computer networking

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Slide 2: 

INTRODUCTION- What is networking? A network is a collection of computers and devices connected to each other. The network allows computers to communicate with each other and share resources and information. In other words networking can be defined as inter-connection of two or more computers for sharing the resources(hardware and software)and provide security on them. Networks are built with a combination of computer hardware and computer software.

Types of computer networks : 



LOCAL AREA NETWORK(LAN) Local area networks (LANs) are computer networks ranging in size from a few computers in a single office to hundreds or even thousands of devices spread across several buildings. LANs in turn may be plugged into larger networks, such as larger LANs or wide area networks (WANs), connecting many computers within an organization to each other and/or to the Internet. Typically, connected devices share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area (for example, within an office building). Usually, the server has applications and data storage that are shared in common by multiple computer users.

Wide area network(wan) : 

Wide area network(wan) A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). WAN is a network that uses routers and public communications links. The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet. A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

Metropolitan area network(man) : 

Metropolitan area network(man) A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that connects two or more local area networks or campus area networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town/city. Routers, switches and hubs are connected to create a metropolitan area network. The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines.


PERSONAL AREA NETWORK(PAN) A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person. Examples of devices that are used in a PAN are :printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs and scanners. The reach of a PAN is typically about 20-30 feet approximately 6-9 meters. GLOBAL AREA NETWORK(GAN) A global area networks (GAN) specification is in development by several groups, and there is no common definition. In general, however, a GAN is a model for supporting mobile communications across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc.


VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK(VPN) A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. A VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point. A VPN allows computer users to appear to be editing from an IP address location other than the one which connects the actual computer to the Internet. CAMPUS AREA NETWORK(CAN) A campus area network (CAN) is a computer network made up of an interconnection of local area networks (LANs) within a limited geographical area. It can be considered one form of a metropolitan area network, specific to an academic setting.


NETWORK TOPOLOGY A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources (such as printers and CD-ROMs), exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams. TYPES BUS TOPOLOGY STAR TOPOLOGY RING TOPOLOGY MESH TOPOLOGY STAR BUS TOPOLOGY TREE OR HIERARCHICAL


BUS TOPOLOGY A linear bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a terminator a each end. All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are connected to the linear cable. Ethernet and Local Talk networks use a linear bus topology. Linear bus structure Advantages of a Linear Bus Topology Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus. Requires less cable length than a star topology. Disadvantages of a Linear Bus Topology Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable. Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.

Star topology : 

Star topology A star topology is designed with each node (file server, workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a central network hub or concentrator. Data on a star network passes through the hub or concentrator before continuing to its destination. The hub or concentrator manages and controls all functions of the network. star structure Advantages of a Star Topology Easy to install and wire. No disruptions to the network then connecting or removing devices. Disadvantages of a Star Topology Requires more cable length than a linear topology. If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached are disabled.


RING TOPOLOGY The ring topology is a type of computer network configuration where each network computer and device are connect to each other forming a large circle. Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination. Ring structure Advantages of a Ring Topology Growth of system has minimal impact on performance. All stations have equal access. The network doesn`t fail even when a link between two nodes is broken. Disadvantages of a Ring Topology Most expensive topology. Failure of one computer may impact others . Complex .


MESH TOPOLOGY It requires that every terminal should be attached to each other. All the computers must have adequate number of interfaces for the connections to be made. Because of this requirement the installations is somewhat difficult. The length of cable required is quite higher as compared to other topologies. Mesh structure Advantages of a Mesh Topology System provides increased redundancy and reliability as well as ease of troubleshooting. Data transfer is faster. Disadvantages of a Mesh Topology System is expensive to install because it uses a lot of cabling.

Tree topology : 

Tree topology A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable. Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing network, and enable schools to configure a network to meet their needs . Tree structure Advantages of a Tree Topology Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. The network doesn`t fail even when a link between two nodes is broken. Disadvantages of a Tree Topology Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of cabling used. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.


