub-station. Each transformer has to be provided with two sectionalizers . If loop size is so large then the fault location time may exceed up to 5 to 6 hours. and if consumers are without electricity for this time then there is no justification to install such a system 12

OPEN LOOP SYSTEM:

OPEN LOOP SYSTEM In a closed-loop system with two breakers, if one of the two sectionalizers of low-load-section is kept normally open, the system is named as “open-loop system ”. 13

PowerPoint Presentation:

TRANSFORMER Switch(OPEN) SUBSTATION BUS SWITCH (CLOSED) STATION CIRCUIT BREAKER OPEN LOOP SYSTEM HRC FUSE Load 14

Comparison between open & closed loop system:

Comparison between open & closed loop system CLOSED-LOOP OPEN-LOOP If fault occurs, the supply The effect of fault is of the whole loop goes off. limited to faulty part as one circuit breaker operates. Total loop has to be The faulty part of the loop is inspects for fault location . clearly known 15

Double Supply System :- :

Double Supply System :- Double supply system is that system in which additional radial feeder is provided side by side to feed the same consumer. This means that side by connecting of radial feeder in a parallel manner. It uses automatic change over switches. 16

PowerPoint Presentation:

Substation Bus1 Substation Bus 2 Circuit Breaker Sectionalizing switch FUSE TRANSFORMERS LOAD LOAD DOUBLE SUPPLY SYSTEM 17

Merits:-:

Merits:- Higher service reliability. Less line losses. Demerits:- Very Expensive Extra feeders are installed which doubles the cost. Cost of sectionalizers. Additional length of line needed to connect the feeder to the transformer. 18

GRID FORM OF H.V SYSTEM:

GRID FORM OF H.V SYSTEM In this system all the distribution transformers of a load area, are interconnected providing normally two or more alternatives. while the whole system is fed from two or more supply sources. But availability can not be improved through manual operation of sectionalizer to isolate faulty section during emergency as it will take quite a considerable time to identify the faulty section and to determine the better alternative. 19

PowerPoint Presentation:

C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B C.B STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER C.B C.B 11KV BUS BAR 132KV BUS BAR DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER C.B C.B C.B C.B 400 VOLT 400 VOLT SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF GRID FORM OF H.V-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 20

Merits:

Merits Most reliable because normally no possibility of failure of supply and availability is almost 100 %. In case of two simultaneous faults, service to the consumers will not be affected at all, or effect will be limited. Demerits It is most costly system. It is complicated. 21

LV Distribution system:-:

LV Distribution system:- It is that part of power system which distributes power from distribution transformer to our domestic and commercial use. Generally the LV distribution system has voltage of 400 volts. 22

Some of the features of LV Distribution system:-:

Some of the features of LV Distribution system:- In this system we can use Radial system as LT lines feed only few consumers so in case of fault only few consumers are affected. Simplest and cheapest. Again some important areas Open loop and Closed loop systems might also be used. 23

Bibliography:

Bibliography Principles of power system- VK Mehta Electrical power system – Ashfaq Husain Internet 24

PowerPoint Presentation:

THANK YOU 25

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