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ECOFRIENDLY REFRIGERANTS By Mr. Prashant P. Pandav Under noble guidance of Dr. S. B. Barve MIT,COE,Pune. Contact no. 7588420989 Email-id


Contents Introduction Commonly used refrigerants Need of Ecofriendly refrigerants Ecofriendly Refrigerants Performance Advantages & Disadvantages Applications References 2 MIT,COE,Pune


Refrigerant Refrigerants are the “working fluids "in refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumping systems They absorb heat from one area and reject it into another. Refrigerants in Use Today (1) Halocarbon or organic refrigerants (2) Azeotrope refrigerant (3) Inorganic refrigerants (4) Hydrocarbon refrigerants 3 MIT,COE,Pune


. Commonly used refrigerants R-22 (Chlorodifluoromethane) Developed for refrigeration systems that need a low-evaporating temperature Use in household refrigerators and window air conditioners. Nontoxic, noncorrosive, nonflammable, and has a boiling point of -41°F at atmospheric pressure. Used with reciprocating or centrifugal compressors 4 MIT,COE,Pune

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Commonly used refrigerants R-502 An azeotropic mixture of 48.8 percent R-22 and 51.2 percent R-115 Noncorrosive, nonflammable, practically nontoxic, and boiling point of -50°F Used with reciprocating compressors. Use for commercial frozen food equipment. 5 MIT,COE,Pune

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Commonly used refrigerants 6 MIT,COE,Pune R-134a Similar to R12, replacement for R-12 applications. Noncorrosive, nonflammable, and nontoxic, it has a boiling point of -15°F Used for domestic refrigeration and automobile air conditioners. Also used as a cleaning solvent, gas dusters and in air driers.

Need of Eco-friendly Refrigerants:

Need of Eco-friendly Refrigerants Environmental degradation is done by various factors such as pollution and other factor. The ODP,GWP and green house effects are worldwide burning problem. CFCs and HCFCs can affect both stratospheric ozone and climate change. Direct impact occurs from the leakage of refrigerant gases into the atmosphere.  7 MIT,COE,Pune

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This can lead to ozone depletion and global warming via the greenhouse effect. Indirect impact due to the energy consumption and systems leading to CO 2  emissions that cause global warming. 8 MIT,COE,Pune


. Ecofriendly refrigerants 9 MIT,COE,Pune R-152a (1,1-Difluoroethane) Known as Ecor . As an alternative to CFC. Used in automobile applications, gas duster. It has ODP zero& 120GWP . Better cooling performance Higher efficiency resulting in lower energy usage


. Ecofriendly refrigerants 10 MIT,COE,Pune R-290 Propane High operational efficiency. Reduced energy consumption. Zero ODP & low GWP as 3. Used in commercial & industrial applications. Low running cost.


. Ecofriendly refrigerants 11 MIT,COE,Pune R-407c It is azeotropic blend of R-32, R-125, and R-134a. Higher cooling capacity. Zero ODP and very less GWP. It can be used with either reciprocating or rotating compressors, in association with a lubricants.


. Performance of Ecofriendly refrigerants: Fig: Effect of evaporating temperature on RC 12 MIT,COE,Pune


. Fig2: Effect of evaporating temperature on PC 13 MIT,COE,Pune


. 14 MIT,COE,Pune Fig:4Effect of pressure ratio and condensing temperature.


. 15 MIT,COE,Pune Fig. 6: Variation of volumetric cooling capacity (VCC)

Advantages :

Advantages Compressor capacity, compression ratio, refrigeration capacity rises. High volumetric & isentropic efficiency. System performance increases as the evaporating temperature increases. Best desirable environmental requirements, zero ODP and very low GWP. 16 MIT,COE,Pune


Disadvantages Slightly flammable. High cost. Require additional safety precaution during its use . highly experienced experts are available to provide advice on how to handle and use in the safest way. 17 MIT,COE,Pune

Application :

Application R-290 R-152a R-407c - home appliances - Domestic air conditioner & refrigerator. - Cold storage, industrial equipments - Food processing, cold storage - Mobile air conditioners - chiller equipment -Heat pumps -New or existing residential and commercial air-conditioners 18 MIT,COE,Pune


CONCLUSION :   An eco-friendly refrigerants are energy efficient refrigerants for RAC. R-152a is the better substitute of R-134a and R-12. R-152a has GWP lower than that of R-134a and R-12. Propane (R-290) has higher volumetric cooling capacity Therefore it requires small size of compressor. Propane has lowest pressure ratio is good for compressor life. R- 152a requires less power per ton of refrigeration in comparison to other. MIT,COE,Pune


. 20 MIT,COE,Pune No new vehicles containing F-gases, with a GWP greater than 150. Emissions reduction target of 60-80% in next days. Focus on the efficiency of the system along with emission and environmental factors. Strictly implementation of laws. Future scope


References [1] Richardson, R.N., Butterworth, J.S., The Performance of Propane/Isobutene Mixtures in a Vapor Compression Refrigeration System, International Journal of Refrigeration, 18 (1995), pp. 58-62 [2] Dongsoo Jung, Chong B.Kim, Byoung H.Lim, Hong W.Lee, Testing of a Hydrocarbon Mixture in Domestic Refrigerators, ASHRAE Transactions, Symposion AT-96-19-3, (1996), pp. 1077-1084 [3] Kuijpers, L.J.M., De Wit, J.A., Janssen, M.J.P., Possibilities for the Replacement of CFC12 in Domestic Equipment, International Journal of Refrigeration, 11 (1998), pp. 284-291 [4] Hammad, M.A., Alsaad, M.A., The use of Hydrocarbon Mixture as Refrigerants in Domestic Refrigerators, Applied Thermal Engineering, 19 (1999) pp. 1181-1189 [5] Jung, D., et al., Testing of Propane/Isobutene Mixture in Domestic Refrigerators, International Journal of Refrigeration, 23, (2000), pp. 517- 527 [6] Bilal A. Akash., Salem A. Said, Assessment of LPG as a Possible Alternative to R12 in Domestic Refrigerators, Energy conversion and Management, 44 (2003) pp. 381-388 21 MIT,COE,Pune

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[7] Fatouh, M., Kafafy, M.E., Experimental Evaluation of a Domestic Refrigerator Working with LPG, Applied Thermal Engineering, 26 (2006), pp. 1593-1603 [8] Kolandavel MANI, Vellappan SELLADURAI, Experimental Investigations with eco-friendly refrigerants using design of experiments technique–mathematical modeling and experimental validation, International Journal of Refrigeration, 23, (2011),pp56-64 [9]P.thangavel, P.Somasundaram,Part load performance analysis of vapor compression system by hydrocarbon refrigerants, Journal of science and industrial research,vol 72,july2013,pp445-460 [10] Amjad Khan, Kuldeep Ojha, Prakash Gowali, Analysis of ecofriendly refrigerants, International journal of engineering, 6(2013), pp177-180 [11] Kavita Paroche, Performance Analysis of Reciprocating Compressor Using Eco-Friendly Refrigerant,, International Journal Of Refrigeration,11(2012),pp234-242 [12] Bukola olalekan bolaji, Zhongjie Huan, Computational analysis of the performance of ozone-friendly r22 alternative refrigerants in vapor compression air-conditioning systems, Environment Protection Engineering, Vol. 38 (2012),pp 38-45 22 MIT,COE,Pune

Mr. Prashant P. Pandav MIT,COE,Pune. Contact no. 7588420989 Emailid: :

Mr. Prashant P. Pandav MIT,COE,Pune. Contact no. 7588420989 Emailid :

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