BASIC HARDWARE COMPONENTS All networks are made up of basic hardware building blocks to interconnect network nodes, such as Network Interface Cards (NICs), Bridges, Hubs, Switches, and Routers. In addition, some method of connecting these building blocks is required, usually in the form of galvanic cable . Less common are microwave links or optical cable (“optical fibre"). An Ethernet card may also be required. Some of the basic components required for interconnecting the network nodes: NETWORK INTERFACE CARD REPEATERS NETWORK HUB NETWORK BRIDGE NETWORK SWITCH ROUTER


NETWORK INTERFACE CARD A network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface card) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. It provides physical access to a networking medium and often provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses. REPEATER A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable runs longer than 100 meters.


NETWORK HUB A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied unmodified to all ports of the hub for transmission. The destination address in the frame is not changed to a broadcast address. ROUTER Routers are networking devices that forward data packets between networks using headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path to forward the packets. Routers work at the network layer .


NETWORK BRIDGE A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges do not promiscuously copy traffic to all ports, as hubs do, but learn which MAC addresses are reachable through specific ports. Once the bridge associates a port and an address, it will send traffic for that address only to that port. Bridges do send broadcasts to all ports except the one on which the broadcast was received. Bridges come in three basic types: Local bridges: Directly connect local area networks (LANs). Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced by routers. Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs.


NETWORKING SWITCH A switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagram's between ports based on the MAC addresses in the packets. This is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the packets to the ports involved in the communications rather than all ports connected. Strictly speaking, a switch is not capable of routing traffic based on IP address which is necessary for communicating between network segments or within a large or complex LAN. A switch normally has numerous ports, with the intention being that most or all of the network is connected directly to the switch, or another switch that is in turn connected to a switch. Switch is a marketing term that encompasses routers and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute traffic on load or by application content. Switches may operate at one or more OSI model layers, including physical, data link, network, or transport (i.e., end-to-end). A device that operates simultaneously at more than one of these layers is called a multilayer switch.


WHY A COMPUTER NETWORK NECESSARY? The main reasons are: Distribute pieces of computation among computers (nodes) . Coordination between processes running on different nodes . Remote I/O Devices . Remote Data/File Access . Personal communications (like e-mail, chat, audio/video conferencing). World Wide Web .

How to measure a network? : 

How to measure a network? Performance parameters: Latency: Time required to transfer an empty message between relevant computers.Sum total of delay introduced by the sender software. delay introduced by the receiver software. delay in accessing the network. delay introduced by the network. Data transfer rate: is the speed at which data can be transferred between sender and receiver in a network, once transmission has begun. (bit/sec) . Message transfer time = latency + (length of message) / (Data transfer rate). Bandwidth: is the total volume of traffic that can be transferred across the network. Max. data rate (bit/sec) = carrier BW · log2 (1 + (signal/noise)) .This maximum (Shannon's Limit) is theoretical, not reachable in practice. Ex: phone line BW = 3 kHz, S/N = 30 dB = 1000 Max. data rate = 30 kbit/sec.

Medium of transformation : 

Medium of transformation Coaxial cable Twisted pair cable Optical fibre Wireless

ethernet : 

ethernet Developed at Xerox PARC in 1973. It's a standard for Media Access Control (MAC) sub layer. Data transmission rate : 10 Mbits/s (Fast Ethernet reaches 100 Mbit/s). High-speed driver on the computers connected by coax or UTP cables. Uses a bus (10base2, coax, max. distance 200 mts) or a star (10baseT, UTP, max. 100 mts) topology. Can be optical fibres based too (10baseF , max. 2000 mts). How it works? All nodes wanting to send message contention for the bus. Broadcast frames to all the stations on the network. All stations are continually listening to the bus looking for frames addressed to them . Variable length frames:64 to 1518 bytes. Transmission time : 50 to 1200.

Internet address : 

Internet address It's a 32 bits, 4-part period delimited, decimal number called IP number or IP address: Each part can vary from 1 to 254 (0 and 255 are reserved for the net and the broadcast). Each network interface card attached to the Internet mast have an unique IP address. The IP address can be splitted in two parts: Network. Host.

subnet : 

subnet Sub netting allow a network to be split into several parts for internal use but still act like a single one to the outside world. Allocation of Network and host Allocation of Network ,host and sub net

Thank you : 

Thank you Done by, B.Prashanth R.Vignesh

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